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Super-hard γ-ray radiation spectra have been calculated. This radiation is generated near the velocity-of-light cylinder through the process of inverse-Compton scattering of relativistic electrons by thermal photons radiated by a neutron star. These calculations have been compared with observations of the Crab and Vela pulsars at 1000-GeV γ-ray energies. A correlation between γ-ray flares and those in soft (Ex ≃ lkeV) X-rays are predicted.
Simulation of turbulent flows with shocks employing subgrid-scale (SGS) filtering may encounter a loss of accuracy in the vicinity of a shock. This paper addresses the accuracy improvement of LES of turbulent flows in two ways: (a) from the SGS model standpoint and (b) from the numerical method improvement standpoint. In an internal report, Kotov et al. ( “High Order Numerical Methods for large eddy simulation (LES) of Turbulent Flows with Shocks”, CTR Tech Brief, Oct. 2014, Stanford University), we performed a preliminary comparative study of different approaches to reduce the loss of accuracy within the framework of the dynamic Germano SGS model. The high order low dissipative method of Yee & Sjögreen (2009) using local flow sensors to control the amount of numerical dissipation where needed is used for the LES simulation. The considered improved dynamics model approaches include applying the one-sided SGS test filter of Sagaut & Germano (2005) and/or disabling the SGS terms at the shock location. For Mach 1.5 and 3 canonical shock-turbulence interaction problems, both of these approaches show a similar accuracy improvement to that of the full use of the SGS terms. The present study focuses on a five levels of grid refinement study to obtain the reference direct numerical simulation (DNS) solution for additional LES SGS comparison and approaches. One of the numerical accuracy improvements included here applies Harten's subcell resolution procedure to locate and sharpen the shock, and uses a one-sided test filter at the grid points adjacent to the exact shock location.
Patterning proteins at the sub-micron and nanoscale has many uses, including fabrication of protein arrays for diagnostic and sensor applications. Many groups have reported micron scale protein patterns using photolithography; however, smaller scales have not been realized. In this study, we demonstrate sub-micron protein patterns using photolithography. Patterning is achieved by chemical transformation of pH-reactive polymer films. Site-specific immobilization of streptavidin within a protein resistant background is demonstrated. This methodology could be utilized for the development of high density proteins arrays for biotechnology applications.
We characterized the optical nonlinearities of CdSe nanocrystals surrounded by rod-like CdS shells with ultrafast measurements of time-resolved photoluminescence. We measured the exciton-exciton interaction to be, depending on structure details, attractive or repulsive, by as much as 29 meV, due to the unique band alignment in the CdSe/CdS. This feature makes CdSe/CdS dot/rods promising gain media for solution-processable lasers, as it appears combined with 80% photoluminescence quantum yield, narrow size and shape distributions and the antenna effect of the CdS rod shell enhancing optical absorption by more than a factor 50 with respect to bare dots.
Colloidal Europium-doped In2O3 nanocrystals were successfully prepared in a noncoordinating solvent using indium (III) and europium (III) acetates as precursors. The concentration of doped europium was varied up to 2.88 at%. Linear electrogyration induced by coherent circularly-polarized light was observed from samples in which europium-doped In2O3 nanocrystals were embedded in photopolymer oligoethracryalte matrices. The result on ˜2.5 at% europium-doped sample shows that the maximal linear electrogyration could reach to ˜12 deg./mm at an electric field of 120V/cm for He-Ne laser.
The cognitive and academic outcomes of infants exposed to radiation after the meltdown at Chornobyl have been intensely debated. Western-based investigations indicate that no adverse effects occurred, but local studies reported increased cognitive impairments in exposed compared with non-exposed children. Our initial study found that at age 11 years, school grades and neuropsychological performance were similar in 300 children evacuated to Kiev as infants or in utero compared with 300 classmate controls, yet more evacuee mothers believed that their children had memory problems. This study re-examined the children's performance and academic achievement at age 19 years.
In 2005–2006, we conducted an 8-year follow-up of the evacuees (n=265) and classmate controls (n=261) assessed in Kiev in 1997. Outcomes included university attendance, tests of intelligence, attention, and memory, and subjective appraisals of memory problems. Scores were standardized using a local population-based control group (n=327). Analyses were stratified by parental education.
Evacuees and classmates performed similarly and in the normal range on all tests, and no differential temporal changes were found. The results were comparable for the in utero subsample. The rates of university attendance and self-reported memory problems were also similar. Nevertheless, the evacuee mothers were almost three times as likely to report that their children had memory problems compared with controls.
Chornobyl did not influence the cognitive functioning of exposed infants although more evacuee mothers still believed that their offspring had memory problems. These lingering worries reflect a wider picture of persistent health concerns as a consequence of the accident.
More than 30 active regions were observed on the Sun during October-November 2003 by SOHO. Approximately half of such regions induced hard X-ray and $\gamma$-ray emission and some solar flares with class M and X were detected during this time by GOES, RHESSI and other experiments. 5 solar flares were detected by AVS-F instrument onboard CORONAS-F satellite. Nuclear $\gamma$-emission lines were detected during some flares observed in this period, in particular, during all flares on October 29 2003.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
AVS-F instrument (Amplitude-Time Spectrometry of the Sun) is the system of an electronics engineering for onboard data gathering from two detectors: scintillation (CsI (Tl)) detector SONG-D (SOlar Neutrons and Gamma quantums) of complex of detectors SKL (in low and high gamma-band) and from semiconducting detector (X-ray semiconducting spectrometer) XSS-1 (in X-ray band). The experiment is carried out on the satellite CORONAS-F launched on July 31 2001. During more than 2,5 year of apparatus operation more than 30 of solar flares were detected. Characteristics of observed solar flares are presented in this article.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
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