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Early, conforming antibiotic treatment in elderly patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a key factor in the prognosis and mortality. The objective was to examine whether empirical antibiotic treatment was conforming according to the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery guidelines in these patients. Multicentre study in patients aged ⩾65 years hospitalised due to CAP in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. We collected socio-demographic information, comorbidities, influenza/pneumococcal vaccination history and antibiotics administered using a questionnaire and medical records. Bivariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression were made. In total, 1857 hospitalised patients were included, 82 of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment was conforming in 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1–53.8%) of patients without ICU admission and was associated with absence of renal failure without haemodialysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95) and no cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), when the effect of the autonomous community was controlled for. In patients with ICU admission, treatment was conforming in 45.1% (95% CI 34.1–56.1%) of patients and was associated with the hospital visits in the last year (<3 vs. ⩾3, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03–7.12) and there was some evidence that this was associated with season. Although the reference guidelines are national, wide variability between autonomous communities was found. In patients hospitalised due to CAP, health services should guarantee the administration of antibiotics in a consensual manner that is conforming according to clinical practice guidelines.
The use of fast and non-destructive techniques for identifying sugarcane varieties enables the development of automatic sorting systems, contributing towards improving pre-processing steps in the alcohol and sugar industries. In this context, principal component analysis (PCA), factorial discriminant analysis (FDA), stepwise forward discriminant analysis (SFDA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to classify four Brazilian sugarcane varieties based on visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectral reflectance measurements (450–1000 nm range) of stalks. All wavelengths contributed towards discriminating the sugarcane varieties, but the 600–750 nm range was most relevant. When evaluating PCA results considering the four sugarcane varieties, two of them overlapped and it was only possible to use classifiers of three varieties. Factorial discriminant analysis, PLS-DA and SFDA reached correct classifications of 0.81, 0.82 and 0.74, respectively, when considering the external validation data and the four sugarcane varieties evaluated. Results showed that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with discriminating methods is a promising tool for non-destructive and fast sugarcane variety classification, which can be used in the agro-food industry or directly in the field.
The excessive consumption of carbohydrates is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in infants and adults. The effect of combining maternal malnutrition and a high carbohydrate intake on the development of NAFLD in adulthood remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that consumption of 5% sucrose by the offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy promotes liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage differently in females and males. To test this, 12-month-old female and male offspring of mothers fed a Control (C) or low-protein diet (Restricted, R) were provided with either tap water or 5% sucrose for a period of 10 weeks. Livers were excised to measure the fat content and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTyr) immunostaining; serum samples were also obtained to measure the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Data were analyzed using a non-repeated measures three-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences (P<0.05) regarding to the interaction among maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Results showed that the liver fat content of females from R mothers was higher than that of their male counterpart. Hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations were not affected by the interaction involving maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Otherwise, liver fat content was correlated with the hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations only in females. Thus, sucrose intake in adulthood increases fat content in the female but not in the male rat offspring of dams fed with a low-protein diet during pregnancy. This research emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet during pregnancy and the influence of the diet on the adult offspring.
The subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément causes lesions in the trunk of Quercus suber L. by constructing feeding galleries, but no information is available regarding other Quercus species from the Mediterranean region. This work aimed to study the suitability of the other main oak species of Mediterranean forests as a food resource for R. grassei. Two experiments, choice and non-choice feeding, were conducted lasting for 15, 30, and 45 days each. In the non-choice experiment, termites were offered one of the following food types: Quercus suber, Quercus ilex L., Quercus faginea Lam, cork or Pinus pinea L., which was considered the control. The choice feeding experiment used all the same food types listed above, supplied simultaneously in the same container. Food selection was examined by analysing the relationships over time between surviving termites and food consumption. The results indicated that R. grassei could be considered a generalist species, as it consumed the cork and wood of all oak species, as well as displaying a clear preference for soft wood (pine). Correlation analysis indicated that consumption was not dependent on wood density. Survival of R. grassei was influenced by the time of exposure to different oak species, but a high survival rate was maintained over time in the pine treatment (upper 70% in the three experiments). Given these results, it can be concluded that all the oak species are a suitable food source for R. grassei.
Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01–1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24–27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35–20·47) were detected as risk factors for BPS positivity to Salmonella spp. This is the first evidence of serovars of Salmonella spp. circulating in BPS from central Chile. Detected serovars have been linked to human and animal clinical outbreaks worldwide and in Chile, highlighting the importance of BPS on the control and dissemination of Salmonella serovars potentially hazardous to public health.
A systematic study was performed concerning the production, characterization, and application of BDD and BDND films grown on Ti substrate to degrade brilliant green dye using an electrochemical flow reactor. Films were grown in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor using H2/CH4 (BDD) and H2/CH4/Ar (BDND) gas mixtures. Boron doping was performed by dissolution of B2O3 in methanol in the appropriate B/C ratio to obtain good conductive electrodes. The electrolysis was carried out using BDD/Ti and BDND/Ti as anode material analyzing the influence of different current densities and flow rates. During the electrolysis, aliquots of the treated solution were analyzed by UV-Vis and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements. The electrode efficiencies were compared considering the color removal as well as the TOC mineralization in the end of each electrolysis. The absorption bands intensity from UV/Vis spectra clearly decreased up to their completely vanishing at current density of 100 mA/cm2 for both electrodes. These results were corroborated by TOC measurements where 50% of the organic material was removed.
The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.
We report the results of a detailed statistical analysis of the Mid and Far IR (MIR/FIR) emission properties in a mixed morphology (E+S) sample of galaxy pairs from the Karachentsev (1972) Catalogue. The sample is large and diverse enough (≃ 130 pairs) to permit discrimination of pairs by morphological types and interaction classes. It samples a large enough volume to enable a non-parametric estimate of a Far-Infrared Luminosity Function (FIRLF). We find average factors of 3 and 5 enhancement in FIR and 25μm luminosities of the late-type pair components relative to an isolated galaxy control sample from Karachentseva (1973) Catalogue. This is interpreted as the MIR/FIR signature of the link between interaction and star formation. Although the spirals in (E+S) pairs fail to show a trend towards higher FIR luminosity with decreasing companion separation, a high-order comparison that takes into account information on the interaction classes, morphological types and the HI content suggests that:
•a clear correlation between the IR luminosities and interaction classes is present suggesting that a subsample of the (E+S) pairs is more closely related to recent events of star formation,
•the ratio of present to past star formation (as measured by the IR luminosities scaled to LB luminosity), increases measurably along the sequence Sa-Sc in paired spirals,
•no Hɪ depletion in the star formation-enhanced spirals in mixed pairs is found, and
•the high mass (M ≥ 10 M⊙) star formation rate (SFR) in paired Sc spirals is higher than that of the isolated Sc’s by a factor ~ 2 – 3.
To study possible indirect effects of the infection with intestinal helminths, 12 Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were each experimentally exposed to 100 metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni, and blood samples were taken weekly up to 4 weeks post-exposure for comparison with control rats. Values of haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (HGB) and haematimatrix indices, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were determined. In addition, leucocyte counts, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were analysed. These parameters, including the leucocyte counts, showed no significant differences, except for MCHC at 4 weeks post-exposure. The present results indicate that in rats infected with E. caproni, although eosinophilia did not significantly increase, a significant reduction in MCHC was associated with an increase in the number of RBC.
Important modifications in ambulance design were suggested and introduced by Safar in 1965 and in 1971. However, most of these modifications have not reached the developing countries. The present “ambulance” in these countries are low ceiling and carry no equipment or trained personnel. They could be better defined as “taxis for horizontal transportation.” Recently, we have been able to introduce onto the market of these countries, a new ambulance that is competitive in price and adapted to the availability of materials, equipment, and personnel.
Strongyloidiasis can be perpetuated by autoinfection with the filariform larvae L3, causing asymptomatic chronic infections and creating a population of carriers, affecting not only developing countries. So far, very little is known about the proteins that interact with the human host, and few proteins from the infective Strongyloides stercoralis L3 have been characterized. Here, we report results obtained from a proteomic analysis of the proteins from S. stercoralis L3 larvae obtained from patients. Since the genome of S. stercoralis is not yet available, we used proteomic analysis to identify 26 different proteins, 13 of them released by short digestion with trypsin, which could represent surface-associated proteins. The present work extends our knowledge of host-parasite interactions by identifying proteins that could be of interest in the development of diagnostic tools, vaccines, or treatments for a neglected disease like strongyloidiasis.
The aim of the present study was to assess reproducibility and relative validity of a self-administered FFQ used in the PREDIMED Study, a clinical trial for primary prevention of CVD by Mediterranean diet in a population at high cardiovascular risk. The FFQ was administered twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) to explore reproducibility at 1 year. Four 3 d dietary records (DR) were used as reference to explore validity; participants therefore recorded their food intake over 12 d in the course of 1 year. The degree of misclassification in the FFQ was also evaluated by a contingency table of quintiles comparing the information from the FFQ2 and the DR. A total of 158 men and women (aged 55–80 years) were asked not to modify their dietary habits during the study period. Reproducibility for food groups, energy and nutrient intake, explored by the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) ranged 0·50–0·82, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0·63 to 0·90. The FFQ2 tended to report higher energy and nutrient intake than the DR. The validity indices of the FFQ in relation to the DR for food groups and energy and nutrient intake ranged (r) from 0·24 to 0·72, while the range of the ICC was between 0·40 and 0·84. With regard to food groups, 68–83 % of individuals were in the same or adjacent quintile in both methods, a figure which decreased to 55–75 % for energy and nutrient intake. We concluded that FFQ measurements had good reproducibility and a relative validity similar to those of FFQ used in other prospective studies.
The proliferation of climbers can have deleterious effects on tree regeneration, especially in forest canopy gaps where climbers increase in abundance. In response to the colonization by climbers, the supporting tree can suffer a reduction in growth and its allometric relationships may be modified. We evaluated the effects of three species of climber on the performance of the pioneer tree Ceiba pentandra in a moist semi-deciduous tropical forest in Ghana. In each of three gaps, four plots were set up, each with eight Ceiba seedlings paired with a single plant of one of three climber species, planted within 5–10 cm of the tree seedling, plus a control (no climber). The climber species were: Centrosema pubescens, a nitrogen-fixing woody climber; Combretum racemosum, a woody climber and Dioscorea praehensilis, an herbaceous climber. After 12 mo, Centrosema and Combretum had about four to five times more biomass than Ceiba seedlings. There was no effect of climber competition on Ceiba biomass growth, and no relationship between climber biomass and Ceiba growth rate. Individual climber species, however, had other effects: Combretum caused a significant reduction in the height and diameter growth of Ceiba, whilst competition with Centrosema was associated with significant reduction in the crown area and increase in internode length in Ceiba. The results indicate that even very different climber species appear to cause negative effects on trees during regeneration.
The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.
As cast CC slabs of microalloyed steels are prone to surface cracking.
Precipitation phenomena, initiated during solidification, reduce ductility at
high temperature. The size, morphology and distribution of precipitates in as
cast semis depend on solidification rate, on secondary cooling, straightening
and cooling off the caster. Microsegregation of the microalloying additions
to the interdendritic boundaries during solidification increases precipitation
temperature. Results are presented concerning the effect of solidification
and cooling on precipitates characteristics in semis. The characterization
of precipitates is quite satisfactory although it could not be clearly correlated
with surface quality.
Periodic axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating end wall
When the fluid inside a completely filled cylinder is set in motion by the rotation of the bottom end wall, steady and unsteady axisymmetric vortex breakdown is possible. The onset of unsteadiness is via a Hopf bifurcation.
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the flow inside the cylinder where marker particles have been released from an elliptic ring concentric with the axis of symmetry near the top end wall. This periodic flow corresponds to a Reynolds number Re=2765 and cylinder aspect ratio H/R=2.5. Neighboring particles have been grouped to define a sheet of marker fluid and the local transparency of the sheet has been made proportional to its local stretching. The resultant dye sheet takes on an asymmetric shape, even though the flow is axisymmetric, due to the unsteadiness and the asymmetric release of marker particles.When the release is symmetric, as in Fig. 2, the dye sheet is also symmetric. These two figures are snapshots of the dye sheet after three periods of the oscillation (a period is approximately 36.3 rotations of the end wall). Figure 3 is a cross section of the dye sheet in Fig. 2 after 26 periods of the oscillation. Here only the marker particles are shown. They are colored according to their time of release, the oldest being blue, through green and yellow, and the most recently released being red. Comparison with Escudier's experiment shows very close agreement.
The particle equations of motion correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system and an appropriate.
Four weeks of fieldwork in the forests of Mindoro, Philippines, in 1991 has elucidated the status of the six bird species endemic to the island. Of these, Ducula mindorensis and Otus mindorensis are high-altitude species with restricted ranges and in need of active conservation in the medium term. Three of the four lowland species, Gallicolumba platenae, Centropus steerü and Penelopides mindorensis are under immediate threat of extinction through forest clearance and fragmentation, while the fourth, Dicaeum retrocinctum, s i not under immediate threat but is certainly at risk of extinction in the long term. Whilst deforestation is an enormous problem across the entire Philippines, Mindoro is the smallest centre of endemism with the least forest cover after the Sulu Islands. Extinctions are believed inevitable within the next 10 years unless concerted action is urgently taken. The Halcon range must receive attention in order to conserve the montane species, but more urgent by far is the preservation of lowland forest remnants, concentrating on central-west Mindoro.
Ornithological surveys were carried out in the remnant forests of the island of Negros, in the central Philippines, over five weeks in the summer of 1991. From this work it is concluded that, without the implementation of immediate conservation measures, the global extinction of four bird species is likely to occur in the near future. These are Negros Fruit-dove Ptilinopus arcanus, Negros Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba keayi, Writhed-billed Hornbill Aceros waldeni and White-throated Jungle-flycatcher Khinomyias albi-gularis. Another four species restricted to the lowlands of Negros and the adjacent island of Panay, Visayan Tarictic Hornbill Penelopides panini, White-winged Cuckoo-shrike Cora-cina ostenta, Flame-templed Babbler Stachyris speciosa and Visayan Flowerpecker Dicaeum (australe) haematostictum, must be considered under extreme threat, and the endemic Negros Striped-babbler Stachyris nigrorum is under considerable pressure. A further twelve species listed as globally threatened are also in serious danger of extinction on Negros. This paper details the results of fieldwork and presents our conclusions and suggestions for conservation, which must include the direct preservation of the last fragments of lowland forest on the island.
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