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This landmark achievement in philosophical scholarship brings together leading experts from the diverse traditions of Western philosophy in a common quest to illuminate and explain the most important philosophical developments since the Second World War. Focusing particularly (but not exclusively) on those insights and movements that most profoundly shaped the English-speaking philosophical world, this volume bridges the traditional divide between 'analytic' and 'Continental' philosophy while also reaching beyond it. The result is an authoritative guide to the most important advances and transformations that shaped philosophy during this tumultuous and fascinating period of history, developments that continue to shape the field today. It will be of interest to students and scholars of contemporary philosophy of all levels and will prove indispensable for any serious philosophical collection.
We present an extension of Thomson’s (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 210, 1990, pp. 113–153) two-particle Lagrangian stochastic model that is constructed to be consistent with the
law of turbulence. The rate of separation in the new model is reduced relative to the original model with zero skewness in the Eulerian longitudinal relative velocity distribution and is close to recent measurements from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The rate of separation in the equivalent backwards dispersion model is approximately a factor of 2.9 larger than the forwards dispersion model, a result that is consistent with previous work.
Glucose and acetate are two of the most important metabolites which supply energy to ruminant tissues. Minimal quantities of glucose are absorbed from the alimentary tract and thus glucose requirements must be met through synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors. One such precursor is protein and, in the two experiments to be reported, the effect of varying protein supply on both glucose and acetate metabolism was studied. In experiment 1, protein supply was varied by the addition of two levels of fishmeal to a grass silage diet while in experiment 2, two diets (perennial ryegrass and white clover) known to supply widely different amounts of absorbed protein were compared.
Although the pain caused by castration of calves is a significant animal welfare issue for the beef industry, analgesia is not always used for this procedure, largely because of practical limitations associated with injectable forms of pain relief. Novel analgesic formulations have now been developed for livestock to allow topical and buccal administration, offering practical options to improve cattle welfare if shown to be effective. To assess the effects of topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (BM) on average daily gain (ADG), behaviour and inflammation following surgical castration of beef calves, a total of 50 unweaned bull calves were randomly allocated to: (1) sham castration (SHAM, n=10); (2) surgical castration (C, n=10); (3) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam (CBM, n=10); (4) surgical castration with post-operative topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=10); and (5) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam and post-operative topical anaesthetic (CBMTA, n=10). Calves were recorded on video for 5 h following treatment and the frequency and duration of specific behaviours displayed by each animal was later observed for 5 min every hour (total of 25 min). Average daily gain was calculated 1, 2 and 6 days following treatment. Scrotal diameter measurements and photographs of wounds were collected from all castrated calves 1, 2 and 6 days following treatment to evaluate inflammation and wound healing. Infrared photographs were used to identify maximum scrotal temperature. Digital photographs were used to visually score wounds on a numerical rating scale of 1 to 5, with signs of inflammation increasing and signs of healing decreasing with progressive scores. Sham castration calves displayed significantly less, and C calves displayed significantly more foot stamps than all other calves (P=0.005). Observations on the duration of time that calves displayed a hypometric ‘stiff gait’ locomotion, indicated that SHAM calves tended to spend no time, C calves tended to spend the greatest time and all other calves tended to spend an intermediate time displaying this behaviour (P=0.06). Maximum scrotal temperatures were lower in CBM and CBMTA calves than C and CTA calves 2 days following treatment (P=0.004). There was no significant effect of treatment on ADG (P=0.7), scrotal diameter (P=0.09) or wound morphology score (P=0.5). These results suggest that TA and BM, alone or in combination, reduced pain and BM reduced inflammation following surgical castration of calves.
The effect of botanical diversity on supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to ruminants in vitro, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in lambs was investigated. Six plant species, commonly grown as part of UK herbal ley mixtures (Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus, Achillea millefolium, Centaurea nigra, Plantago lanceolata and Prunella vulgaris), were assessed for FA profile, and in vitro biohydrogenation of constituent PUFA, to estimate intestinal supply of PUFA available for absorption by ruminants. Modelling the in vitro data suggested that L. corniculatus and P. vulgaris had the greatest potential to increase 18:3n-3 supply to ruminants, having the highest amounts escaping in vitro biohydrogenation. Biodiverse pastures were established using the six selected species, under-sown in a perennial ryegrass-based sward. Lambs were grazed (~50 days) on biodiverse or control pastures and the effects on the FA composition of musculus longissimus thoracis (lean and subcutaneous fat) and musculus semimembranosus (lean) were determined. Biodiverse pasture increased 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 contents of m. semimembranosus (+14.8 and +7.2 mg/100 g tissue, respectively) and the subcutaneous fat of m. longissimus thoracis (+158 and +166 mg/100 g tissue, respectively) relative to feeding a perennial ryegrass pasture. However, there was no effect on total concentrations of saturated FA in the tissues studied. It was concluded that enhancing biodiversity had a positive impact on muscle FA profile reflected by increased levels of total PUFA.
The objective was to assess the effects of inclusion rate and chop length of lucerne silage, when fed in a total mixed ration (TMR), on milk yield, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and digestion in dairy cows. Diets were formulated to contain a 50 : 50 ratio of forage : concentrate (DM basis) and to be isonitrogenous (170 g/kg CP). The forage portion of the offered diets was comprised of maize and lucerne silage in proportions (DM basis) of either 25 : 75 (high Lucerne (HL)) or 75 : 25 (low lucerne (LL)). Lucerne was harvested and conserved as silage at either a long (L) or short (S) chop length. These variables were combined in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to give four treatments (HLL, HLS, LLL, LLS) which were fed in a Latin square design study to Holstein dairy cows in two separate experiments. In total, 16 and 8 multiparous, mid-lactation cows were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. To ensure sufficient silage for both experiments, different cuts of lucerne silage (taken from the same sward) were used for each experiment: first cut for experiment 1 (which was of poorer quality) and second cut for experiment 2. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition where measured in both experiments, and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance were assessed using four cows in experiment 2. In experiment 1, cows fed LL had increased DMI (+3.2 kg/day), compared with those fed HL. In contrast, there was no difference in DMI due to lucerne silage inclusion rate in experiment 2. A reduction in milk yield was observed with the HL treatment in both experiment 1 and 2 (−3.0 and −2.9 kg/day, respectively). The HL diet had reduced digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) (−3% and −4%, respectively), and also reduced the efficiency of intake N conversion into milk N (−4%). The S chop length increased total tract digestibility of DM and OM (both +4%), regardless of inclusion rate. Inclusion of lucerne silage at 25% of forage DM increased milk yield relative to 75% inclusion, but a S chop length partially mitigated adverse effects of HL on DMI and milk yield in experiment 1 and on DM digestibility in experiment 2.
Some helicopter manufacturers are exploring the compound helicopter design as it could potentially satisfy the new emerging requirements placed on the next generation of rotorcraft. It is well understood that the main benefit of the compound helicopter is its ability to reach speeds that significantly surpass the conventional helicopter. However, it is possible that the introduction of compounding may lead to a vehicle with significantly different flight characteristics when compared to a conventional helicopter. One method to examine the flight dynamics of an aircraft is to create a linearised mathematical model of the aircraft and to investigate the stability derivatives of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to examine the stability derivatives of a compound helicopter through a comparison with a conventional helicopter. By taking this approach, some stability, handling qualities and design issues associated with the compound helicopter can be identified. The paper features a conventional helicopter and a compound helicopter. The conventional helicopter is a standard design, featuring a main rotor and a tail-rotor. The compound helicopter configuration features both lift and thrust compounding. The wing offloads the main rotor at high speeds, whereas two propellers provide additional propulsive thrust as well as yaw control. The results highlight that the bare airframe compound helicopter would require a larger tailplane surface to ensure acceptable longitudinal handling qualities in forward flight. In addition, without increasing the size of the bare airframe compound helicopter’s vertical fin, the Dutch roll mode satisfies the ADS-33 level 1 handling qualities category for the majority of the flight envelope.
We compared accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages of large (>150 μm) pelagic foraminifera with radiometric bulk carbonate 14C ages in two northeastern Atlantic cores. The foraminiferal ages are consistently older than those of the bulk sediment (by + 0.76 ka in Core 11881 and by + 1.1 ka in Core 11886), whereas corresponding fine (<5 μm) fraction ages are similar to those of the bulk sediment carbonate. We calculated near-identical sediment accumulation rates from both the foraminiferal and bulk sediment age/depth relations (3.0 cm ka−1 in Core 11881 and 5.9 cm ka−1 in Core 11886). Consideration of various factors that might produce such offsets leads us to believe that they are not artifacts, but were most probably caused by differential bioturbation of the different size-fractions in the sediment surface mixed layer. The importance of this finding is that many paleoceanographic records, such as the oxygen isotope record, also derive from analyses of large foraminifera, so that these records must be offset in time from the bulk of the sediments that they characterize.
We present broad band photometry (B and R) of the classic shell galaxy NGC 474. Preliminary results indicate that the shells have a similar colour to and follow the same trend of colour with radius as the underlying galaxy.
Pollack et al. [Icarus 19, 372 (1973)] have reported the optical constants for obsidian, basalt, andesite and basaltic glass over the wavelength range 0.2 to 50 μm, and Lamy [Icarus 34, 68 (1978)] reported the optical constants from 0.10 to 0.44 μ for obsidian, basalt, and basaltic glass. We have revised the former measurements for basaltic glass and extended them into the extreme UV to 0.0173 μ.
A species of fixed oil, familiarly used in China for the same economical purposes for which olive oil is employed in Europe, has been ascertained by recent travellers in China to be produced in all probability by the tea-plant, or another species of the same natural family. The author assigns reasons for believing that it either is, or may be, obtained from the seeds of various species of the two genera Thea and Camellia. It has been hitherto almost unknown in Europe. It is when fresh quite free of smell, of a pale yellow tint, without any sediment when long kept. It resists a cold of 40° F., but at 39° becomes like an emulsion. Its density is 927. It is insoluble in alcohol, sparingly soluble in ether. It burns with a remarkably clear white flame.
Variation in human cognitive ability is of consequence to a large number of health and social outcomes and is substantially heritable. Genetic linkage, genome-wide association, and copy number variant studies have investigated the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in normal cognitive ability, but little research has considered the role of rare genetic variants. Exome sequencing studies have already met with success in discovering novel trait-gene associations for other complex traits. Here, we use exome sequencing to investigate the effects of rare variants on general cognitive ability. Unrelated Scottish individuals were selected for high scores on a general component of intelligence (g). The frequency of rare genetic variants (in n = 146) was compared with those from Scottish controls (total n = 486) who scored in the lower to middle range of the g distribution or on a proxy measure of g. Biological pathway analysis highlighted enrichment of the mitochondrial inner membrane component and apical part of cell gene ontology terms. Global burden analysis showed a greater total number of rare variants carried by high g cases versus controls, which is inconsistent with a mutation load hypothesis whereby mutations negatively affect g. The general finding of greater non-synonymous (vs. synonymous) variant effects is in line with evolutionary hypotheses for g. Given that this first sequencing study of high g was small, promising results were found, suggesting that the study of rare variants in larger samples would be worthwhile.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
This study aimed to identify genetic evaluation models (GEM) to accurately select cattle for milk production when only limited data are available. It is based on a data set from the Pakistani Sahiwal progeny testing programme which includes records from five government herds, each consisting of 100 to 350 animals, with lactation records dating back to 1968. Different types of GEM were compared, namely: (1) multivariate v. repeatability model when using the first three lactations, (2) an animal v. a sire model, (3) different fixed effects models to account for effects such as herd, year and season; and (4) fitting a model with genetic parameters fixed v. estimating the genetic parameters as part of the model fitting process. Two methods were used for the comparison of models. The first method used simulated data based on the Pakistani progeny testing system and compared estimated breeding values with true breeding values. The second method used cross-validation to determine the best model in subsets of actual Australian herd-recorded data. Subsets were chosen to reflect the Pakistani data in terms of herd size and number of herds. Based on the simulation and the cross-validation method, the multivariate animal model using fixed genetic parameters was generally the superior GEM, but problems arise in determining suitable values for fixing the parameters. Using mean square error of prediction, the best fixed effects structure could not be conclusively determined. The simulation method indicated the simplest fixed effects structure to be superior whereas in contrast, the cross-validation method on actual data concluded that the most complex one was the best. In conclusion it is difficult to propose a universally best GEM that can be used in any data set of this size. However, some general recommendations are that it is more appropriate to estimate the genetic parameters when evaluating for selection purposes, the animal model was superior to the sire model and that in the Pakistani situation the repeatability model is more suitable than a multivariate.
Pendeo-epitaxy is a type of selective growth of thin films from the sidewalls of etched forms. The resulting films are suspended from the sidewalls and do not interface with the substrate. This process route has advantages over conventional lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques. In this research, pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN films has been achieved on elongated GaN seed columns. The seed columns were etched from GaN grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Silicon nitride mask layers atop the GaN seed columns forced growth from the sidewalls. Pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN was investigated using several growth temperatures. Higher growth temperatures resulted in improved coalescence due to greater lateral to vertical growth ratios.