To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to lead to a significant increase in mental health disorders among healthcare workers (HCW).
We evaluated the rates of anxiety, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a population of HCW in the UK.
An electronic survey was conducted between the 5 June 2020 and 31 July 2020 of all hospital HCW in the West Midlands, UK using clinically validated questionnaires: the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire(PHQ-4) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Univariate analyses and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the strengths in associations between 24 independent variables and anxiety, depressive or PTSD symptoms.
There were 2638 eligible participants who completed the survey (female: 79.5%, median age: 42 years, interquartile range: 32–51). The rates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were 34.3%, 31.2% and 24.5%, respectively. In adjusted analysis a history of mental health conditions was associated with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% CI 1.9–2.7, P < 0.001), depression (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 2.1–3.0, P < 0.001) and PTSD (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.7–2.5, P < 0.001). The availability of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), well-being support and lower exposure to moral dilemmas at work demonstrated significant negative associations with these symptoms (P ≤ 0.001).
We report higher rates of clinically significant mental health symptoms among hospital HCW following the initial COVID-19 pandemic peak in the UK. Those with a history of mental health conditions were most at risk. Adequate PPE availability, access to well-being support and reduced exposure to moral dilemmas may protect hospital HCW from mental health symptoms.
Infants with moderate-to-severe CHD frequently undergo cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in childhood. Morbidity and mortality are highest in those who develop post-operative low cardiac output syndrome. Vasoactive and inotropic medications are mainstays of treatment for these children, despite limited evidence supporting their use.
To help inform clinical practice, as well as the conduct of future trials, we performed a systematic review of existing literature on inotropes and vasoactives in children after cardiac surgery using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We included studies from 2000 to 2020, and the patient population was defined as birth – 18 years of age. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies to determine final eligibility.
The final analysis included 37 papers. Collectively, selected studies reported on 12 different vasoactive and inotropic medications in 2856 children. Overall evidence supporting the use of these drugs in children after cardiopulmonary bypass was limited. The majority of studies were small with 30/37 (81%) enrolling less than 100 patients, 29/37 (78%) were not randomised, and safety and efficacy endpoints differed widely, limiting the ability to combine data for meta-analyses.
Vasoactive and inotropic support remain critical parts of post-operative care for children after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. There is a paucity of data for the selection and dosing of vasoactives and inotropes for these patients. Despite the knowledge gaps that remain, numerous recent innovations create opportunities to rethink the conduct of clinical trials in this high-risk population.
In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of the role of human rights in psychology education and training, particularly as it violates cultural and human rights. We believe the current conceptual framework for diversity training in psychology perpetuates an acontextual, ahistorical, and acultural paradigm. Based on the literature and historical background, we discuss the implications of the ongoing Euro-American domination of the field and present examples of integrating diversity and human rights education from a more inclusive perspective. We end the chapter with some recommendations for a more integrated psychology discipline that is grounded in human rights and social justice.
Background: With the emergence of antibiotic resistant threats and the need for appropriate antibiotic use, laboratory microbiology information is important to guide clinical decision making in nursing homes, where access to such data can be limited. Susceptibility data are necessary to inform antibiotic selection and to monitor changes in resistance patterns over time. To contribute to existing data that describe antibiotic resistance among nursing home residents, we summarized antibiotic susceptibility data from organisms commonly isolated from urine cultures collected as part of the CDC multistate, Emerging Infections Program (EIP) nursing home prevalence survey. Methods: In 2017, urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility data for selected organisms were retrospectively collected from nursing home residents’ medical records by trained EIP staff. Urine culture results reported as negative (no growth) or contaminated were excluded. Susceptibility results were recorded as susceptible, non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate), or not tested. The pooled mean percentage tested and percentage non-susceptible were calculated for selected antibiotic agents and classes using available data. Susceptibility data were analyzed for organisms with ≥20 isolates. The definition for multidrug-resistance (MDR) was based on the CDC and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s interim standard definitions. Data were analyzed using SAS v 9.4 software. Results: Among 161 participating nursing homes and 15,276 residents, 300 residents (2.0%) had documentation of a urine culture at the time of the survey, and 229 (76.3%) were positive. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp, and Enterococcus spp represented 73.0% of all urine isolates (N = 278). There were 215 (77.3%) isolates with reported susceptibility data (Fig. 1). Of these, data were analyzed for 187 (87.0%) (Fig. 2). All isolates tested for carbapenems were susceptible. Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility was most prevalent among E. coli (42.9%) and P. mirabilis (55.9%). Among Klebsiella spp, the highest percentages of non-susceptibility were observed for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and folate pathway inhibitors (25.0% each). Glycopeptide non-susceptibility was 10.0% for Enterococcus spp. The percentage of isolates classified as MDR ranged from 10.1% for E. coli to 14.7% for P. mirabilis. Conclusions: Substantial levels of non-susceptibility were observed for nursing home residents’ urine isolates, with 10% to 56% reported as non-susceptible to the antibiotics assessed. Non-susceptibility was highest for fluoroquinolones, an antibiotic class commonly used in nursing homes, and ≥ 10% of selected isolates were MDR. Our findings reinforce the importance of nursing homes using susceptibility data from laboratory service providers to guide antibiotic prescribing and to monitor levels of resistance.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
This study uses data from a shoe-repair shop, supplemented by data from medical and mundane contexts, to analyze three progressively minimal grammatical formats used to implement offers and requests in interaction (i.e. do you want…?, you want…?, and want…?). We argue that this cline of minimality reflects a cline of the action-initiator's stance, from relatively weak to strong (respectively), regarding their expectation that the action will be accepted or complied with. In doing so, we illustrate that, as part of the design of requests and offers, participants rely on more granular distinctions than a simple binary between interrogative and declarative morphosyntax. We conclude with a discussion of the interactional logic that undergirds the normative use of these grammatical formats, and of our findings’ implications for action formation and preference organization. (Conversation analysis, interactional linguistics, offer, request, stance, grammar, morphosyntax)*
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a growing and highly prevalent problem in nursing homes. We describe selected AR phenotypes from pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) reported by nursing homes to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility testing results for UTI events in nursing homes between January 2013 and December 2017 were analyzed. The pathogen distribution and pooled mean proportion of isolates that tested resistant to select antibiotic agents are reported.
Setting and Participants:
US nursing homes voluntarily participating in the Long-Term Care Facility component of the NHSN.
Overall, 243 nursing homes reported 1 or more UTIs: 121 (50%) were nonprofit facilities, median bed size was 91 (range: 9–801), and average occupancy was 87%. In total, 6,157 pathogens were reported for 5,485 UTI events. Moreover, 9 pathogens accounted for 90% of all reported UTIs; the 3 most frequently identified were Escherichia coli (41%), Proteus species (14%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca (13%). Among E. coli, fluoroquinolone, and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance were most prevalent (50% and 20%, respectively). Although Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium represented <5% of pathogens reported, they had the highest rates of resistance (67% methicillin resistant and 60% vancomycin resistant, respectively). Multidrug resistance was most common in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%). For the resistant phenotypes we assessed, 36% of all UTIs reported were associated with a resistant pathogen.
This is the first summary of AR among common pathogens causing UTIs reported to NHSN by nursing homes. Improved understanding of the resistance burden among common infections helps inform facility infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon (14C) dates in North American archaeology is increasing, especially among archaeologists working in deeper time. However, historical archaeologists have been slow to embrace these new techniques, and there have been only a few examples of the incorporation of calendar dates as informative priors in Bayesian models in such work in the United States. To illustrate the value of Bayesian approaches to sites with both substantial earlier Native American occupations as well as a historic era European presence, we present the results of our Bayesian analysis of 14C dates from the earlier Guale village and the Mission period contexts from the Sapelo Shell Ring Complex (9MC23) in southern Georgia. Jefferies and Moore have explored the Spanish Mission period deposits at this site to better understand the Native American interactions with the Spanish during the 16th and 17th centuries along the Georgia Coast. Given the results of our Bayesian modeling, we can say with some degree of confidence that the deposits thus far excavated and sampled contain important information dating to the 17th-century mission on Sapelo Island. In addition, our modeling of new dates suggests the range of the pre-Mission era Guale village. Based on these new dates, we can now say with some degree of certainty which of the deposits sampled likely contain information that dates to one of the critical periods of Mission period research, the AD 1660–1684 period that ushered in the close of mission efforts on the Georgia Coast.
Hernando de Soto's expedition through the southeastern United States between 1539 and 1543 is often regarded as a watershed moment for the collapse of Indigenous societies across the region. Historical narratives have proposed that extreme depopulation as a result of early contact destabilized Indigenous economies, politics, networks, and traditions. Although processes of depopulation and transformation were certainly set in motion by this and earlier colonial encounters, the timing, temporality, and heterogeneous rhythms of postcontact Indigenous histories remain unclear. Through the integration of radiocarbon and archaeological data from the Mississippian earthen platform mound at Dyar (9GE5) in central Georgia, we present a case of Indigenous endurance and resilience in the Oconee Valley that has long been obfuscated by materially based chronologies and typologies. Bayesian chronological modeling suggests that Indigenous Mississippian traditions persisted for up to 130 years beyond contact with European colonizers. We argue that advances in modeling radiocarbon dates, along with meaningful consultation/collaboration with descendant communities, can contribute to efforts that move us beyond a reliance on materially based chronologies that can distort and erase Indigenous histories.
Design & Manufacture Knowledge Mapping is a critical activity in medium-to-large organisations supporting many organisational activities. However, techniques for effective mapping of knowledge often employ interviews, consultations and appraisals. Although invaluable in providing expert insight, the application of such methods is inherently intrusive and resource intensive. This paper presents word co-occurrence graphs as a means to automatically generate knowledge maps from technical documents and validates against expert generated knowledge maps.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common childhood rheumatologic disease childhood and a cause of pain and potential disability. JIA has a strong genetic component and no known cure. The goal of this study is to evaluate allele-dependent effects of a novel JIA risk variant at 1q24.3. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: JIA patients meeting criteria for the two most common disease subtypes (oligoarticular and RF neg polyarthritis) were genotyped using the Immunochip, an Illumina array with dense coverage of the HLA region and 186 other loci previously reported in autoimmune diseases. Phase I association findings (Hinks, 2013) and Phase II analysis (unpublished) of an expanded cohort (4,271 JIA and 14,390 controls) identified new risk loci, including rs78037977 at 1q24.3. We prioritized rs78037977 and predicted possible impacted mechanisms based on Bayesian predictions of attributable risk, the surrounding chromatin landscape, and transcription factor binding data. A luciferase reporter assay was used to assess allele-dependent enhancer activity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: rs78037977 is located between FASLG and TNFSF18 at chromosome 1q24.3 is associated with JIA (p = 6.3x10−09), and explains 94% of the posterior probability at this locus; no other SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.6). The chromatin landscape around rs78037977 contains H3K4Me1 and H3K27Ac marks, which are indicative of enhancer activity. Further, >160 transcription factors have chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks overlapping rs78037977 in various cellular contexts. In luciferase reporter assays, the region around rs78037977 containing the reference A allele had ~2-fold increased enhancer activity compared to the non-reference allele. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work provides in vitro evidence to support allele-dependent enhancer activity of a novel JIA-risk variant at 1q24.3. Our ongoing work investigates the effect of the DNA-containing region of rs78037977 on gene expression and differential transcription factor binding at rs78037977.
Over the years, the practice of medicine has evolved from authority-based to experience-based to evidence-based with the introduction of the scientific process, clinical trials, and outcomes-based data analysis (Tebala GD. Int J Med Sci. 2018;15(12):1397-1405). The time required to perform the necessary randomized controlled trials, a systematic literature review, and meta-analysis of these trials to then create, accept, promulgate, and educate the practicing clinicians to use the evidence-based clinical guidelines is typically measured in years. When the severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 (SARS-nCoV-2) pandemic commenced in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, there were few available clinical guidelines to deploy, let alone adapt and adopt to treat the surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this study is to first explain how clinical guidelines, on which bedside clinicians have grown accustomed, can be created in the midst of a pandemic, with an evolving scientific understanding of the pathophysiology of the hypercoagulable state. The second is to adapt and adopt current venous thromboembolism diagnostic and treatment guidelines, while relying on the limited available observational reporting of COVID-19 patients to create a comprehensive clinical guideline to treat COVID-19 patients.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this work is to investigate natural buffering capacity of liver tissue and tumors, to understand and exploit differences for therapy. Using this work, we will determine the concentrations of reagents (acids or bases) used in ablation treatment to optimize treatment by increasing tumor toxicity and minimizing healthy tissue toxicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: For this preliminary study, two methods will be used: benchtop pH experiments ex vivo and non-invasive imaging using acidoCEST MRI in vivo. For ex vivo, two types of tissues will be tested: non-cancerous liver and tumor tissue from HepG2 inoculated mice (n = 10). After mice are euthanized, pH will be measured in tissue homogenates at baseline and then the homogenates will be placed in either acidic (acetic acid) or basic (sodium hydroxide) solutions with varied concentrations (0.5–10M) and time recorded until pH returns to baseline. For in vivo imaging, Mia PaCA-2 flank model mice (n = 10) will be imaged with acidoCEST MRI to quantify pH at baseline. Mice will then be injected intratumorally with (up to 100 μL of) acid or base at increasing concentrations and imaged to quantify pH changes in the tumor. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: For this study, buffering capacity is defined as the concentration threshold for which tissue can buffer pH back to within normal range. Non-cancerous tissue is likely to buffer a wider range of concentrations compared to tumor tissue. From the benchtop experiment, comparison of time-to-buffer will be made for each concentration of acid/base for the two tissue types. AcidoCEST MRI will provide in vivo buffering capacity and potentially demonstrate tumor heterogeneity of buffering capacity. For both experiments, a pH vs. concentration curve for the two tissue types will allow for comparison of ex vivo to in vivo experiments, which will differentiate contributions of local tissue buffering capacity from the full body’s natural bicarbonate buffer system that depends on respiration and blood flow. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The pH of the body must be maintained within a narrow range. With cancer, impairment in regulation of tumor metabolism causes acidosis, lowering extracellular pH in tumors. It remains unclear if pH plays a role in local recurrence or tumor toxicity. This work will determine if acidoCEST MRI can measure deliberate alteration of pH and how this change affects biology.
Introduction: Affecting roughly 1 in 5 pregnancies, early pregnancy loss is a common experience for reproductive-aged women. In Canada, most women do not establish care with an obstetrical provider until the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, pregnant patients experiencing symptoms of early pregnancy loss frequently access care in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to describe the resource utilization and outcomes of women presenting to two Ontario EDs for early pregnancy loss or threatened early pregnancy loss. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnant (≤20 weeks), adult (≥18 years) women in two EDs (one community hospital with 110,000 annual ED visits; one academic hospital with 65,000 annual ED visits) between January 2010 and December 2017. Patients were identified by diagnostic codes indicating early pregnancy loss or threatened early pregnancy loss. Results: A total of 16,091 patients were included, with a mean (SD) age of 32.8 (5.6) years. Patients had a total of 22,410 ED visits for early pregnancy complications, accounting for 1.6% of the EDs’ combined visits during the study period. Threatened abortion (n = 11,265, 50.3%) was the most common ED diagnosis, followed by spontaneous abortion (n = 5,652, 25.2%), ectopic pregnancy (n = 3,242, 14.5%), missed abortion (n = 1,541, 6.9%), and other diagnoses (n = 710, 3.2%). 8,000 (44.8%) patients had a radiologist-interpreted ultrasound performed during the initial ED visit. Median (IQR) ED length of stay was 3.4 (2.3 to 5.1) hours. There were 4,561 (25.6%) return ED visits within 30 days, of which 2,317 (50.8%) occurred less than 24 hours of index visit, and 481 (10.6%) were for scheduled, next day ultrasound. The total number of hospital admissions was 1,793 (8.0%), and the majority were for ectopic pregnancy (n = 1,052, 58.7%). Of admitted patients, 1,320 (73.6%) underwent surgical interventions related to early pregnancy. There were 474 (10.4%) patients admitted to hospital during return ED visits. Conclusion: Pregnant patients experiencing symptoms of early pregnancy loss in the ED frequently had radiologist-interpreted US and low rates of hospital admission, yet had high rates of return ED visits. This study highlights the heavy reliance on Ontario EDs to care for patients experiencing complications of early pregnancy.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
The utility of questionnaire based self-report measures for non-clinical psychotic symptoms is unclear and there are few reliable data about the nature and prevalence of these phenomena in children. The study aimed to investigate psychosis-like symptoms (PLIKS) in children utilizing both self-report measures and semi-structured observer rated assessments.
The study was cross-sectional; the setting being an assessment clinic for members of the ALSPAC birth cohort in Bristol, UK. 6455 respondents were assessed over 21 months, mean age 12.9 years. The main outcome measure was: 12 self-report screening questions for psychotic symptoms followed by semi-structured observer rated assessments by trained psychology graduates. The assessment instrument utilised stem questions, glossary definitions, and rating rules adapted from DISC-IV and SCAN items.
The 6-month period prevalence for one or more PLIKS rated by self-report questions was 38.9 % (95% CI = 37.7-40.1). Prevalence using observer rated assessments was 13.7% (95% CI = 12.8-14.5). Positive Predictive Values for the screen questions versus observer rated scores were low, except for auditory hallucinations (PPV=70%; 95% CI = 67.1-74.2). The most frequent observer rated symptom was auditory hallucinations (7.3%); in 18.8% of these cases symptoms occurred weekly or more. The prevalence of DSM-IV ‘core’ schizophrenia symptoms was 3.62%. Rates were significantly higher in children with low socio-economic status.
With the exception of auditory hallucinations, self-rated questionnaires are likely to substantially over-estimate the frequency of PLIKS in 12-year-old children. However, more reliable observer rated assessments reveal that PLIKS occur in a significant proportion of children.
Psychosis and adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shared attributes, but evidence that they are associated is sparse and inconsistent.
We tested hypotheses that 1] adult ADHD symptoms are associated with psychosis and individual psychotic symptoms 2] links between ADHD symptoms and psychosis are mediated by prescribed ADHD medications, use of illicit drugs, and dysphoric mood (depression and anxiety).
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403) provided data for regression and multiple mediation analyses. ADHD symptoms were coded from the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Dependent variables comprised auditory hallucinations, paranoid ideation, and identified psychosis.
Higher ASRS total score was significantly associated with psychosis (O.R: 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.20; p = 0.013), paranoid ideation (O.R:1.12; CI 1.09-1.14; p<0.001) and auditory hallucinations (O.R 1.11; CI 1.08-1.15; p<0.001) even after controlling for socio-demographic variables, verbal IQ, autism spectrum disorder traits, childhood conduct problems, hypomanic mood and dysphoric mood. The link between higher ADHD symptoms and psychosis variables was significantly mediated by dysphoric mood (psychosis, 21%; paranoid ideation, 23%; auditory hallucination, 11%), but not by prescribed ADHD medication or use of amphetamine, cocaine or cannabis.
Higher levels of adult ADHD symptoms and psychosis are linked, and dysphoric mood may form part of the mechanism. Those with greater levels of ADHD symptoms in adulthood may be at higher risk of psychosis. Our analyses contradict the clinical view that the main explanation for people with ADHD symptoms developing psychosis is abuse of illicit drugs or ADHD medications.
Dietary patterns describe the combination of foods and beverages in a diet and the frequency of habitual consumption. Better understanding of childhood dietary patterns and antenatal influences could inform intervention strategies to prevent childhood obesity. We derived empirical dietary patterns in 1142 children (average age 6·0 (sd 0·2) years) in New Zealand, whose mothers had participated in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study and explored associations with measures of body composition. Participants (Children of SCOPE) had their diet assessed by FFQ, and dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified: ‘Healthy’, ‘Traditional’ and ‘Junk’. Associations between dietary patterns and measures of childhood body composition (waist, hip, arm circumferences, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis-derived body fat % and sum of skinfold thicknesses (SST)) were assessed by linear regression, with adjustment for maternal influences. Children who had higher ‘Junk’ dietary pattern scores had 0·24 (sd 0·08; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·13) cm greater arm and 0·44 (sd 0·05; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·10) cm greater hip circumferences and 1·13 (sd 0·07; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·12) cm greater SST and were more likely to be obese (OR 1·74; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·82); those with higher ‘Healthy’ pattern scores were less likely to be obese (OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·39, 1·00). In a large mother–child cohort, a dietary pattern characterised by high-sugar and -fat foods was associated with greater adiposity and obesity risk in children aged 6 years, while a ‘Healthy’ dietary pattern offered some protection against obesity. Targeting unhealthy dietary patterns could inform public health strategies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.
The sustainability concept seeks to balance how present and future generations of humans meet their needs. But because nature is viewed only as a resource, sustainability fails to recognize that humans and other living beings depend on each other for their well-being. We therefore argue that true sustainability can only be achieved if the interdependent needs of all species of current and future generations are met, and propose calling this ‘multispecies sustainability’. We explore the concept through visualizations and scenarios, then consider how it might be applied through case studies involving bees and healthy green spaces.