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Magnetic microstructure, that is the configuration of domains and domain walls in a magnetic material, is of both fundamental interest and of crucial importance for device applications. For example, the ultimate density of magnetic information storage is limited by the sharpness of a domain boundary. The magnetic microstructure of a thin film or surface depends sensitively on its physical structure which is strongly affected by sample preparation or growth. High resolution magnetization imaging is necessary to determine the domain configuration that occurs for a particular sample preparation and the changes that take place under external perturbations such as applied magnetic field, stress or temperature.
Iron on GaAs(110) comprises an interesting system not only due to small lattice mismatch, 1.4%, but also because of the magnetic properties of the overlayer. In the present work, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to investigate bcc Fe films in the 0.1 Å to 20 Å thickness range, grown at 300 K and 450 K substrate temperatures. STM images show Volmer-Weber growth with the formation of 3-D Fe islands 20–30 Å in diameter for 0.1–1 Å deposition at 300 K, increasing to 40–50 Å for thicker films. Iron island sizes at low coverage and thin film roughness at higher coverages both show significant dependence upon growth temperature.
A comprehensive review and state of the art in the field of surface, interface, and thin-film magnetism is presented. New growth techniques which produce atomically engineered novel materials, special characterization techniques to measure magnetic properties of low-dimensional systems, and computational advances which allow large complex calculations have together stimulated the current activity in this field and opened new opportunities for research. The current status and issues in the area of material growth techniques and physical properties, characterization methods, and theoretical methods and ideas are reviewed. A fundamental understanding of surface, interface, and thin-film magnetism is of importance to many applications in magnetics technology, which is also surveyed. Questions of fundamental and technological interest that offer opportunities for exciting future research are identified.
Field tests of (E)-11-tetradecenal and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, the respective sex attractants for western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman and the Modoc budworm, C. viridis Freeman, revealed that these compounds attract several other forest Lepidoptera. The acetate attracted a total of 14 species representing seven families, and the aldehyde accounted for nine species representing four families. This interspecific attraction could influence budworm trapping efficiency and interpretation of results, because of the abundance of other responding species and the fact that two of the species resemble Choristoneura adults in appearance.
Experiments have been carried out to examine the spectrum of internal gravity waves excited in a stratified incompressible fluid during stabilization following the buoyant rise of a miscible fluid. The rise time of the buoyant fluid to its stabilization height in the stratified fluid was observed to be about 0.85 of the Brunt-Väisälä period for the stratified fluid. The motion of specific fluid elements in the wave field was observed using neutrally buoyant marker particles, and the particle trajectories were found to be in close accord with theoretical predictions. Observations on the internal waves generated by the forced oscillation of a spherical body suspended in the stratified medium showed the wave pattern to be well behaved and similar to that described by Mowbray & Rarity. However, the gravity wave field generated by the motion of the buoyant fluid was observed to be inhomogeneous and transient in nature. Wave periods from one to four times the Brunt-Väisälä period were clearly observed and at later times it appeared that the motion tended towards vertical oscillations a t the Brunt- Väisälä frequency.
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