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Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions. Despite many proven pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, high rates of partial response and low rates of long-term remission remain. Ketamine has been receiving increasing attention as an interventional treatment modality in psychiatry, especially among refractory conditions, including major depressive disorder. There is limited yet growing evidence to support the use of ketamine in anxiety disorders. In this review of the literature, we present case reports, case series, and controlled trials demonstrating proof-of-concept for its potential role in the treatment of anxiety and anxiety spectrum disorders. Its unique mechanism of action, rapid onset, and high rate of response have driven its use in clinical practice. Ketamine is generally well tolerated by patients and has a limited side effect profile; however, the effects of long-term use are unknown. While there is a growing body of research and increasing clinical experience to suggest ketamine may have clinical applications in the treatment of refractory anxiety disorders, further research to determine long-term safety and tolerability is indicated.
We have automated a Seeman-Bohlin Guinier x-ray diffractometer by interfacing it to a minimally configured PDP 11/23 computer. The programs that run on the microcomputer to control the operation of the diffractometer are stored on a mainframe host running the UNIX+ operating system. A software interface allows a particular data acquisition program to be downloaded from the UNIX host and executed on the satellite processor. This same interface allows the collected data to be periodically off-loaded to the host for processing and storage.
The effects of shape and thickness of a tin surface layer and of the energy of a 170 ps neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser pulse on the conversion efficiency (CE) into extreme ultraviolet emission in the 13.5 nm region is investigated. Whereas a CE of up to 1.16% into the 2% reflection band of multilayer Mo/Si optics was measured for a bulk Sn target at a laser energy of 25 mJ, significant CE enhancement up to 1.49% is demonstrated for a 200-nm-thick Sn layer on a microstructured porous alumina substrate.
With the UK population ageing, deciding upon a satisfactory and sustainable system for the funding of people’s long-term care (LTC) needs has long been a topic of political debate. Phase 1 of the Care Act 2014 (“the Act”) brought in some of the reforms recommended by the Dilnot Commission in 2011. However, the Government announced during 2015 that Phase 2 of “the Act” such as the introduction of a £72,000 cap on Local Authority care costs and a change in the means testing thresholds1 would be deferred until 2020. In addition to this delay, the “freedom and choice” agenda for pensions has come into force. It is therefore timely that the potential market responses to help people pay for their care within the new pensions environment should be considered. In this paper, we analyse whether the proposed reforms meet the policy intention of protecting people from catastrophic care costs, whilst facilitating individual understanding of their potential care funding requirements. In particular, we review a number of financial products and ascertain the extent to which such products might help individuals to fund the LTC costs for which they would be responsible for meeting. We also produce case studies to demonstrate the complexities of the care funding system. Finally, we review the potential impact on incentives for individuals to save for care costs under the proposed new means testing thresholds and compare these with the current thresholds. We conclude that:
∙Although it is still too early to understand exactly how individuals will respond to the pensions freedom and choice agenda, there are a number of financial products that might complement the new flexibilities and help people make provision for care costs.
∙The new care funding system is complex making it difficult for people to understand their potential care costs.
∙The current means testing system causes a disincentive to save. The new means testing thresholds provide a greater level of reward for savers than the existing thresholds and therefore may increase the level of saving for care; however, the new thresholds could still act as a barrier since disincentives still exist.
The emergence of invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) in combat casualties led to development of a combat trauma-specific IFI case definition and classification. Prospective data were collected from 1133 US military personnel injured in Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011). The IFI rates ranged from 0·2% to 11·7% among ward and intensive care unit admissions, respectively (6·8% overall). Seventy-seven IFI cases were classified as proven/probable (n = 54) and possible/unclassifiable (n = 23) and compared in a case-case analysis. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the proven/probable and possible/unclassifiable cases. Possible IFI cases had shorter time to diagnosis (P = 0·02) and initiation of antifungal therapy (P = 0·05) and fewer operative visits (P = 0·002) compared to proven/probable cases, but clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. Although the trauma-related IFI classification scheme did not provide prognostic information, it is an effective tool for clinical and epidemiological surveillance and research.
Newell & Shanks (N&S) argue against the idea that any significant role for unconscious influences on decision making has been established by research to date. Inasmuch as this conclusion applies to the idea of an “intelligent cognitive unconscious,” we would agree. Our concern is that the article could lead the unwary to conclude that there are no unconscious influences on decision making – and never could be. We give reasons why this may not be the case.
Development of devices storing and delivering high-energy power such as supercapacitors is necessary to assist intermittent sources of energy. Most of the commercial systems are carbon-based, but due to their high surface charge, oxides offer a valuable alternative for high-rate energy storage. Among them, layered transition metal oxides with mixed valence properties present both good electronic and ionic conductivities suitable for application to electrochemical applications intermediate between capacitors and batteries. This work focuses on lamellar oxide bronzes based on cobalt MxCoO2 and vanadium MxV2O5 (M = H, Li, Na or K). A low temperature synthesis leads to high specific area particles (above 100 m2/g). Hydrated and anhydrous NaxCoO2 are promising cathode materials for aqueous supercapacitors, with a high capacity of more than 100 mAh/g obtained under 20 mV/s for the hydrated NaxCoO2. The MxV2O5 bronzes appear to be good candidates for organic supercapacitors, especially the LixV2O5 bronze, which shows a high stable capacity above 100 mAh/g (at 20 mV/s ie a charging time of 125 s).
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
ZnO nanorods grown on plastic substrates by chemical methods are combined with both inorganic and organic p-type materials to make flexible p-n junction devices. When bent the devices generate both voltage and current peaks, which is attributed to the piezoelectric effect in the ZnO nanorods. The best device produces a maximum possible power density of 100 nWcm‑2. When vibrated at a constant frequency the voltage output by the devices scales linearly with vibration amplitude. Also, when illuminated the output of the devices drops. These effects are consistent with a piezoelectric source of the voltage.
We produce four distinct ZnO nanorod diode structures that are based on ZnO nanorods produced at pH 6 and pH 11 and have the p-type material PEDOT:PSS (hybrid device) or CuSCN (all inorganic device). After testing the performance of the diodes we show a rectification of 1050 at ±1V in the dark for the inorganic device. The device also exhibits good UV photodetection showing a rapid ca0.1ms turn on and off to a source of illumination. The hybrid devices performed as previously reported with a rectification of 25 at ±1V in both dark and under illumination. We ascribe the performance of the devices to the differences in morphology in the ZnO brought about by the processing conditions and the way in which the p-type layer coats the nanostructure.
The passive film stability of several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be comparable to that of high-performance Ni-based alloys, and superior to that of stainless steels, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal also makes it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications, as discussed in companion publications. Corrosion data for SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) is discussed here.
Amorphous diamond is a new material for surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) that offers promise for reducing wear and stiction of MEMS components. The material is an amorphous mixture of 4-fold and 3-fold coordinated carbon with mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond. A unique form of structural relaxation permits the residual stress in the material to be reduced from an as-deposited value of 8 GPa compressive down to zero stress or even to slightly tensile values. Irreversible plastic deformation, achieved by heat treating elastically strained structures, is also possible in this material. Several types of amorphous diamond MEMS devices have been fabricated, including electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, and cantilever beams. Measurements using these structures indicate the material has an elastic modulus close to 800 GPa, fracture toughness of 8 MPa.m½, an advancing H2O contact angle of 84° to 94°, and a surface roughness of 0.1 to 0.9 nm R.M.S. on Si and SiO2, respectively.
Hydroxyapetite (HA) coating on medical implant has been used in commercial application for several decades. The coating, commercially made by thermal spray method, functions as a intermediate layer between human tissues and the metal implant. The coating can speed up early stage healing after operation but the life span is much limited by low interfacial bond strength, which comes from the dissolution of amorphous HA in human body fluid during its service. This amorphous phase is formed in coating process under high temperature. To overcome these problems, we have developed a novel room temperature electrophoretic deposition process to fabricate nanostructured HA coating. This nanostructured HA coating significantly improved coating's bond strength up to 50-60 MPa, 2-3 times better than the thermal sprayed HA coating. The nanostructured HA coating also has corrosion resistance 50-100 times higher than the conventional HA coating. X-ray diffraction shows that all the HA coating is fully crystalline phase. It is expected that the implants with the nanostructured HA coating will have much longer service life. Other benefits derived from this process include room temperature deposition, the ability to control the coating microstructure and phases, and low cost for production.
The effects of pulsed laser irradiation on silicon (111) single crystal thin samples were studied in a ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscope. Samples were found to cleave along (110) planes under the laser beam. The formation of dislocation networks was also observed. The cleaving did not seem to originate from previously observed defect areas, but from random places, and is believed to be caused by thermal shock from laser beam heating. Bulk defects in the specimens, such as stacking fault tetrahedra and dislocations, were not observed to be affected by the laser treatment.
It is demonstrated by ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscopy that subsurface dislocations and stacking faults strongly interact with the Au (001) (5×n) surface reconstruction. This effect is found in both bulk single crystal and thin fílm samples.
We investigate the evolution of the microstructure of a reconstructed Au (001) single crystal surface using ultra high vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM). Bulk single crystal Au (001) surfaces were prepared via standard metallographic techniques and sputter anneal cycles. After a clean surface was obtained, the (001) surface was found to reconstruct into two nearly orthogonal domains of dimensions (5 × ∼ 20 ) along the <110> directions of the unreconstructed F.C.C. (001) surface. Transmission electron diffraction patterns (TED) and dark field microscopy are the two primary techniques used to determine the symmetry and dimensions of the reconstructed surface.
Based on experimental findings obtained earlier by the authors , a model is devised in which the divergence of the vacancy flow created in the grain boundaries of Al-Si(1%) metallizations by high-density DC is attributed to temperature gradients and structural features. Void nuclei of critical size are created in areas of high vacancy concentration. These nuclei grow, fed by the electromigrational vacancy current. It is shown that stresses have only a negligible' effect on the vacancy diffusion but influence the nucleation process dramatically. Results expressed in terms of fraction of void area are calculated and then correlated with experimental results. Certain material parameters, whose values are not known, are derived from the experimental data. The physical significance of these parameters is discussed.
The growth of intermetallic compounds and the strength of Cu/ Sn and Cu/ 60Sn40Pb butt joints were studied as a function of isothermal aging. The effects of single-crystal (100), (110), and (111) oriented copper on the growth rates of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds are characterized and the influence of elevated temperature aging on the tensile strength of butt joints analyzed. Substrate orientation appears to influence the growth rate. Metallographic measurements showed that the intermetallic compounds grew at a rate proportional to the square root of time. Tensile tests of aged butt joints revealed a more complex time dependence.
Carbons derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon electrodes have a bulk density of 0.35-0.5 g/cm3, relatively low surface areas (< 10 m2/g), and micron-size cells. Pyrolysis temperature influences the reversible lithium intercalation and the irreversible capacity (associated with the formation of the passivating layer). Carbon electrodes pyrolyzed at 600°C have first-cycle capacity as high as 550 mAh/g as well as large irreversible capacity, 440 mAh/g. Electrodes prepared at 1050°C have reversible capacities around 270 mAh/g with relatively lower capacity losses (120 mAh/g). Doping the organic precursors with phosphoric acid, prior to pyrolysis at 1050 C, leads to carbon electrodes with reversible capacities as high as 450 mAh/g. The capacity of doped carbon increased with increasing phosphorus concentration in the samples. The doped carbon anodes exhibited good cycleability and excellent coulombic efficiency. The electrochemical performance is related to morphology, chemical composition, and local structural order.