To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
The objective of this study was to determine whether hatha yoga is an efficacious adjunctive intervention for individuals with continued depressive symptoms despite antidepressant treatment.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial of weekly yoga classes (n = 63) v. health education classes (Healthy Living Workshop; HLW; n = 59) in individuals with elevated depression symptoms and antidepressant medication use. HLW served as an attention-control group. The intervention period was 10 weeks, with follow-up assessments 3 and 6 months afterwards. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity assessed by blind rater at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms over the entire intervention and follow-up periods, social and role functioning, general health perceptions, pain, and physical functioning.
At 10 weeks, we did not find a statistically significant difference between groups in depression symptoms (b = −0.82, s.e. = 0.88, p = 0.36). However, over the entire intervention and follow-up period, when controlling for baseline, yoga participants showed lower levels of depression than HLW participants (b = −1.38, s.e. = 0.57, p = 0.02). At 6-month follow-up, 51% of yoga participants demonstrated a response (⩾50% reduction in depression symptoms) compared with 31% of HLW participants (odds ratio = 2.31; p = 0.04). Yoga participants showed significantly better social and role functioning and general health perceptions over time.
Although we did not see a difference in depression symptoms at the end of the intervention period, yoga participants showed fewer depression symptoms over the entire follow-up period. Benefits of yoga may accumulate over time.
Although numerous studies have examined the latent structure of major depression, less attention has focused on mania. This paper presents the first investigation outside the USA to evaluate the psychometric properties of the DSM-IV criterion B mania symptoms using item response theory (IRT).
Data were drawn from the Australian 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being (NSMHWB, n = 8841). The psychometric performance of the mania symptoms was evaluated using a two-parameter logistic model. Because substance use disorders (SUDs) frequently co-occur with mania and can influence manic symptom expression, differential item functioning (DIF) between mania respondents with/without a SUD diagnosis was also assessed.
Factor analysis supported a unidimensional trait underlying mania. The grandiosity symptom displayed the highest discrimination whereas discrimination was lowest for decreased need for sleep. Relatively speaking, grandiosity tapped the severe end and increased goal-oriented activities tapped the mild end of the mania severity continuum. The symptoms generally performed equivalently between those with/without a SUD diagnosis, with one exception; the activities with painful consequences symptom was endorsed at lower levels of severity, and hence more frequently, by those with a SUD diagnosis versus those without a SUD diagnosis.
Accurate conceptualization of latent structure has crucial theoretical, statistical and clinical implications. The symptoms generally performed well in distinguishing between respondents with differing levels of liability, but others did not, suggesting modification is warranted to ensure optimal use in epidemiological samples. Given the dearth of psychometric evaluation studies of mania, further research replicating these results is necessary.
To determine whether drinking water contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli, selected households sending water samples to Ontario and Alberta laboratories in 2005–2006 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study. Household members aged ⩾12 years were asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit a rectal swab. In 878 individuals, 41% carried a resistant strain of E. coli and 28% carried a multidrug-resistant strain. The risk of carriage of resistant E. coli was 1·26 times higher for users of water contaminated with resistant E. coli. Other risk factors included international travel [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·33], having a child in nappies (PR 1·33), being male (PR 1·33), and frequent handling of raw red meats (PR 1·10). Protecting private water sources (e.g. by improving systems to test and treat them) may help slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli.
Psychological literature and clinical lore suggest that there may be systematic differences in how various demographic groups experience depressive symptoms, particularly somatic symptoms. The aim of the current study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine whether, when equating for levels of depression symptom severity, there are demographic differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV depression symptoms.
We conducted a secondary analysis of a subset (n=13 753) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) dataset, which includes a large epidemiological sample of English-speaking Americans. We compared data from women and men, Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans and Whites, Asian Americans and Whites, and American Indians and Whites.
There were few differences overall, although the differences that we did find were primarily limited to somatic symptoms, and particularly appetite and weight disturbance.
For the most part, individuals responded similarly to the criteria used to diagnose major depression across gender and across English-speaking racial and ethnic groups in the USA.
Polarimetry in gamma-rays has the capability to enhance our understanding of compact object emission in our galaxy. In particular this diagnostic method could provide useful insight into the geometrical arrangement of these emitting objects and the roles that magnetic fields play in their emisson mechanisms. Gamma Ray Bursts have been studied in this way but the results, perhaps indicating a high degree of polarisation, remain unverified [Coburn & Boggs (2003), Wigger et al. (2004), Willis et al. (2005)]. The nature of GRBs solve many instrumental problems in polarimetry, however their true nature is less well defined and so a study of a better understood object such as the Crab Pulsar, for now, may reveal more as to the physics of the system.
To characterize vancomycin use at a pediatric tertiary-care hospital, to discriminate between initial (≤ 72 hours) and prolonged (> 72 hours) inappropriate use, and to define patient characteristics associated with inappropriate use.
Vancomycin courses were retrospectively reviewed using an algorithm modeled on HICPAC guidelines. Data were collected regarding patient demographics, comorbidities, other medication use, and nosocomial infections. The association between each variable and the outcome of inappropriate use was determined by longitudinal regression analysis. A multi-variable model was constructed to assess risk factors for inappropriate initial and prolonged vancomycin use.
A pediatric tertiary-care medical center.
Children older than 1 year who received intravenous vancomycin from November 2000 to June 2001.
Three hundred twenty-seven vancomycin courses administered to 260 patients were evaluated for appropriateness. Of initial courses, 114 (35%) were considered inappropriate. Of 143 prolonged courses, 103 (72%) were considered inappropriate. Multivariable risk factor analysis identified the following variables as significantly associated with inappropriate initial use: admission to the surgery service, having a malignancy, receipt of a stem cell transplant, and having received a prior inappropriate course of vancomycin. No variables were identified as significant risk factors for inappropriate prolonged use.
Substantial inappropriate use of vancomycin was identified. Prolonged inappropriate use was a particular problem. This risk factor analysis suggests that interventions targeting patients admitted to certain services or receiving multiple courses of vancomycin could reduce inappropriate use.
The miniaturization of electrochemical transducers is crucial for the development of implantable biosensors, wearable microdetectors, and remote sensing networks due to the small dimensions required in these applications. As sensors scale, the analytical response degrades and integrated instrumentation is required to maintain acceptable detection limits. This work details the development of CMOS-integrated liquid chemical sensors. The sensors were cost-effectively post-processed on top of foundry-fabricated CMOS electronics using thin-film techniques. CMOS-integrated voltammetric sensors demonstrated a 25x improvement in detection limit/electrode area versus passive sensors. CMOS-integrated, ion-selective electrodes demonstrated a 50x improvement in lifetime and a 200x improvement in response time versus passive sensors. With their improved performance, these smart sensors can be used in a wide range of applications and can additionally serve as enabling technologies for more complex, chip-scale systems.
A silicified fauna from the early Permian Coyote Butte Limestone within the Grindstone terrane of central Oregon contains a diverse fauna including five polyplacophorans, one rostroconch, and one problematic taxa. New taxa include Gryphochiton planoplata new species, Arcochiton soccus new species, Homeochiton triangularis new genus and species, Arceodomus sphairikos new species, and Diadeloplax apiculatus new species.
Processing of silicon-based heterojunction devices is severely constrained by the relaxation of strained epitaxial layers. Generally the equilbrium critical thickness cannot be exceeded if high-temperature process steps such as oxidation and diffusion are performed. In this paper, we report on the beneficial effects of small amounts of carbon ( 0.2%) added to germanium-silicon epitaxial layers. We will show that such low concentrations result in a substantial decrease of boron diffusivity and strain relaxation. We will also report on the fabrication of GexSil-x-yCy heterostructure MOS capacitors with a channel thickness of 300 A° and a maximum germanium fraction of 50% A thermal oxidation at 800 ‘C was performed resulting in good C(VG) characteristics along with improved hole confinement.
Heterojunction p++ GeSi / Si internal photoemission (HIP) detectors deposited by ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) were investigated as alternatives to silicide Schottky-barrier type detectors for infrared focal plane arrays. HIP structures were grown using SiH4, GeH4, and B2H6 source gases on (100) p- Si substrates patterned with thermal oxide windows. Selective epitaxy was maintained over a range of boron concentrations (6×1019 – 6.5×1020 cm-3) and Ge fractions (0.38–0.50), and a maximum selective thickness of ~300Å was determined for silicon growth at 550°C. These structures were fabricated into IR detectors using techniques compatible with standard Si focal plane array processing technology. Photoresponse data were analyzed according to the modified Fowler equation, indicating cut-off wavelengths of 5–12 (μm) and Cl values of 8–21 (%/eV) depending on sample parameters. I(V) characteristics were also measured at various temperatures, yielding electrical barrier heights consistent with optical measurements.
Doped GexSi1−x/Si multiple quantum well structures have been grown by UHV/CVD and characterized by various techniques. SIMS and X- ray confirm the intended modulation of germanium and boron concentrations, and photoluminescence has been used to assess material quality. Strong free- carrier absorption has been observed at normal incidence in some samples. The results suggest that doping intermediate between 4 × 1018 cm−3 and 4 × 1019 cm−3 is necessary for useful detectors.
Fourteen granitoid plutons studied in the Baie d'Espoir area of southern Newfoundland are divisible into a northern group of eight and a southern group of six. The former tend to be undeformed, have thermal aureoles, and intrude greenschist facies Ordovician and Silurian rocks of the Dunnage zone following a period of folding and thrusting towards the SE. Four Rb-Sr whole-rock isochrons yield similar ages around 430 Ma for these plutons, fixing the deformation within early Silurian times. The latter plutons syntectonically intruded without aureole effects, and are all foliated and elongate parallel to the regional fabric of amphibolite facies gneisses and migmatites of the Gander zone. Whole-rock Rb-Sr isochrons around 350 Ma for both syntectonic and post-tectonic plutons indicate a rapid metamorphism, deformation, intrusion and uplift of the Gander zone in this area. There appear to be no systematic relationships between petrological and geochemical characteristics of the plutons and their tectono-stratigraphic setting. This study conclusively invalidates earlier hypotheses that deformed granitoid rocks of the Gander zone are older than the undeformed granitoids of the Dunnage zone; indeed, just the reverse is true.