To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categorized as Data Deficient. The primary threat to tenrecs is habitat loss, mostly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, but some species are also threatened by hunting and incidental capture in fishing traps. In the longer term, climate change is expected to alter tenrec habitats and ranges. However, the lack of data for most tenrecs on population size, ecology and distribution, together with frequent changes in taxonomy (with many cryptic species being discovered based on genetic analyses) and the poorly understood impact of bushmeat hunting on spiny species (Tenrecinae), hinders conservation planning. Priority conservation actions are presented for Madagascar's tenrecs for the first time since 1990 and focus on conserving forest habitat (especially through improved management of protected areas) and filling essential knowledge gaps. Tenrec research, monitoring and conservation should be integrated into broader sustainable development objectives and programmes targeting higher profile species, such as lemurs, if we are to see an improvement in the conservation status of tenrecs in the near future.
A variety of paediatric tracheostomy tubes are available. This article reviews the tubes in current use at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and Evelina London Children's Hospital.
This paper outlines our current preferences, and the particular indications for different tracheostomy tubes, speaking valves and other attachments.
Our preferred types of tubes have undergone significant design changes. This paper also reports further experience with certain tubes that may be useful in particular circumstances. An updated sizing chart is included for reference purposes.
The choice of a paediatric tracheostomy tube remains largely determined by individual clinical requirements. Although we still favour a small range of tubes for use in the majority of our patients, there are circumstances in which other varieties are indicated.
Disaffection of youth from politics is a well-documented phenomenon in many countries. In this article, we consider whether the social networks of young people have the same influence on political engagement as they have been found to have for older adults. We use a single dataset to test the effects of discussion and disagreement on the political engagement of young people (30 and under) and older adults. We find that social network discussion has a stronger effect on the engagement of young people but that disagreement has no clear differential effect.
Mother and Baby Units (MBUs) are usually preferred by patients and clinicians. Current provision is limited, although expansion is in progress. To ensure successful investment in services, outcome measurement is vital.
To describe maternal outcomes, mother–infant outcomes and their relationship in one MBU.
Paired maternal Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) scores and Crittenden CARE-Index (CCI) mother–infant interaction data were collected at admission and discharge.
There were significant improvements in BPRS (n = 152), HoNOS (n = 141) and CCI (n = 62) scores across diagnostic groups. Maternal BPRS scores and mother–infant interaction scores were unrelated. Improvement in maternal HoNOS scores was associated with improved maternal sensitivity and reduction in maternal unresponsiveness and infant passiveness.
Positive outcomes were achieved for mothers and babies across all diagnostic groups. Reduction in maternal symptoms, as measured by BPRS, does not necessarily confer improvement in mother–infant interaction. MBU treatment should focus on both maternal symptoms and mother–infant interaction.
Soybean consultants from Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee were surveyed in 2016 to assess weed management practices and the prevalence of herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern U.S. soybean production. The consultants surveyed represented 13%, 28%, 8%, 16%, and 5% of the total soybean area planted in Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Of the total scouted area, 78% of the consultants said their growers planted glyphosate-resistant soybean in 2016, with 18% planting glufosinate-resistant (LibertyLink®), primarily due to familiarity with and cost of the technology. Although 94% of the consultants determined that glufosinate was most effective on killing Palmer amaranth, the primary concern associated with controlling herbicide-resistant weeds was the associated cost, followed by return profit and time constraints. Palmer amaranth, morningglory species, horseweed, barnyardgrass, and Italian ryegrass were the five most problematic weeds in soybean across the five states. Palmer amaranth was the most problematic and important weed in each state individually. The increased concern (77% of consultants) with this species was attributed to the rising concern with and occurrence of protoporphyrinogen oxidase–resistant Palmer amaranth. Consultants were of the opinion that more research was needed on cover crops and the new traited technologies in order to improve weed management in soybean.
While the influence of socioeconomic status and financial balance on conflict in female-male relationships has been widely examined, less is known about these phenomena in male-male relationships. This study consists of qualitative individual in-depth interviews with 20 self-identified gay/bisexual men to examine perceptions of financial roles within relationships, and the influence on relationship control and conflict. For some participants, financial roles were static, while others experienced dynamic roles across and within relationships. Some participants characterised financial imbalance using gendered constructs, ascribing masculine and feminine terms to financial roles. Overall, financial inequalities resulted in perception of power imbalance and conflict.
Updated in light of recent research findings on fertilization, implantation and early pregnancy, this new edition combines the expertise of a wide range of internationally renowned authors to produce an authoritative, multidisciplinary approach to the management of first-trimester complications. Several international guidelines and consensus statements have been released since publication of the first edition and this has stimulated new focussed research questions that are addressed. The book's key recommendations provide clinicians with the tools to improve the patient's experience of the management of first-trimester complications. By combining essential elements of scientific research and clinical care, Early Pregnancy continues to set a benchmark for evidence-based management and will be essential reading for obstetricians, gynaecologists, neonatologists, ultrasonographers, and nurses seeking an understanding of the reproductive science of early pregnancy.
Surface velocity and deformation, radar sounding, and aerial photography data are used to describe the flow of Ross Ice Shelf around Crary Ice Rise. A continuous band of crevasses around the ice rise now allows the complete boundary to be mapped for the first time. The dynamics of three distinctly different areas of ice flow are studied. Just up-stream of the ice rise, there is a region of ice rumples dominated by intense longitudinal compression (0.01 a−1) and lateral tension. On the south-west side of the ice rise, intense shear (0.03 a−1) dominates, with the boundary layer of affected ice-shelf motion extending over 20 km from the ice-rise edge into the ice shelf. North-west of the ice rise, a crevasse-free block of ice, 40 km × 7 km, appears to have separated from the main ice rise and is now moving with the ice shelf. We refer to such moving blocks of ice as rafts. The separation of this raft is calculated to have occurred 20 ± 10 years ago. Other possible rafts are identified, including one on the south-west side of the ice rise which appears to be in the process of separating. Mechanisms for the formation of rafts are discussed.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.