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Orchestes fagi (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus; Fagaceae) in Europe that has recently become established and invasive on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) in Nova Scotia, Canada. We tested the effects of trap type, trap colour, trap height, and lure on the numbers of O. fagi captured per trap with the objective of developing a survey tool to monitor the weevil’s spread. We captured O. fagi in significantly greater numbers on yellow, green, or white traps than on light blue, dark blue, or red traps. There were no significant interactions between trap colour and trap design. Sticky triangular prism traps caught significantly more O. fagi than did nonsticky intercept traps regardless of colour. No effect of trap height was observed. Mean catch of O. fagi was significantly greater on yellow sticky triangular prism traps than on commercially sourced yellow sticky cards. Baiting yellow, green, or white sticky prism traps with the host volatile 9-geranyl-p-cymene did not increase catch of O. fagi. Our results suggest that yellow, green, or white sticky prism traps are a useful tool for detecting O. fagi adults and monitoring the spread of this species in Canada.
After observing wild chimpanzees in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire, for years, Professor Christophe Boesch and collaborators noticed behaviours indicating that the chimpanzees knew where they were heading hours before arrival. One can assume that animals living in such complex environments should possess developed cognitive abilities. To study their intelligence in the wild, we followed adult chimpanzees for long consecutive periods and collected detailed behavioural data including measurements of travel direction and distances, and feeding tree properties. We examined their spatial orientation abilities and found they travelled in a goal-directed manner, using different directions to reach the same feeding tree rather than using the same paths, which was consistent with the use of a Euclidean map. The content of their spatiotemporal memory, and revisiting and ranging behaviour, revealed that chimpanzees remembered the characteristics of the feeding trees and feeding experiences, and that the nutrient content of fruit impacted their travel path. Our investigations revealed that chimpanzees used many food-finding strategies, adding pieces to the puzzle of our closest relatives.
The green peafowl Pavo muticus is a highly threatened galliform species that was historically distributed widely across South-east Asia. Evidence shows a recent population decline and range contraction for this species, linked with habitat degradation and over-exploitation. This study aimed to determine the current known distribution across mainland South-east Asia and investigate potential habitat that could host remaining viable populations and contribute to the long-term survival of the species. We used locations from historical and recent records and habitat variables from a geographical information system database to model the probability of occurrence and classify key localities according to their relative importance for the species. Our results showed that the green peafowl probably occurs in less than 16% of its historical range across mainland South-east Asia and that remaining locations are fragmented. Four confirmed and two potential stronghold populations were identified for the species, based on the localities with high capacity to contribute to its long-term survival in large contiguous patches. These were in central Myanmar, western and northern Thailand, eastern Cambodia/south-central Viet Nam and northern Cambodia/southern Lao. Threats vary amongst countries, with continued habitat loss and degradation in many areas and hunting particularly acute in Viet Nam, Cambodia and Lao. Most of the remaining populations are in protected areas but the protection level varies widely. We propose conservation actions for each stronghold population, in accordance with the nature of the threats and protection level in each area, to prevent the local extinction of this species.
Multiple sclerosis is the leading non-traumatic cause of disability in young adults, affecting up to 100,000 Canadians. This chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system leads to irreversible neurologic disability if inadequately controlled. Though many current medications are available that reduce inflammatory damage, most patients continue to show some evidence of disease activity and accrue disability. In this review, we discuss the role of immune ablation followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), a therapeutic option for select patients with a more aggressive disease course. By “resetting” the immune system with a variety of ablative conditioning regimens, followed by immune reconstitution, this therapy has shown a durable response in halting evidence of inflammatory activity in most patients, without the need for continued disease-modifying therapies (DMT). Since the introduction of this therapy, there have been advances in patient selection and supportive care, such that morbidity has significantly declined and treatment-related mortality is minimized. Recent phase-II trials have shown excellent results in efficacy and safety of AHSCT; however, challenges exist which require ongoing study. The future challenges include comparing the variety of AHSCT conditioning regimens with each other as well as with existing highly effective DMT; identifying patients with an aggressive disease course through novel biomarkers who may benefit the most from AHSCT; and surveillance of long-term outcomes of different treatment protocols. In select patients, replacing the immune system with AHSCT holds promise of fundamentally altering the trajectory of their aggressive disease course.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Limited availability of fish oils (FO), rich in n-3 long-chain (≥C20) PUFA, is a major constraint for further growth of the aquaculture industry. Long-chain n-3 rich oils from crops GM with algal genes are promising new sources for the industry. This project studied the use of a newly developed n-3 canola oil (DHA-CA) in diets of Atlantic salmon fingerlings in freshwater. The DHA-CA oil has high proportions of the n-3 fatty acids (FA) 18 : 3n-3 and DHA and lower proportions of n-6 FA than conventional plant oils. Levels of phytosterols, vitamin E and minerals in the DHA-CA were within the natural variation of commercial canola oils. Pesticides, mycotoxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were below lowest qualifiable concentration. Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate effects of two dietary levels of DHA-CA compared with two dietary levels of FO at two water temperatures. Fish increased their weight approximately 20-fold at 16°C and 12-fold at 12°C during the experimental periods, with equal growth in salmon fed the FO diets compared with DHA-CA diets. Salmon fed DHA-CA diets had approximately the same EPA+DHA content in whole body as salmon fed FO diets. Gene expression, lipid composition and oxidative stress-related enzyme activities showed only minor differences between the dietary groups, and the effects were mostly a result of dietary oil level, rather than the oil source. The results demonstrated that DHA-CA is a safe and effective replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon during the sensitive fingerling life-stage.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic baits and attractants for fruit flies on the biology of its parasitoid Fopius arisanus. We tested two food-based attractants; hydrolysed corn protein (Biofruit® 3%) and sugarcane molasses (7%), their mixtures with spinosad and malathion-based insecticides, and a ready-to-use commercial bait (Success 0.02 CB®). Malathion-based lures were used as references for mortality (i.e., positive control), while negative control was honey. The formulations Biofruit® + malathion (T1), molasses + malathion (T2), and spinosad + molasses (T3) were toxic to F. arisanus, being classified as harmful (class 4). In addition, toxic baits composed of Biofruit + spinosad (T4) reduced parasitism by 97.99%, being rated as moderately harmful (class 3). Yet, Success 0.02 CB® (T7) was considered slightly toxic (class 2), causing a 64.55% reduction in parasitism. Regarding the biological parameters of F. arisanus, offspring number and parasitoid longevity were significantly reduced by using hydrolysed protein attractants when compared to the control (honey). However, sugarcane molasses improved parasitoid reproduction and longevity, as did the honey. Lastly, ingestion tests showed the major role of attractants in toxic-bait formulations against F. arisanus.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Background: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease due to mutation of the VPS13A gene encoding the protein chorein. ChAc is a slowly progressive disorder that typically presents in early adulthood, and whose clinical features include chorea and dystonia with involuntary lip, cheek and tongue biting. Some patients also have seizures. Treatment for ChAc is symptomatic. A small number of ChAc patients have been treated with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi), and we now present an additional case. Methods: Patient chart, functional measures, and laboratory findings were reviewed from the time of ChAc diagnosis until 6 months after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Results: Here we present a case of ChAc in a 31 year old male positive for VPS13A gene muations who presented with chorea, tongue biting, dysarthria, weight loss, and mild cognitive dysfunction. GPi-DBS using monopolar stimulation was associated with significant improvement in chorea and dysarthria. Conclusions: This case adds to the current state of knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of bilateral GPi-DBS for symptomatic control of drug-resistant hyperkinetic movements seen in ChAc. Controlled trials are needed to better assess the impact of DBS in ChAc.
Many foreign aid donors brand development interventions. How do citizens in the donor country react to seeing this branding in action? We test the proposition that citizens will express higher levels of support for foreign aid when they see a branded foreign aid project relative to seeing the same project without branding. We present results from a survey-based laboratory experiment conducted in the United Kingdom where subjects learned about a typical foreign aid project and received a randomized UK branding treatment. Our results suggest that the branding treatments increase the likelihood that donor country respondents believe that aid recipients can identify the source of the foreign aid. Only among conservative respondents, however, does the evidence imply that branding increases support for foreign aid. “UK aid” branding increases conservative opinion that aid dollars are well spent and increases support among this group for the expansion of foreign aid.
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Delirium, a form of acute brain dysfunction, characterized by changes in attention and alertness, is a known independent predictor of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We sought to understand whether catatonia, a more recently recognized form of acute brain dysfunction, is associated with increased 30-day mortality in critically ill older adults. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Coma, was defined as a Richmond Agitation Scale score of −4 or −5. We used the Cox Proportional Hazards model predicting 30-day mortality after adjusting for delirium, coma and catatonia status. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We enrolled 335 medical, surgical or trauma critically ill patients with 1103 matched delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 58 years (IQR: 48 - 67). Main indications for admission to the ICU included: airway disease or protection (32%; N=100) or sepsis and/or shock (25%; N=79. In the unadjusted analysis, regardless of the presence of catatonia, non-delirious individuals have the highest median survival times, while delirious patients have the lowest median survival time. Comparing the absence and presence of catatonia, the presence of catatonia worsens survival (Figure 1). In a time-dependent Cox model, comparing non-delirious individuals, holding catatonia status constant, delirious individuals have 1.72 times the hazards of death (IQR: 1.321, 2.231) while those with coma have 5.48 times the hazards of death (IQR: 4.298, 6.984). For DSM-5 catatonia scores, a 1-unit increase in the score is associated with 1.18 times the hazards of in-hospital mortality. Comparing two individuals with the same delirium status, an individual with a DSM-5 catatonia score of 0 (no catatonia) will have 1.178 times the hazard of death (IQR: 1.086, 1.278), while an individual with a score of 3 catatonia items (catatonia) present will have 1.63 times the hazard of death. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Non-delirious individuals have the highest median survival times, while those who are comatose have the lowest median survival times after a critical illness, holding catatonia status constant. Comparing the absence and presence of catatonia, the presence of catatonia seems to worsen survival. Those individual who are both comatose and catatonic have the lowest median survival time.
One of the most important and valuable resources available to researchers of eighteenth-century social history are the lists of subscribers that were attached to a wide variety of publications. Yet, the study of this type of resource remains one of the areas most neglected by academics. These lists shed considerable light on the nature of those who subscribed to music, including their social status, place of employment, residence, and musical interests. They naturally also provide details as to the gender of individual subscribers.
As expected, subscribers to most musical publications were male, but the situation changed considerably as the century progressed, with more females subscribing to the latest works by the early nineteenth century. There was also a marked difference in the proportion of male and female subscribers between works issued in the capital cities of London and Edinburgh and those written for different genres. Female subscribers also appear on lists to works that they would not ordinarily be permitted to play. Ultimately, a broad analysis of a large number of subscription lists not only provides a greater insight into the social and economic changes that took place in Britain over the course of the eighteenth century, but also reveals the types of music that were favoured by the members of each gender.
The total 14C content and its speciation (inorganic/organic) were measured in spent ion exchange resins (SIERs) received from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Also, 14C release from SIERs was investigated by desorption tests carried out in alkaline solution relevant for cementitious environment disposal. The method used for total 14C measurement consists of combustion in oxygen-rich atmosphere, while for speciation measurements, both in SIERs and in desorption solutions, an analytical method based on acid stripping and wet oxidation was applied. Around 97% from the total 14C inventory measured on the Cernavoda SIERs (33.7 kBq/g) was found to be in inorganic form and only 7% as organic 14C. Under alkaline conditions, 14C could be released both as gaseous and as soluble species: from the total 14C present in the SIERs samples around 7% was released as inorganic 14C in the gas phase and 79% as dissolved species (mainly as inorganic 14C). These percentages were obtained for unconditioned SIERs in NaOH solution. The SIERs will be immobilized in a suitable matrix for disposal, and the presence of Ca ions dissolved in cement pore water favor precipitation of 14C and consequently the amount of 14C released from disposal area should be lower.
The origins of agriculture in South-west Asia is a topic of continued archaeological debate. Of particular interest is how agricultural populations and practices spread inter-regionally. Was the Arabian Neolithic, for example, spread through the movement of pastoral groups, or did ideas perhaps develop independently? Here, the authors report on recent excavations at Alshabah, one of the first Neolithic sites discovered in Northern Arabia. The site’s material culture, environmental context and chronology provide evidence suggesting that well-adapted, seasonally mobile, pastoralist groups played a key role in the Neolithisation of the Arabian Peninsula.
Human fascioliasis is a worldwide, pathogenic food-borne trematodiasis. Impressive clinical pictures comprising puzzling polymorphisms, manifestation multifocality, disease evolution changes, sequelae and mortality, have been reported in patients presenting with neurological, meningeal, neuropsychic and ocular disorders caused at distance by flukes infecting the liver. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analyses of the Fasciola hepatica excretome/secretome identified numerous, several new, plasminogen-binding proteins enhancing plasmin generation. This may underlie blood-brain barrier leakage whether by many simultaneously migrating, small-sized juvenile flukes in the acute phase, or by breakage of encapsulating formations triggered by single worm tracks in the chronic phase. Blood-brain barrier leakages may subsequently occur due to a fibrinolytic system-dependent mechanism involving plasmin-dependent generation of the proinflammatory peptide bradykinin and activation of bradykinin B2 receptors, after different plasminogen-binding protein agglomeration waves. Interactions between diverse parasitic situations and non-imbalancing fibrinolysis system alterations are for the first time proposed that explain the complexity, heterogeneity and timely variations of neurological disorders. Additionally, inflammation and dilation of blood vessels may be due to contact system–dependent generation bradykinin. This baseline allows for search of indicators to detect neurological risk in fascioliasis patients and experimental work on antifibrinolytic treatments or B2 receptor antagonists for preventing blood-brain barrier leakage.
40% of people with dementia have disturbed sleep but there are currently no known effective treatments. Studies of sleep hygiene and light therapy have not been powered to indicate feasibility and acceptability and have shown 40–50% retention. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session manualized evidence-based non-pharmacological therapy; Dementia RElAted Manual for Sleep; STrAtegies for RelaTives (DREAMS-START) for sleep disturbance in people with dementia.
We conducted a parallel, two-armed, single-blind randomized trial and randomized 2:1 to intervention: Treatment as Usual. Eligible participants had dementia and sleep disturbances (scoring ≥4 on one Sleep Disorders Inventory item) and a family carer and were recruited from two London memory services and Join Dementia Research. Participants wore an actiwatch for two weeks pre-randomization. Trained, clinically supervised psychology graduates delivered DREAMS-START to carers randomized to intervention; covering Understanding sleep and dementia; Making a plan (incorporating actiwatch information, light exposure using a light box); Daytime activity and routine; Difficult night-time behaviors; Taking care of your own (carer's) sleep; and What works? Strategies for the future. Carers kept their manual, light box, and relaxation recordings post-intervention. Outcome assessment was masked to allocation. The co-primary outcomes were feasibility (≥50% eligible people consenting to the study) and acceptability (≥75% of intervention group attending ≥4 intervention sessions).
In total, 63out of 95 (66%; 95% CI: 56–76%) eligible referrals consented between 04/08/2016 and 24/03/2017; 62 (65%; 95% CI: 55–75%) were randomized, and 37 out of 42 (88%; 95% CI: 75–96%) adhered to the intervention.
DREAM-START for sleep disorders in dementia is feasible and acceptable.