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For families of smooth complex projective varieties, we show that normal functions arising from algebraically trivial cycle classes are algebraic and defined over the field of definition of the family. In particular, the zero loci of those functions are algebraic and defined over such a field of definition. This proves a conjecture of Charles.
To verify the previously untested assumption that eating more salad enhances vegetable intake and determine if salad consumption is in fact associated with higher vegetable intake and greater adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations.
Individuals were classified as salad reporters or non-reporters based upon whether they consumed a salad composed primarily of raw vegetables on the intake day. Regression analyses were applied to calculate adjusted estimates of food group intakes and assess the likelihood of meeting Healthy US-Style Food Pattern recommendations by salad reporting status.
Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2011–2014 in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
US adults (n 9678) aged ≥20 years (excluding pregnant and lactating women).
On the intake day, 23 % of adults ate salad. The proportion of individuals reporting salad varied by sex, age, race, income, education and smoking status (P<0·001). Compared with non-reporters, salad reporters consumed significantly larger quantities of vegetables (total, dark green, red/orange and other), which translated into a two- to threefold greater likelihood of meeting recommendations for these food groups. More modest associations were observed between salad consumption and differences in intake and likelihood of meeting recommendations for protein foods (total and seafood), oils and refined grains.
Study results confirm the DGA message that incorporating more salads in the diet is one effective strategy (among others, such as eating more cooked vegetables) to augment vegetable consumption and adherence to dietary recommendations concerning vegetables.
We show that the image of the Abel–Jacobi map admits functorially a model over the field of definition, with the property that the Abel–Jacobi map is equivariant with respect to this model. The cohomology of this abelian variety over the base field is isomorphic as a Galois representation to the deepest part of the coniveau filtration of the cohomology of the projective variety. Moreover, we show that this model over the base field is dominated by the Albanese variety of a product of components of the Hilbert scheme of the projective variety, and thus we answer a question of Mazur. We also recover a result of Deligne on complete intersections of Hodge level 1.
A conjecture of Orlov predicts that derived equivalent smooth projective varieties over a field have isomorphic Chow motives. The conjecture is known for curves, and was recently observed for surfaces by Huybrechts. In this paper we focus on threefolds over perfect fields, and unconditionally secure results, which are implied by Orlov's conjecture, concerning the geometric coniveau filtration, and abelian varieties attached to smooth projective varieties.
The present study examines the influence of language proficiency and language combination on bilingual lexical access using category fluency in 109 healthy speakers. Participants completed a category fluency task in each of their languages in three main categories (animals, clothing, and food), each with two subcategories, as well as a language use questionnaire assessing their proficiency. Five language combinations were examined (Hindi–English, Kannada–English, Mandarin–English, Spanish–English, and Turkish–English). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that the average number of correct items named in the category fluency task across the three main categories varied across the different groups only in English and not the other language. Further, results showed that language exposure composite (extracted from the questionnaire using a principal component analysis) significantly affected the average number of items named across the three main categories. Overall, these results demonstrate the effects of particular language combinations on bilingual lexical access and provide important insights into the role of proficiency on access.
Multicaloric materials show thermal changes that can be driven simultaneously or sequentially by more than one type of external field. The use of more than one driving field can induce larger thermal changes, with smaller field magnitudes, over wider ranges of operating temperature, and can also eliminate hysteresis in one control parameter by transferring it to another. The thermodynamics behind multicaloric effects is well established, but only a small number of multicaloric materials have been experimentally studied to date. Here, we describe the fundamentals of multicaloric effects and discuss the performance of representative multicaloric materials. Exploiting multicaloric effects could aid the future development of cooling devices, where key challenges include energy efficiency and the span of the operating temperature.
What does queer mean? And how does identifying as queer affect one’s day-to-day life in the arena of materials science and engineering (MSE)? Although when I was growing up, “queer” was treated as an offensive term, queer has been adopted by a growing number of folks who do not conform to traditional societal conventions.1 This encompasses lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, non-binary, intersex, asexual or other broadly related groups (LGBTQ+), and any similarly aligned subpopulations of humanity that can be broadly defined as gender and sexual minorities (GSM).2–4 Identity is an important attribute that has been tied to the effectiveness of efforts to broaden participation in science5 and engineering.6,7 Identity is important because our sense of self is derived from others, as are the social constructs that establish hierarchies on what is desirable or normal.8 If we associate success in a particular career path with a particular identity (e.g., heterosexual, cis-gender, white male), and our identity is other than that, we may carry an extra burden in achieving success in that career path.9 And, as we all have multiple identities (race, ethnicity, gender, religion) based upon various aspects of our backgrounds, it is evident that personal identities that coincide with the norms of a particular professional role are the easiest. The impacts of identity on self-efficacy are inherent to both imposter syndrome10 and stereotype threat.11
For more than a century, humankind has achieved refrigeration by exploiting volatile gases that harm the environment when released to the atmosphere. More recently, the observation of electrocaloric effects in commercial multilayer capacitors has inspired the possibility of environmentally friendly cooling. In this article, we describe electrocaloric effects in multilayer capacitors for cooling applications, compare the electrocaloric performance of existing multilayer capacitors, and discuss the improvements required for practical cooling devices.
Individuals who have experienced high levels of childhood stress are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems that persist into adulthood, yet the neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Many of the difficulties observed in stress-exposed children involve problems with learning and inhibitory control. This experiment was designed to test individuals' ability to learn to inhibit responding during a laboratory task. To do so, we measured stress exposure among a community sample of school-aged children, and then followed these children for a decade. Those from the highest and lowest quintiles of childhood stress exposure were invited to return to our laboratory as young adults. At that time, we reassessed their life stress exposure, acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data during an inhibitory control task, and assayed these individuals' levels of methylation in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene. We found that individuals who experienced high levels of stress in childhood showed less differentiation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex between error and correct trials during inhibition. This effect was associated only with childhood stress exposure and not by current levels of stress in adulthood. In addition, FKBP5 methylation mediated the association between early life stress and inhibition-related prefrontal activity. These findings are discussed in terms of using multiple levels of analyses to understand the ways in which adversity in early development may affect adult behavioral adaptation.
Because the Anthropocene by definition is an epoch during which environmental change is largely anthropogenic and driven by social, economic, psychological and political forces, environmental social scientists can effectively analyse human behaviour and knowledge systems in this context. In this subject review, we summarize key ways in which the environmental social sciences can better inform fisheries management policy and practice and marine conservation in the Anthropocene. We argue that environmental social scientists are particularly well positioned to synergize research to fill the gaps between: (1) local behaviours/needs/worldviews and marine resource management and biological conservation concerns; and (2) large-scale drivers of planetary environmental change (globalization, affluence, technological change, etc.) and local cognitive, socioeconomic, cultural and historical processes that shape human behaviour in the marine environment. To illustrate this, we synthesize the roles of various environmental social science disciplines in better understanding the interaction between humans and tropical marine ecosystems in developing nations where issues arising from human–coastal interactions are particularly pronounced. We focus on: (1) the application of the environmental social sciences in marine resource management and conservation; (2) the development of ‘new’ socially equitable marine conservation; (3) repopulating the seascape; (4) incorporating multi-scale dynamics of marine social–ecological systems; and (5) envisioning the future of marine resource management and conservation for producing policies and projects for comprehensive and successful resource management and conservation in the Anthropocene.
Anthracycline cardiotoxicity is an important side-effect in long-term childhood cancer survivors. We evaluated the incidence of and factors associated with anthracycline cardiotoxicity in a population of patients diagnosed with bone or soft tissue sarcoma.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively enrolled patients diagnosed with bone or soft tissue sarcoma, from 1995 to 2011, treated with anthracycline chemotherapy at our Centre and with a follow-up echocardiography carried out ⩾3 years from cardiotoxic therapy completion. Cardiac toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0.
A total of 82 patients were eligible. The median age at treatment was 11.9 years (1.44–18). We evaluated the median cumulative anthracycline dose, age at treatment, sex, thoracic radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment as possible risk factors for cardiotoxicity. The median cumulative anthracycline dose was 390.75 mg/m2 (80–580). Of the 82 patients, 12 (14.6%) developed cardiotoxicity with grade ⩾2 ejection fraction decline: four patients were asymptomatic and did not receive any treatment; six patients were treated with pharmacological heart failure therapy; one patient with severe cardiomyopathy underwent heart transplantation and did not need any further treatment; and one patient died while waiting for heart transplantation. The median time at cardiac toxicity, from the end of anthracycline frontline chemotherapy, was 4.2 years (0.05–9.6). Cumulative anthracycline dose ⩾300 mg/m2 (p 0.04) was the only risk factor for cardiotoxicity on statistical analyses.
In our population, the cumulative incidence of cardiotoxicity is comparable to rates in the literature. This underlines the need for primary prevention and lifelong cardiac toxicity surveillance programmes in long-term childhood cancer survivors.
In this paper, motivated by a problem posed by Barry Mazur, we show that for smooth projective varieties over the rationals, the odd cohomology groups of degree less than or equal to the dimension can be modeled by the cohomology of an abelian variety, provided the geometric coniveau is maximal. This provides an affirmative answer to Mazur’s question for all uni-ruled threefolds, for instance. Concerning cohomology in degree three, we show that the image of the Abel–Jacobi map admits a distinguished model over the rationals.
Evolution of cold dry snow and firn plays important roles in glaciology; however, the physical formulation of a densification law is still an active research topic. We forced eight firn-densification models and one seasonal-snow model in six different experiments by imposing step changes in temperature and accumulation-rate boundary conditions; all of the boundary conditions were chosen to simulate firn densification in cold, dry environments. While the intended application of the participating models varies, they are describing the same physical system and should in principle yield the same solutions. The firn models all produce plausible depth-density profiles, but the model outputs in both steady state and transient modes differ for quantities that are of interest in ice core and altimetry research. These differences demonstrate that firn-densification models are incorrectly or incompletely representing physical processes. We quantitatively characterize the differences among the results from the various models. For example, we find depth-integrated porosity is unlikely to be inferred with confidence from a firn model to better than 2 m in steady state at a specific site with known accumulation rate and temperature. Firn Model Intercomparison Experiment can provide a benchmark of results for future models, provide a basis to quantify model uncertainties and guide future directions of firn-densification modeling.
Sparassodonta is a diverse group of extinct metatherian predators that include forms with diets ranging from omnivores to hypercarnivores, including potential bone-crushers and sabre-tooth specialised species. Most of the previous dietary studies on the group were based on qualitative approaches or dental morphometric indexes and/or bite force estimations. In this study, we explore the evolution of mandible shape and diet of Sparassodonta in a comparative phylogenetic framework, using geometric morphometric tools and allometric and discriminant analyses. We analysed the mandible shape of 142 extant species of marsupials and placental carnivores, and 15 fossil sparassodont species. We found that the relationship between shape and size of the mandible is strongly structured by phylogeny, where the more derived borhyaenoids tend to possess stronger and larger mandibles. Derived borhyaenoid sparassodonts and basal borhyaenoids were classified as hypercarnivores (with short and robust mandibular body). Hathliacynid were classified as mesocarnivores or as hypercarnivores, but with lower probabilities and less specialised morphologies (with a long and slender mandible). Although dental morphology suggests that most of the species of Sparassodonta would have been hypercarnivores, the robustness of the mandible seems to be informative regarding the prey size and degree of specialisation. The relationship between mandibular size and shape, and talonid/trigonid relative size, is strongly influenced by the phylogenetic legacy, suggesting that ecological factors could have influenced the evolution of the sparassodonts.
We present the results of five years of high precision radial velocity (RV) monitoring of the α Centauri system. Observations were performed with the ESO 1.4m CAT telescope and the Coudé Echelle Spectrometer (CES) on La Silla. From the achieved RV precision we establish the detection threshold for Jovian planets in orbit around α Centauri A & B. Together with the known dynamical limits for stable planetary orbits we can set strong constraints on the presence of giant planets in our neighbouring binary system.
We present results from our precision radial velocity (RV) program at ESO La Silla. The achievable RV precision after the upgrade of the CES spectrograph is demonstrated. We apply the method of pooled variance diagrams to compare our short-term with our long-term precision. For the active planet-hosting star ι Hor we determine the influence of stellar activity and the rotation period, and address the question of a second long-period planet. For the RV signal in ∊ Eri we demonstrate the distinctness of the time scales present in the RV and Call data, providing further support for the planetary interpretation in this active star.
Public agencies at all levels of government and other organizations that manage archaeological resources often face the problem of many undertakings that collectively impact large numbers of individually significant archaeological resources. Such situations arise when an agency is managing a large area, such as a national forest, land management district, park unit, wildlife refuge, or military installation. These situations also may arise in regard to large-scale development projects, such as energy developments, highways, reservoirs, transmission lines, and other major infrastructure projects that cover substantial areas. Over time, the accumulation of impacts from small-scale projects to individual archaeological resources may degrade landscape or regional-scale cultural phenomena. Typically, these impacts are mitigated at the site level without regard to how the impacts to individual resources affect the broader population of resources. Actions to mitigate impacts rarely are designed to do more than avoid resources or ensure some level of data recovery at single sites. Such mitigation activities are incapable of addressing research question at a landscape or regional scale.