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The present study aimed to examine the key influences on infant and child feeding practices among a Marshallese community at each social ecological level. It is the first study to examine the key influences on infant and child feeding practices with Marshallese immigrant women in the USA and helps fill a gap in the previous literature that has included other immigrant women.
Community-based participatory research design with twenty-seven participants taking part in four qualitative focus groups.
The study took place within the Marshallese community in Arkansas, USA.
Participants included Marshallese women with children aged 1–3 years and/or caregivers. Caregivers were defined as someone other than the parent who cares for children. Caregivers were often older women in the Marshallese community.
There were five primary themes within multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. At the intrapersonal level, mothers’ and caregivers’ autonomy emerged. At the interpersonal level, child-led and familial influences emerged. At the organizational level, health-care provider influences emerged; and at the policy level, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children emerged as the most salient influence.
Marshallese immigrant women’s infant and child feeding practices are influenced at intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational and policy levels. Understanding these multidimensional influences is necessary to inform the creation of culturally tailored interventions to reduce health disparities within the Marshallese community.
The construct of self-concept lies at the core of the positive psychology revolution. Historically, as one of the cornerstone constructs in the social sciences, the approach to self-concept has been adapted to focus on how healthy individuals can thrive in life. In this chapter we differentiate between the historical unidimensional perspective of self-concept (centered on self-esteem) and the evolving multifaceted models discriminating between different aspects of self (such as specific academic, social, physical, and emotional components).
the definition of self-concept and the reason it is so important;
historical and evolving perspectives of self-concept;
general and domain-specific theoretical models with associated empirical research regarding self-concept, motivation, and performance;
the way different self-concept domains vary as a function of gender and age;
the impact of specific psychological and social traits on self-concept development;
the differentiation between multidimensional perspectives of personality and self-concept;
theoretical models of academic self-concept formation and its relation to achievement;
frame of reference effects in self-concept formation;
a construct-validity approach to self-concept enhancement interventions; and directions for further research.
Introduction: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) are questionnaires that can be used to elicit care outcome information from patients. We sought to develop and validate the first PROM for adult patients without a primary mental health or addictions presentation receiving emergency department (ED) care and who were not hospitalized. Methods: PROM development used a multi-phase process based on national and international guidance (FDA, NQF, ISPOR). Phase 1: ED outcome conceptual framework qualitative interviews with ED patients post-discharge informed four core domains (previously published). Phase 2: Item generation scoping review of the literature and existing instruments identified candidate questions relevant for each domain for inclusion in tool. Phase 3: Cognitive debriefing existing and newly written questions were tested with ED patients post-discharge for comprehension and wording preference. Phase 4: Field and validity testing revised tool pilot tested on a national online survey panel and then again at 2 weeks (test-retest). Phase 5: Final item reduction using a Delphi process involving ED clinicians, researchers, patients and system administrators. Phase 6: Validation - psychometric testing of PROM-ED 1.0. Results: Four core outcome domains were defined in Phase 1: (1) understanding; (2) symptom relief; (3) reassurance and (4) having a plan. The domains informed a review of existing relevant questionnaires and instruments and the writing of additional questions creating an initial long-form questionnaire. Eight patients participated in cognitive debriefing of the long-form questionnaire. Expert clinicians, researchers and patient partners provided input on item refinement and reduction. Four hundred forty-four patients completed a second version of the long-form questionnaire (add in retest numbers) which informed the final item reduction process by a modified Delphi method involving 21 diverse contributors. The questionnaire was validated and underwent final revisions to create the 21 questions that constitute PROM-ED 1.0. Conclusion: Using accepted PROM instrument development methodology, we developed the first outcome questionnaire for use with adult ED patients who are not hospitalized. This questionnaire can be used to systematically gather patient-reported outcome information that could support and inform improvement work in ED care.
Commission 36 acts as a sponsor or co-sponsor at the following symposi and colloquia: IAU Colloquium No. 90 “Upper Main Sequence Stars with Anomalous Abundances”, Crima, USSR (May 1985), IAU Colloquium No. 89 “Radiation Hydrodynamics in Stars and Compact Objects”, Copenhagen, Denmark (June 1985), IAU Symposium No. 120 “Astrochemistry”, Goa, India (December 1985), IAU Colloquium No. 87 “Hydrogen Deficient Stars and Related Objects”, Bangalore, India (December 1985).
Commission 36 acts as a cosponsor of the following Symposia: (1) IAU Symposium No. 102 “Solar and Stellar Magnetic Fields: Origin and Coronal Effects” Zurich, Switzerland (2-6 August 1982) and (2) IAU Symposium No. 103 “Planetary Nebulae” London, UK (10-1U August 1982). The commission participates jointly with Commissions 29, 35, and 45 in the organization of a Joint Discussion at the IXth General Assembly on the topic “Mass-Loss-Phenomena”.
The existence of coronal plasmoids has been postulated for many years in order to supply material to streamers and possibly to the solar wind (SW). The W-L SoHO C2 Lasco coronagraph observations were made under the 2.2 solar radii (R0) occulting disk to look at the ultimate sources of the SW; EUV imagers are preferably devoted to the analysis of the corona on and very near the solar disk. Here, in addition to eclipse white-light (W-L) snapshots, we used the new SWAP space-borne imager designed for the systematic survey of coronal activity in the EUV lines near 17.4 nm, over a field of view (FOV) up to 2 R0. Using summed and co-aligned images, the corona can then be evaluated for the 1st time up to the limit of this FOV. At the time of the July 11, 2010, solar total eclipse a 20h continuous run of observations was collected, including images taken during eclipse totality from several ground observing locations where W-L data were collected. A plasmoid-like off-limb event was followed using the SWAP summed
Nicotine dependence has been shown to represent a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder though only a limited number of the findings have been replicated.
In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for nicotine dependence was conducted in a community sample of 950 probands and 1204 relatives recruited through the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. A modified version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) with additional questions that probe nicotine use was used to derive DSM-IV nicotine dependence diagnoses.
A locus on chromosome 2q31.1 at 184 centiMorgans nearest to marker D2S2188 yielded a logarithm (base 10) of odds (LOD) score of 3.54 (point-wise empirical p=0.000012). Additional peaks of interest were identified on chromosomes 2q13, 4p15.33-31, 11q25 and 12p11.23-21. Follow-up analyses were conducted examining the contributions of individual nicotine dependence symptoms to the chromosome 2q31.1 linkage peak as well as examining the relationship of this chromosomal region to alcohol dependence.
The present report suggests that chromosome 2q31.1 confers risk to the development of nicotine dependence and that this region influences a broad range of nicotine dependence symptoms rather than a specific facet of the disorder. Further, the results show that this region is not linked to alcohol dependence in this population, and thus may influence nicotine dependence specifically.
Subcutaneous injection of the larvae is the almost universally adopted means of initiating experimental infections of skin-invading roundworms but, so far, the possibility that this procedure introduses artefacts of one kind or another has not been critically studied. Experiments described in this paper were used to compare the effect of (a) injection and (b) skin application, of a small, precisely counted (‘exact’) dose of larvae. Results with two strains of s. ratti shoewed that the same proportion the dose developed to adults in the intestines of rats irrespective of the method. With the same exact dose technique it has been shown that milk-borne infection of the pups of lactating rats is not an artefact produced by injectcion. Large doses (mean 4000) of larvae of the homogonic strain of s. ratti carrying a radioactive label of 75 Se were tracked in their migration to the mammary gland following injection or skin application at two different sites on the right-hand side of nursing mother rats. The broad conclusion of earlier work in this laboratory using injection. that larvae move by a local route and not a systemic one, was supported by the results. The detailed distribution of the label and of unlabelled worms of the heterogonic strain in families was, however, different for the methods. indicating that subtle variations in pathway can be brought about by the use of injection. If migration involves the Lymphatic system, then the interpretation of immunological experiments in terms of Lymphatic anatomy must take account of such procedural effects. The extent to which these results contribute to theories of migration in Strongyloides ratti is discussed.
A net sample of phytoplankton taken in the outer Moray Firth in which there were many cells of R. hebetata forma semispina and several cells of R. hebetata forma hiemalis (Fig. 1 a, b) was also found to contain cells either with one forma semispina calyptra or one forma hiemalis calyptra, in which the cell wall changed abruptly at the opposite end to a thin weakly silicified, sometimes almost membranous structure, ending in a central, broadly conical apex with a delicate hollow spine (Fig. 2j, k). The perizonium like appearance of one end of these cells suggested that they might be a stage in the development of the auxospore in R. hebetata Bailey (sensu Gran).