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The deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium of the ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs), as measured by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission in the Earth’s turbulent magnetosheath, is quantitatively investigated. Making use of the unprecedented high-resolution MMS ion data, and together with Vlasov–Maxwell simulations, this analysis aims at investigating the relationship between deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium and typical plasma parameters. Correlations of the non-Maxwellian features with plasma quantities such as electric fields, ion temperature, current density and ion vorticity are found to be similar in magnetosheath data and numerical experiments, with a poor correlation between distortions of ion VDFs and current density, evidence that questions the occurrence of VDF departure from Maxwellian at the current density peaks. Moreover, strong correlation has been observed with the magnitude of the electric field in the turbulent magnetosheath, while a certain degree of correlation has been found in the numerical simulations and during a magnetopause crossing by MMS. This work could help shed light on the influence of electrostatic waves on the distortion of the ion VDFs in space turbulent plasmas.
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness.
Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated.
Results Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated?
Conclusions ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1–0) line emission and followup Hα imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1–0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities. CO(1–0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)×109M⊙. The Hα imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star formation rates vary between from 0.2 – 1.0 M7odot; yr-1, which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study shows that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks may contain molecular gas and have star formation rates similar to galaxies in denser environments.
Nitrogen-doped carbons nanoballs were synthesized from an organic liquid precursor (a mixture of benzene and pyrazine) by solution plasma process. After synthesis, they were further annealed at 700 and 900 °C under N2 atmosphere. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanoballs before and after thermal annealing process exhibit a similar morphological feature, and their diameters are in the range between 20 and 40 nm. With higher annealing temperature, the graphitization of the nitrogen-doped carbon nanoballs increases. For the electrocatalytic activity in an alkaline solution, the limiting current density and onset potential for the ORR activity can be significantly improved for the samples after thermal annealing at 900 °C. We anticipate that solution plasma process will be a viable alternative way for synthesizing heteroatom-doped carbon electrocatalysts for broad application in the field of fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and supercapacitors.
The Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is an ongoing time-series, near-infrared (IR) survey of the Galactic bulge and an adjacent portion of the inner disk, covering 562 square degrees of the sky, using ESO's VISTA telescope. The survey has provided superb multi-color photometry in 5 broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, and Ks), leading to the best map of the inner Milky Way ever obtained, particularly in the near-IR. The main part of the survey, which is focused on the variability in the Ks-band, is currently underway, with bulge fields observed between 34 and 73 times, and disk fields between 34 and 36 times. When the survey is complete, bulge (disk) fields will have been observed up to a total of 100 (60) times, providing unprecedented depth and time coverage in the near-IR. Here we provide a first overview of stellar variability in the VVV data.
Relative stabilities and electronic structure of graphene/h-BN superlattices are discussed in the framework of the density functional theory. Most importantly, relative stabilities between commensurate and incommensurate superlattices are studied. Commensurate graphene/h-BN monolayer superlattices are found to be definitely more stable than incommensurate superlattices. In graphene/h-BN bilayer superlattices, commensurate superlattices are found to be slightly more stable than incommensurate superlattices. Results also imply that a finite pressure can induce transition from an incommensurate superlattice to a commensurate superlattice.
Herein, we investigated the effects of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) in their native and co-assembled forms as a thin layer on Pt nanoparticle-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/MWCNTs) toward the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The co-assembled conducting PANI-PPY deposited Pt/MWCNTs was successfully synthesized and demonstrated significant enhancement of the electro-catalytic activity and stability toward EOR as revealed by electrochemical characterizations. The presented results indicate that in the co-assembled form, PANI and PPY retained their own superior effects on the enhancement of stability and catalytic activity via intermediate species removal and ethanol adsorption, respectively. This preliminary result reveals a new strategy for the use of conducting polymers as potential catalyst supports due to its facile fabrication and functionalization, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness in comparison to alloys and metal oxides, factors which are necessary for the practical application of direct ethanol fuel cells in the near future.
Population data on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms can help determine whether hypothesized subtypes of CD are sufficiently disparate in their familial, psychiatric and life course correlates to distinguish separate diagnostic entities.
Latent class analysis (LCA) of CD symptoms occurring before age 15 was conducted in a national sample of adults aged 18–44 years from the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Associations of latent class membership with parental behavior problems, onset of psychiatric disorders and anti-social behaviors after age 15, adolescent life events (e.g. high school drop-out), and past-year life events (e.g. divorce/separation, bankruptcy) were estimated.
LCA identified a no-CD class with low prevalence of all symptoms, three intermediate classes – deceit/theft, rule violations, aggression – and a severe class. The prevalence of CD, according to DSM-IV criteria, was 0% in the no-CD class, between 13.33% and 33.69% in the intermediate classes and 62.20% in the severe class. Latent class membership is associated with all the familial, psychiatric and life course outcomes examined. Among the intermediate classes, risk for subsequent mood/anxiety disorders and anti-social behavior was higher in the deceit/theft and aggressive classes than in the rule violations class. However, risk for adolescent life events is highest in the rule violations class.
CD symptoms tend to occur in a partially ordered set of classes in the general population. Prognostically meaningful distinctions can be drawn between classes, but only at low levels of symptoms.
We present new, wide, and deep images in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm continuum and the 12 CO (J = 1–0) emission toward the northern part of the Orion-A GMC. We have found evidence for interactions between molecular clouds and the external forces that may trigger star formation. Two types of possible triggers were revealed: (1) Collisions of the diffuse gas on the cloud surface, particularly at the eastern side of the OMC-2/3 region, and (2) Irradiation of UV on the pre-existing filaments and dense molecular cloud cores. Our wide-field and high-sensitivity imaging has provided the first comprehensive view of the potential sites of triggered star formation in the Orion-A GMC.
Traditionally, the synthesis of resorcinol formaldehyde (R/F) aerogels consists of a 2-step (base/acid catalysis) polycondensation reaction. Since the acid catalyst in the reaction controls the gelation time, the replacement of the acid catalyst with a non-ionic photo-acid generator decreased the gelation time from hours, down to a few minutes at room temperature using a UV light source. The reaction rate was not only fast, but the liquid precursor was stable for several hours prior to UV exposure. After drying, the resulting aerogel porosity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confirmed the internal structure of the aerogel was similar to the original R/F pore structures. This paper will discuss the modifications made to the traditional R/F formulation, as well as the benefits of a fast gelation time for aerogel casting applications such as thin films, cylinders, and solid and hollow microspheres.
Resorcinol formaldehyde (R/F) aerogels have been used in a variety of laser targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in the form of thin films, cast shapes such as cylinders and cubes, and hollow and solid microspheres. Besides ICF experiments, R/F aerogel can be used for capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, absorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packing applications. Traditionally, R/F aerogel is synthesized using a 2-step (base/acid catalysis) polycondensation reaction. We have developed a novel process to synthesize the R/F aerogel using free radical UV initiator at room temperature in 10 minutes using a UV light source. This paper will review this process, which was developed to synthesize R/F aerogels using UV-free radical initiators. Scanning electron microscopy results will also be discussed to show that the aerogel pore structure is similar to traditional R/F aerogels. Fabrication of solid and hollow microspheres for ICF experiments using this R/F aerogel synthesis technique and the technique’s limitations will also be discussed.
Over the next 5 years the VVV collaboration (Vista Variable in the Via Lactea) will conduct an extensive survey of the galactic bulge and disk in the near-IR, using the new VISTA telescope. This public survey covers a field of 520 sqr. deg, including not only regions of high star formation, but also 33 known globular clusters and ~350 open clusters. The final product will be a deep IR atlas in 5 passbands for ~109 point sources among which we expect 106 variable stars. These will be produce a 3-D map of the surveyed region using well-understood primary distance indicators such as RR Lyrae stars. The observations will be combined with data from MACHO, OGLE, EROS, VST, Spitzer, HST, Chandra, Integral, and ALMA for a complete understanding of the variable sources in the inner Milky Way. Several important implications for the history of the Milky Way, for globular cluster evolution, for the population census of the bulge and center, and for the pulsation theory will follow from this survey.
Adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilatory peptide. The mechanisms of adrenomedullin-induced responses are via guanine nucleotide guanosine 5′-triphosphate-binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor activation and are similar to those of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Previously, we reported that sevoflurane and isoflurane inhibit CGRP-induced haemodynamic responses. The effects of volatile anaesthetics on adrenomedullin-induced haemodynamic responses, however, are unclear. We hypothesized that the volatile anaesthetic isoflurane inhibits adrenomedullin-induced haemodynamic responses. We studied the effects of isoflurane on adrenomedullin-induced haemodynamic responses in pithed rats, which enables us to evaluate the direct cardiovascular effects of drugs without interference from centrally mediated circulatory reflexes.
Male Wistar rats were pithed by inserting a stainless-steel rod into the spinal cord. Following median sternotomy, a flow probe was placed around the ascending aorta to measure aortic blood flow. Mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were maintained at approximately 100 mmHg and 50 mL min−1, respectively, with continuous infusion of norepinephrine. After 30 min inhalation of isoflurane (1%, or 2%) in oxygen, or only oxygen, adrenomedullin (1, 3, 10 or 30 μg kg−1) was administered intravenously.
Adrenomedullin administration induced a transient increase followed by a persistent decrease in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. Isoflurane (2%) significantly inhibited the initial increase in mean arterial pressure and the later decrease in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance.
Isoflurane inhibits adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation and positive inotropic effect in pithed rats. Isoflurane might inhibit the adrenomedullin receptor-mediated response, which is a common pathway for both actions.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of different forms of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to measure color discrimination thresholds and to plot color discrimination ellipses (MacAdam, 1942). Five normal trichromats (24.5 ± 2.6 years-old) were monocularly tested. Stimuli consisted of sinusoidal isoluminant chromatic gratings made from chromaticity pairs located along four different color directions radiating from one reference point of the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram (u′ = 0.225; v′ = 0.415). Heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) was used to obtain the isoluminance condition for every subject and for all chromaticity pairs. VEPs were elicited using two cycles per degree grating stimuli at three different temporal configurations: transient, onset (300 ms)/offset (700 ms), 1 Hz fundamental frequency; steady-state, onset (50 ms)/offset (50 ms), 10 Hz fundamental frequency; and steady-state pattern reversal at 5 Hz fundamental frequency (10 Hz phase reversal). VEP amplitude was measured using transient VEP N1-P1 components and steady state VEP first (10 Hz) and second (20 Hz) harmonics. VEP amplitude was plotted as a function of chromatic distance in the CIE 1976 color space and the data points were extrapolated to zero amplitude level to obtain chromatic discrimination thresholds. The results were compared with psychophysical measurements performed using the same stimulus configurations and with the pseudoisochromatic method of Mollon-Reffin (one-way ANOVA). For all subjects and all stimulation methods, the ellipses showed small sizes, low ellipticities, and were vertically oriented. Despite some consistent differences in the results obtained with different procedures, there was no statistical difference between ellipses obtained electrophysiologically and psychophysically. For steady state VEPs, ellipses obtained from second harmonic amplitudes were larger and more elongated in the tritan direction than those obtained with first harmonic amplitudes.
The Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) is a microlensing survey conducted at Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. We searched transiting planet candidates from the MOA-I Galactic bulge data, which have been obtained with a 61cm B&C telescope from 2000 to 2005 for a microlensing search. Although this survey data were dedicated to microlensing, they are also quite useful for searching transiting objects because of the large number of stars monitored (~7 million) and the long span of the survey (~6 years). From our analysis, we found 58 transiting planet candidates. We are planning to follow up these candidates with high-precision spectroscopic and photometric observations for further selection, toward the detection of planets by radial velocity observations.
We investigated how the stimulation mode influences transient visual evoked potentials (tVEP) amplitude as a function of contrast of achromatic and isoluminant chromatic gratings. The chromatic stimulation probed only responses to the red-green axis. Visual stimuli were monocularly presented in a 5° diameter circle, achromatic and chromatic horizontal gratings, 1 Hz pattern reversal stimulation, and achromatic and chromatic gratings, 300 ms onset per 700 ms offset stimulation. For the achromatic pattern reversal stimulation, a double slope function describes how the P100 amplitude varied as a function of log contrast which had a limb at low-to-medium contrasts and another limb at high contrasts. For the achromatic onset/offset stimulation, C2 amplitude saturated at the highest contrast tested and a single straight line described how it changed along most of the contrast range. Both presentation modes for chromatic gratings resulted in amplitude versus log contrast relations which were well described by single straight lines along most of the contrast range. The results may be interpreted as if at 2 cpd, achromatic pattern reversal stimulation evoked the activity of at least two visual pathways with high and low contrast sensitivity, respectively, while achromatic onset/offset stimulation favored the activity of a pathway with high contrast sensitivity. The neural activity in the M pathway is the best candidate to be the high contrast mechanism detected with pattern reversal and pattern onset/offset VEPs. The activity of color opponent pathways such as the P and K pathways either combined or in isolation seems to be responsible for VEPs obtained with isoluminant chromatic gratings at both presentation modes. When the amplitudes of chromatic VEPs were plotted in the same contrast scale as used for achromatic VEPs, chromatic contrast thresholds had similar values to those of the achromatic mechanism with high contrast sensitivity.
CaBi4Ti4O15 growth on different Platinum substrates was carried out through a sol-gel method. Higher crystallization temperature and 20% excess Bi decreased pyrochlore contents in the CaBi4Ti4O15 films. Repetition through coating, calcination and crystallization decreased void formation on the surface. C-axis oriented thin film could be grown on sputtered platinum substrates with low Pt (200) orientation. On electroplated Pt substrates, (119) oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 thin film was grown, suggesting surface roughness of Pt substrates is a crucial factor for orientation control of sol-gel derived CaBi4Ti4O15 thin film.