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To use Internet search data to compare duration of compliance for various diets.
Using a passive surveillance digital epidemiological approach, we estimated the average duration of diet compliance by examining monthly Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate the time spent on a diet by new January dieters (NJD) and to estimate the percentage of dieters dropping out during the American winter holiday season between Thanksgiving and the end of December.
Internet searches in the USA for recipes related to popular diets over a 15-year period from 2004 to 2019.
Individuals in the USA performing Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets.
All diets exhibited significant seasonality in recipe-related Internet searches, with sharp spikes every January followed by a decline in the number of searches and a further decline in the winter holiday season. The Paleo diet had the longest average compliance times among NJD (5.32 ± 0.68 weeks) and the lowest dropout during the winter holiday season (only 14 ± 3 % dropping out in December). The South Beach diet had the shortest compliance time among NJD (3.12 ± 0.64 weeks) and the highest dropout during the holiday season (33 ± 7 % dropping out in December).
The current study is the first of its kind to use passive surveillance data to compare the duration of adherence with different diets and underscores the potential usefulness of digital epidemiological approaches to understanding health behaviours.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based surveys.
The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed 145 990 adult respondents from 27 countries. Based on retrospectively-reported age-of-onset for 24 DSM-IV mental disorders, associations were examined between all 548 logically possible temporally-ordered disorder pairs. Overall and time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Absolute risks were estimated using the product-limit method. Estimates were generated separately for men and women.
Each prior lifetime mental disorder was associated with an increased risk of subsequent first onset of each other disorder. The median HR was 12.1 (mean = 14.4; range 5.2–110.8, interquartile range = 6.0–19.4). The HRs were most prominent between closely-related mental disorder types and in the first 1–2 years after the onset of the prior disorder. Although HRs declined with time since prior disorder, significantly elevated risk of subsequent comorbidity persisted for at least 15 years. Appreciable absolute risks of secondary disorders were found over time for many pairs.
Survey data from a range of sites confirms that comorbidity between mental disorders is common. Understanding the risks of temporally secondary disorders may help design practical programs for primary prevention of secondary disorders.
To identify and synthesise the literature on the cost of mental disorders.
Systematic literature searches were conducted in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit, NHS York Database and PsychInfo using key terms for cost and mental disorders. Searches were restricted to January 1980–May 2019. The inclusion criteria were: (1) cost-of-illness studies or cost-analyses; (2) diagnosis of at least one mental disorder; (3) study population based on the general population; (4) outcome in monetary units. The systematic review was preregistered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42019127783).
In total, 13 579 potential titles and abstracts were screened and 439 full-text articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers. Of these, 112 articles were included from the systematic searches and 31 additional articles from snowball searching, resulting in 143 included articles. Data were available from 48 countries and categorised according to nine mental disorder groups. The quality of the studies varied widely and there was a lack of studies from low- and middle-income countries and for certain types of mental disorders (e.g. intellectual disabilities and eating disorders). Our study showed that certain groups of mental disorders are more costly than others and that these rankings are relatively stable between countries. An interactive data visualisation site can be found here: https://nbepi.com/econ.
This is the first study to provide a comprehensive overview of the cost of mental disorders worldwide.
Agriculture in the Central Himalayan Region depends on the availability of suitable germplasm as well as natural conditions. Due to extreme weather conditions, food and nutrition security is a major issue for communities inhabiting these remote and inaccessible areas. Millets are common crops grown in these areas. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important crop and forms a considerable part of the diet in this region. The aim of the present study was to explore, collect, conserve and evaluate the untapped genetic diversity of foxtail millet at the molecular level and discover variability in their nutritional traits. A total of 30 accessions having unique traits of agronomic importance were collected and molecular profiling was performed. A total of 63 alleles were generated with an average of 2.52 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity of 0.37 ± 0.231. Significant genetic variability was revealed through the genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) values. Structure-based analysis divided whole germplasm into three sub-groups. Rich variability was found in nutritional traits such as dietary fibre in husked grains, carbohydrate, protein, lysine and thiamine content. The collected germplasm may be useful for developing nutritionally rich and agronomically beneficial varieties of foxtail millet and also designing strategies for utilization of unexploited genetic diversity for food and nutrition security in this and other similar agro-ecological regions.
Turritellid gastropods are important components of many Cretaceous–Recent fossil marine faunas worldwide. Their shell is morphologically simple, making homoplasy widespread and phylogenetic analysis difficult, but fossil and living species can be recognized based on shell characters. For many decades, it has been the consensus that the oldest definite representatives of Turritellidae are from the Lower Cretaceous, and that pre-Cretaceous forms are homeomorphs. Some morphological characters of the present turritelline species resemble those of mathildoids, but many diagnostic characters clearly separate these two groups. We here describe and/or redescribe—based on examination of more than 2600 near complete specimens—four species from the Upper Jurassic Dhosa Oolite Member of the Chari Formation in Kutch, western India, and demonstrate that they are members of Turritellidae, subfamily Turritellinae, on the basis of diagnostic characters including apical sculptural ontogeny (obtained from SEM study), spiral sculpture, and growth line patterns. The four species are in order of abundance, Turritella jadavpuriensis Mitra and Ghosh, 1979; Turritella amitava new species; Turritella jhuraensis Mitra and Ghosh, 1979, and Turritella dhosaensis new species. The turritelline assemblages occur only on the northeastern flank of the Jhura dome (23°24’47.57”N, 69°36’09.26”E). Age of the Dhosa Oolite has recently been confirmed based on multiple ammonite species. All these points indicate that these fossils are the oldest record of the family Turritellidae—by almost 30 million years—in the world.
Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) tools developed for capturing flow and acoustic dynamics in non-segmented solid rocket motors are evaluated using multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations and used to characterise damping of modal perturbations. For motors with high length-to-diameter ratios (of the order of 10), remarkably accurate estimates of frequencies and damping rates of lower modes can be obtained using the the quasi-1D approximation. Various grain configurations are considered to study the effect of internal geometry on damping rates. Analysis shows that lower cross-sectional area at the nozzle entry plane is found to increase damping rates of all the modes. The flow-turning loss for a mode increases if the more mass addition due to combustion is added at pressure nodes. For the fundamental mode, this loss is, therefore, maximum if burning area is maximum at the centre. The insights from this study in addition to recommendations made by Blomshield(1) based on combustion considerations would be very helpful in realizing rocket motors free from combustion instability.
Background: Cognitive dysfunction following coronary artery bypass surgery is a regular occurrence, but its cause is still unknown. In order to devise strategies to mitigate this acquired disability, a precise and quantitative description of the post-operative neurocognitive phenotype is necessary. This study is designed to assess the feasibility of using the KINARM robot to quantify the changes in the neurological function after cardaic surgery. Methods: Patients without prior history of cognitive dysfunction were recruited from the pre-operative cardiac surgery clinic, and underwent pre-operative assessment with the KINARM. The KINARM provides a quantitative assessment of the neurocognitive control of the upper limbs. During bypass surgery, brain tissue oxygen levels were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy. Patients were reassessed with the KINARM post-operatively at 3 months. Results: To date, 12 participants have been recruited (mean age = 65 years, all male). On straightforward tasks, such as visually guided reaching, the majority of patients scored within the normal range, both pre- and post-operatively. In more complex tasks, required visuospatial and executive functioning, post-operative deficits were more pronounced. Conclusions: It is feasible to use the KINARM robot to provide a quantitative measurement of the neurocognitive phenotype of patients after cardiac surgery.
Fungal blast disease is one of the major constraints in finger millet production. Breeding for disease resistance in finger millet, needs characterization of genetic polymorphism among and between the resistant and susceptible genotypes. In total, 67 finger millet genotypes, which are resistant or susceptible to fungal blast disease, were analysed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to assess genetic variations and select diverse parents. Twelve each of SRAP and SSR primers produced 95.1 and 93.1% polymorphic bands and grouped them into unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average clusters. Two of the finger millet genotypes, IE 4709 (blast resistant) and INDAF 7 (susceptible) were distinguished as most diverse genotypes as parents. Several genotype-specific bands observed with SSR primers are potential in developing genotype-specific markers. A high genetic diversity within the resistant and susceptible genotypes, rather than between them, was revealed through Nei's gene diversity (h) index and analysis of molecular variance. The finding helps us to understand the extent of genetic polymorphism between blast disease resistant and susceptible finger millet genotypes to exploit in resistance breeding programs.
A comprehensive study based on U–Pb and Hf isotope analyses of zircons from gneisses has been conducted along the western part (Babina area) of the E–W-trending Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone in the central part of the Archaean Bundelkhand Craton. 207Pb–206Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic data indicate the existence of a felsic crust at ~ 3.59 Ga, followed by a second tectonothermal event at ~ 3.44 Ga, leading to calc-alkaline magmatism and subsequent crustal growth. The study hence suggests that crust formation in the Bundelkhand Craton occurred in a similar time-frame to that recorded from the Singhbhum and Bastar cratons of the North Indian Shield.
The importance of ZnxMg1-xO is increasing day by day because of its wider bandgap than ZnO. This ternary semiconductor finds its application in the fields of optoelectronics, spintronics, superlattices due to its unique blueshifted UV-luminescent property. n- to p-type conduction which is the motive of the project can be achieved with increasing Mg content in ZnMgO. The optical characteristics of the nitrogen doped ZnxMg1-xO (x=0.85) grown on 2 inch Si <100>wafer by RF sputtering are studied and analyzed thoroughly using low temperature (15K) photoluminescence measurements. Nitrogen implantation was carried out by Plasma immersion Ion Implantation technique on the sample. Rapid Thermal Process was employed to remove defects resulting from implantation. The samples were annealed at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C, and 1000o C for 10 seconds in an oxygen ambient. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed at low temperature (15K) which exhibited acceptor-bound-exciton peak (A°X) and donor-bound-acceptor pair (DAP) at 3.336 eV and 3.236 eV respectively. At 3.364 eV, S peak was found for the sample annealed at 800°C after implantation. This peak was attributed to the existence of ZnO-like composition. Localized and de-localized exciton peaks were found around 3.42 and 3.45 eV respectively. This result is very important because though dominant acceptor peak was not found but proper optimization of the parameters can lead to p-type ZnMgO which is the main motive of this project.
The links between migrant status and psychosis have attracted considerable attention in recent decades. The aim of the study was to explore the demographic and clinical correlates of migrant v. Australia-born status in individuals with psychotic disorders using a large community-based sample.
Data were drawn from a population-based prevalence survey of adults with psychotic disorders. Known as the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), it was conducted in seven Australian catchment areas in 2010. Logistic regression was used for the main analyses, examining associations of migrant status with sociodemographic and clinical variables.
Of the 1825 participants with psychotic disorders, 17.8% (n = 325) were migrants, of whom 55.7% (n = 181) were male. Compared to Australia-born individuals with psychosis, migrants were more likely to be currently married, to have completed a higher level at school, to have left school later, and to be employed with full-time jobs. Migrants with psychosis were either no different from or less impaired or disadvantaged compared to their Australian-born counterparts on a range of clinical and demographic variables.
In a sample of individuals with psychotic disorders, there was no evidence to suggest that migrant status was associated with worse clinical or socio-economic outcomes compared to their native-born counterparts.
Delusional-like experiences (DLE) have been associated with low income, suggesting that more broadly defined socio-economic disadvantage may be associated with these experiences. We had the opportunity to explore the association between DLE and both individual- and area-level measures of socio-economic disadvantage.
Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and physical disorders. Individual-level and area-level socio-economic disadvantage measures were available based on variables including income, educational attainment, employment status, and housing. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors.
Of the 8773 subjects, 8.4% (n = 776) positively endorsed one or more DLE. DLE screen items were more likely to be endorsed by those who were (a) younger, (b) never married, or widowed, separated or divorced status, (c) migrants, or (d) living in rented houses. There were significant associations between socio-economic disadvantage and increased DLE endorsement, and this was found for both individual-level and area-level measures of socio-economic disadvantage. In general, the associations remained significant after adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors and in planned sensitivity analyses.
DLE are associated with socio-economic disadvantage in the general population. We speculate that the link between socio-economic disadvantage and DLE may be mediated by psychosocial stress and general psychological distress.
Investigation of optical absorption in ∼25μm thick, monocrystalline silicon (Si) substrates obtained from a novel exfoliation technique is done by fabricating solar cells with single heterojunction architecture (without using intrinsic amorphous silicon layer) with diffused back junction and local back contact. The ease of process flow and the rugged and flexible nature of the substrates due to thick metal backing enables use of various light-trapping and optical absorption enhancement schemes traditionally practiced in the industry for thicker (>120μm) substrates. Optical measurement of solar cells using antireflective coating, texturing on both surfaces, and back surface dielectric/metal stack as mirror to reflect the long wavelength light from the back surface show a very low front surface reflectance of 4.6% in the broadband spectrum (300nm-1200nm). The illuminated current voltage (IV) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement of such solar cell shows a high integrated current density of 34.4mA/cm2, which implies significant internal photon reflection. Our best cell with intrinsic amorphous silicon (i-a-Si) layer with only rear surface textured shows an efficiency of 14.9%. EQE data shows improved blue response and current density due to better front surface passivation. Simulations suggest that with optimized light trapping and surface passivation, such thin c-Si cells can reach efficiencies >20%.
Population-based studies have identified that delusional-like experiences (DLEs) are common in the general population. While there is a large literature exploring the relationship between poor social support and risk of mental illness, there is a lack of empirical data examining the association of poor social support and DLEs. The aim of the study was to explore the association between social support and DLEs using a large, nationally representative community sample.
Subjects were drawn from a national multistage probability survey of 8841 adults aged between 16 and 85 years. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLEs, common psychiatric disorders and physical disorders. Eight questions assessed various aspects of social support with spouse/partners and other family and friends. We examined the relationship between DLEs and social support using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors.
Of the sample, 8.4% (n = 776) positively endorsed one or more DLEs. Individuals who (a) had the least contact with friends, or (b) could not rely on or confide in spouse/partner, family or friends were significantly more likely to endorse DLEs. The associations remained significant after adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors.
DLEs are associated with impoverished social support in the general population. While we cannot exclude the possibility that the presence of isolated DLEs results in a reduction of social support, we speculate that poor social support may contribute in a causal fashion to the risk of DLEs.
Modern time-domain surveys have demonstrated that finding variable objects is relatively straightforward. The problem now is one of selecting and following up discoveries. With even larger-scale surveys on the horizon, the magnitude of the problem will inevitably increase. One way to prepare for the coming deluge is to have realistic estimates of the numbers of potential detections so that resources can be developed to meet that need. To that end, astronomers at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have begun a project to characterize the variable sky in terms of type of objects, distribution on the sky and range of variation.
Faecal specimens of diarrhoea cases (n=2495, collected between November 2007 and October 2009) from Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General (ID&BG) Hospital, Kolkata, India, were screened by RT–PCR using specific primers targeting region C of the capsid gene of noroviruses (NoVs) to determine the seasonal distribution and clinical characteristics of NoVs associated with diarrhoea. NoV infection was detected in 78 cases, mostly in children aged <2 years. In 22/78 positive cases, the virus was detected as the sole agent; others were as mixed infections with other enteric pathogens. Sequencing of NVGII strains showed clustering with GII.4 NoVs followed by GII.13 and GII.6 NoVs. Clinical characteristics of the diarrhoeic children and adults in Kolkata indicated that NoV infections were detected throughout the year and were associated with a mild degree of dehydration.
Over a 2-year period, 25 families comprising of 181 individuals of all ages were longitudinally observed for the excretion of Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were taken from all persons with diarrhoea. Specimens were also taken from apparently healthy individuals and from domestic animals living within the confines of the study families at monthly intervals.
The overall diarrhoea attack rate was 19 episodes per 100 person-years with peak incidence in the 1- to 4-year-old age group (76/100 person-years). Eight (11·5%) of the total episodes were campylobacter-associated and the overall rate of campylobacter positive diarrhoeal episodes were 2·2 per 100 person-years. Of the 1002 stool samples from healthy individuals 32 (3·2/100 samples) were positive for campylobacter. The organism was most frequently isolated from children under 1 year of age both during diarrhoeal episodes (11·5 per 100 person-years) and non-diarrhoeal (11·1 per 100 samples). Multiple infections in a family were rare. In 19·4% of the occasions one or more animals were campylobacter positive. However, only in 7·7% of these occasions was a human infection recorded within 1 month after the animal was found to be positive.
The study showed that the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in this community was distinct compared to that observed in developed countries.
Pulsed laser deposited cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoporous thin film on platinum (Pt) coated glass has been used for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) by electrostatic interaction. Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO2 thin film. Differential pulse voltammetric and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO2/Pt bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of glucose over the concentration upto 300 mg/dl. A low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant∼1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose.
In this study, we have analysed the epidemiological significance of the concurrent infections caused by Vibrio cholerae and intestinal parasites among different age groups of hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata. A total of 3556 stool samples collected during 1996–2004 were screened for vibrios and parasites. The seasonality of V. cholerae and parasitic infections were studied in detail. The detection rates for Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia infection were more than for the hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba histolytica. V. cholerae O1 was identified as the predominant serogroup among diarrhoeal patients. The highest rates for V. cholerae infection were in the 2–5 years age group and combined infection of V. cholerae and parasites was recorded among children aged between 2 and 10 years.