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We examine the pulsation properties for 13 members of the pulsating subdwarf B (sdBV, or EC 14026) class of stars. By looking at the pulsation structure of an entire class of stars, it may be possible to determine the various modes of pulsations (O’Brien 1998, Kleinman 1995). Unfortunately, when we examine the ensemble of pulsation periods in EC 14026 stars, we are only able to discern a simple correlation between pulsation period and gravity, and not any structure that might help with mode identification. So we can only report on the lack of structure in the pulsation periods and present some of the work underway, which we hope will identify modes in the future.
We have used the rate of change of pulsation period for the hot (DOV) pre-white dwarf PG1159–035 and the cool (DAV) white dwarf G117–B15A to measure their evolutionary time scales. We show that, for any multiperiodic star, we must take into account the effect of all pulsations simultaneously on the times of maximum of the pulsations to get reliable measurements of periods and phases.
The physical mechanisms responsible for electrically-induced parametric degradation in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are examined using a combination of experiments, device simulation, and first-principles defect analysis. A relatively simple formulation is developed under the assumption that the hot-electron scattering cross-section is independent of the electron energy. In this case, one can relate the change in defect concentration to the operational characteristics of a device, such as the spatial and energy distribution of electrons (electron temperature), electric field distribution, and electron energy loss to the lattice.
We studied the early stages of polymerization of CO under pressure. We performed DFT simulations of 128 and 432 atom models. Structures of random networks found at zero temperature were used for equilibration at 100 K by employing first principles MD. We found that the polymerization begins at 7 - 8 GPa and slightly depends on the size of the model. It turned out that there are several metastable phases of the extended CO solid, corresponding to different compression pressures from 7 - 8 GPa to 15-18 GPa with different numbers of CO fragments, not connected to the random network. We also found that the transition to the phases is irreversible which results in hysteresis loops. Random network structures obtained, say, under 18 GPa could exist at 3 GPa, whereas compression to 3 GPa results in the delta phase of CO crystal, with intact CO fragments and minor distortion of the cubic phase. To analyze the random structure fragments we calculated normal modes and IR intensities using the dipole approximation. Contributions from the main motifs of the random network are identified and compared with experimental IR measurements.
Two fundamental processes associated with shock compression of energetic materials (EM) are initiation and ignition. Initiation occurs just behind a shock front and ignition occurs anywhere from a few nanoseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds later. Experiments are described that probe the fundamental mechanisms of these processes on relevant length and time scales: picosecond vibrational spectroscopy of nanometer thick layers of energetic materials (EM) with laser-driven shock waves, and nanosecond emission spectroscopy of micrometer thick layers of EM using laser-driven flyer plates.
In the study of materials at extreme pressures and temperatures, there is an enduring need to extend the range of experiments to previously inaccessible regimes. To accomplish this, improvements in diagnostics for in situ material characterization at extremes must proceed in parallel with techniques used to generate extreme states. Simultaneously, there is a need to study material phenomena – e.g. phase transformations and chemical reactions triggered by the application of extreme conditions – on their natural timescales. Here we report on recent developments in the application of ultrafast laser spectroscopic techniques to high-pressure hightemperature experiments on materials confined in a diamond-anvil cell. Using a bright broadband source coupled to ultrafast detection to discriminate signal from high thermal and fluorescent backgrounds, we conducted broadband optical spectroscopy up to 60 GPa and 1560 K. By coupling the broadband source to a monochromatic pulse, nonlinear Coherent Anti- Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) with high signal brightness was achieved. Optical absorption data in hot compressed O2 and CARS data in N2 at extreme pressures are reported.
The effects of surrounding gaseous environment on the reaction behaviors and product formation for sputter-deposited Ti/2B reactive multilayers are reported. With the surrounding environment set to different air pressures, from atmospheric conditions to 10-4 Torr, Ti/2B samples were reacted in a self-propagating mode, and the average reaction wave velocities were determined through high-speed imaging. Propagation speeds for 3.0 μm-thick multilayers were in the range of 10.89 to 0.05 m/s depending on bilayer thickness (i.e., reactant layer periodicity) and ambient pressure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that single-phase TiB2 forms within multilayers that have small bilayer thickness. Multilayers that have a large bilayer thickness developed a mixture of TiB2, TiB and TiO2.
Field studies were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Lubbock and Lamesa, TX, to determine the effects of propazine alone and in combination with glyphosate applied PRE and POST on cotton growth, yield, and lint value (fiber quality). Propazine at 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg ai ha−1 and in combination with glyphosate at 0.86 kg ae ha−1 was applied PRE, early POST, and mid-POST. Up to 11% injury was observed after propazine applied early POST and mid-POST at Lubbock in 1 of 2 yr, and up to 13% at all three application timings was observed at Lamesa in 1 of 2 yr. The greatest injury was observed 58 d after application following propazine at 1.12 kg ai ha−1 applied PRE; however, no injury was apparent 80 d after application. Cotton yield, lint values, and gross revenues were not affected by any treatment.