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To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
Complex oxides and semiconductors exhibit distinct yet complementary properties
owing to their respective ionic and covalent natures. By electrically coupling
oxides to semiconductors within epitaxial heterostructures, enhanced or novel
functionalities beyond those of the constituent materials can potentially be
realized. Key to electrically coupling oxides to semiconductors is controlling
the physical and electronic structure of semiconductor – crystalline
oxide heterostructures. Here we discuss how composition of the oxide can be
manipulated to control physical and electronic structure in
Ba1-xSrxTiO3/ Ge and
SrZrxTi1-xO3/Ge heterostructures. In the
case of the former we discuss how strain can be engineered through composition
to enable the re-orientable ferroelectric polarization to be coupled to carriers
in the semiconductor. In the case of the latter we discuss how composition can
be exploited to control the band offset at the semiconductor - oxide interface.
The ability to control the band offset, i.e. band-gap engineering, provides a
pathway to electrically couple crystalline oxides to semiconductors to realize a
host of functionalities.
The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields-of-view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1, is conducting a search for Near Earth Objects, and is currently the leading discoverer of Near Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2, is nearing the end of its commissioning, and is becoming more productive.
Pan-STARRS has become the leading survey for Near Earth Objects, responsible for approximately half of the NEO discoveries to date in 2015. Pan-STARRS is also the leading discoverer of new comets.
Mental health literacy is increasingly referenced as a goal of mental health policy. However, the current definition of this concept has a relatively narrow focus on mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to explore mental health literacy through the use of vignettes and to begin to articulate a broader definition.
Six groups of young people (n=42) aged between 16 and 25 years old responded to open-ended questions about vignettes depicting fictional characters with diagnosable mental health problems. The responses were analysed using Foucault’s governmentality theory.
The responses to the vignettes highlighted a range of determinants of our mental health. The young people suggested informal mental health-promoting techniques and highlighted the importance of talking. Ambiguity was reported in relation to the types of knowledge that are important in responding to mental health need. Finally, the responses were reflective of young people who are empathetic and view mental health from the perspective of our shared humanity, rather than as a marginal issue.
As mental health literacy is increasingly becoming a goal of mental health policy, it is timely that a shared understanding of this important concept is articulated. The current definition of mental health literacy is narrow in its focus on the recognition of mental disorders. A more broad-based definition of mental health literacy should be adopted by policy makers, reflecting the full range of determinants of mental health and recognising the importance of mental wellbeing.
The 2013 Infection Prevention and Control (IP&C) Guideline for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) was commissioned by the CF Foundation as an update of the 2003 Infection Control Guideline for CF. During the past decade, new knowledge and new challenges provided the following rationale to develop updated IP&C strategies for this unique population:
1. The need to integrate relevant recommendations from evidence-based guidelines published since 2003 into IP&C practices for CF. These included guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and key professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). During the past decade, new evidence has led to a renewed emphasis on source containment of potential pathogens and the role played by the contaminated healthcare environment in the transmission of infectious agents. Furthermore, an increased understanding of the importance of the application of implementation science, monitoring adherence, and feedback principles has been shown to increase the effectiveness of IP&C guideline recommendations.
2. Experience with emerging pathogens in the non-CF population has expanded our understanding of droplet transmission of respiratory pathogens and can inform IP&C strategies for CF. These pathogens include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the 2009 influenza A H1N1. Lessons learned about preventing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens in non-CF patient populations also can inform IP&C strategies for CF.