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A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
We have run a number of simulations investigating the limitations of noiseless point spread deconvolution with the VLA. On-source errors of more than .01 and off-source dynamic ranges of less than 15,000 were found for some parameters typical of high precision observations. Deconvolution errors were not confined to the support of the source, and limit the dynamic range in at least one VLA observation.
We have compiled a catalogue of H ii regions detected with the Murchison Widefield Array between 72 and 231 MHz. The multiple frequency bands provided by the Murchison Widefield Array allow us identify the characteristic spectrum generated by the thermal Bremsstrahlung process in H ii regions. We detect 306 H ii regions between 260° < l < 340° and report on the positions, sizes, peak, integrated flux density, and spectral indices of these H ii regions. By identifying the point at which H ii regions transition from the optically thin to thick regime, we derive the physical properties including the electron density, ionised gas mass, and ionising photon flux, towards 61 H ii regions. This catalogue of H ii regions represents the most extensive and uniform low frequency survey of H ii regions in the Galaxy to date.
We review the first six years of radio observations of Supernova 1987A. The evolution can be divided into two phases: the initial radio outburst which lasted a few weeks, and the period from mid-1990 to the present, during which the radio emission has steadily increased. Both phases can be explained by a small fraction (0.1-0.5%) of the post-shock thermal energy being converted to energy in relativistic particles and magnetic fields, which give rise to synchrotron radiation. The optical depths, densities and density profiles for the pre-shocked circumstellar material are somewhat different for the two phases, but consistent with models of the density structure of the material within the circumstellar ring. New high-resolution radio observations show that the SN shock front is already at about three-quarters of the radius of the circumstellar ring, and that there exists a bright equatorial component of emission aligned with this ring which is probably due to a polar density gradient in the ‘hourglass’ structure.
Cutan, a resistant non-hydrolyzable aliphatic biopolymer, was first reported in the cuticle of Agave americana and has generally been considered ubiquitous in leaf cuticles along with the structural biopolyester cutin. Because leaves and cuticles in the fossil record almost always have an aliphatic composition, it was argued that selective preservation of cutan played an important role in leaf preservation. However, the analysis of leaves using chemical degradation techniques involving hydrolysis to test for the presence of cutan reveals that it is absent in 16 of 19 taxa (angiosperm and gymnosperm), including many previously reported to contain cutan on the basis of pyrolysis data. Cutan is clearly much less widespread in leaves than previously thought, and its presence or absence does not exert any major bias on the preservation of leaves in the fossil record. In the absence of cutan, other constituents—cutin, plant waxes, and internal plant lipids—are incorporated into the geomacromolecule and contribute to the formation of a resistant aliphatic polymer by in situ polymerization during diagenesis.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
GLEAM, the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, is a survey of the entire radio sky south of declination + 25° at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz, made with the MWA using a drift scan method that makes efficient use of the MWA’s very large field-of-view. We present the observation details, imaging strategies, and theoretical sensitivity for GLEAM. The survey ran for two years, the first year using 40-kHz frequency resolution and 0.5-s time resolution; the second year using 10-kHz frequency resolution and 2 s time resolution. The resulting image resolution and sensitivity depends on observing frequency, sky pointing, and image weighting scheme. At 154 MHz, the image resolution is approximately 2.5 × 2.2/cos (δ + 26.7°) arcmin with sensitivity to structures up to ~ 10° in angular size. We provide tables to calculate the expected thermal noise for GLEAM mosaics depending on pointing and frequency and discuss limitations to achieving theoretical noise in Stokes I images. We discuss challenges, and their solutions, that arise for GLEAM including ionospheric effects on source positions and linearly polarised emission, and the instrumental polarisation effects inherent to the MWA’s primary beam.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio–astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day−1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
The science cases for incorporating high time resolution capabilities into modern radio telescopes are as numerous as they are compelling. Science targets range from exotic sources such as pulsars, to our Sun, to recently detected possible extragalactic bursts of radio emission, the so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs). Originally conceived purely as an imaging telescope, the initial design of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) did not include the ability to access high time and frequency resolution voltage data. However, the flexibility of the MWA’s software correlator allowed an off-the-shelf solution for adding this capability. This paper describes the system that records the 100 μs and 10 kHz resolution voltage data from the MWA. Example science applications, where this capability is critical, are presented, as well as accompanying commissioning results from this mode to demonstrate verification.
Water supply-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks have decreased in England since the application of risk reduction measures to public water supplies. We hypothesized that smaller outbreaks were occurring which could be better detected by enhanced surveillance. Rolling analysis of detailed questionnaire data was applied prospectively in a population of 2·2 million in the south of England in 2009 and 2010. Detection of spatiotemporal clusters using SaTScan was later undertaken retrospectively. Together these approaches identified eight outbreaks, compared to an expectation of less than one based on national surveillance data. These outbreaks were small and associated with swimming pool use or, less commonly, direct (e.g. petting-farm) contact with animals. These findings suggest that frequent small-scale transmission in swimming pools is an important contributor to disease burden. Identification of swimming pool-level risk factors may inform preventative measures. These findings and the approaches described may be applicable to many other populations and to some other diseases.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
Numerous techniques have been described to manage the skin and other soft tissues during bone-anchored hearing aid insertion. Previously, generally accepted techniques have sometimes led to distressing alopecia and soft tissue defects. Now, some surgeons are rejecting the originally described split skin flap in favour of a less invasive approach.
To investigate bone-anchored hearing aid placement utilising a single, linear incision with either no or minimal underlying soft tissue reduction.
Patients and methods:
Thirty-four adults were prospectively enrolled to undergo single-stage bone-anchored hearing aid placement with this modified technique. A small, linear incision was used at the standard position and carried down through the periosteum. Standard technique was then followed with placement of an extended length abutment. Patients were reviewed regularly to assess wound healing, including evaluation with Holgers' scale.
Only 14.7 per cent of patients had a reaction score of 2 or higher. Most complications were limited to minor skin reactions that settled with silver nitrate cautery and/or antibiotics. None required revision surgery for tissue overgrowth, and there were no implant failures.
Our results suggest this to be a simple and effective insertion technique with favourable cosmesis and patient satisfaction.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised.
An adverse prenatal environment may induce long-term metabolic consequences, in particular hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A maternal low-protein (LP) diet is well known to result in increased blood pressure (BP) in offspring. Choline has been shown to have direct BP-reducing effects in humans and animals. It has been suggested that endogenous choline synthesis via phosphatidylcholine is constrained during maternal LP exposure. The present study investigates the effect of choline supplementation to mothers fed a LP diet during pregnancy on systolic BP (SBP) in offspring as measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Wistar rats were assigned to one of three diets to be fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy: (1) control diet (CONT, 20% protein); (2) an LP diet (9% protein); and (3) LP supplemented with choline (LP + C). Dams were fed the CONT diet throughout lactation and offspring were fed the CONT diet from weaning for the remainder of the trial. At postnatal day 150, SBP and retroperitoneal fat mass was significantly increased in LP offspring compared with CONT animals and was normalized in LP + C offspring. Effects of LP + C reduction in SBP were similar in both males and females. Plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations were not different across treatment groups, but maternal choline supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in homocysteine concentrations in LP + C offspring compared with LP and CONT animals. The present trial shows for the first time that maternal supplementation with dietary choline during periods of LP exposure can normalize increased SBP and fat mass observed in offspring in later life.
Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resistive switching devices are being pursued for a number of applications, including non-volatile memory and high density/low power computing. Reported resistive switching devices vary greatly in the choice of metal oxide and electrode material. Importantly, the choice of both the metal oxide and electrode material can have significant impact on device performance, their ability to switch, and the mode of switching (unipolar, bipolar, nonpolar) that results. In this study, three metal oxides (Cu2O, HfOx, and TiOx) were deposited onto copper bottom electrodes (BEs). Four different top electrode (TE) materials (Ni, Au, Al, and Pt) were then fabricated on the various metal oxides to form MIM structures. Devices were then characterized electrically to determine switching performance and behavior. Our results show that the metal TE plays a large role in determining whether or not the MIM structure will switch resistively and what mode of switching (unipolar, bipolar, or non-polar) is observed.
Three synthesis techniques have been explored as routes to produce copper oxide for use in resistive memory devices (RMDs). The major results and their impact on device current-voltage characteristics are summarized. The majority of the devices fabricated from thermally oxidized copper exhibited a diode-like behavior independent of the top electrode. When these devices were etched to form mesa structures, bipolar switching was observed with set voltages <2.5 V, reset voltages <(-1) V and ROFF/RON ∼103-104. Bipolar switching behavior was also observed for devices fabricated from copper oxide synthesized by RT plasma oxidation (ROFF/RON up to 108). Voiding at the copper-copper oxide interface occurred in films produced by thermal and plasma oxidation performed at ≥200°C. The copper oxide synthesized by reactive sputtering had large areas of open volume in the microstructure; this resulted in short circuited devices because of electrical contact between the bottom and top electrodes. The results for fabricating copper oxide into ≤100 nm features are also discussed.