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With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
Graphynes and graphdiynes are carbon 2D allotrope structures presenting both sp2 and sp hybridized atoms. These materials have been theoretically predicted but due to intrinsic difficulties in their synthesis, only recently some of these structures have been experimentally realized. Graphyne nanoscrolls are structures obtained by rolling up graphyne sheets into papyrus-like structures. In this work, we have investigated, through fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of nanoscroll formation for a series of graphyne (α, β, and δ types) structures. We have also investigated their thermal stability for a temperature range of 200-1000K. Our results show that stable nanoscrolls can be formed for all structures considered here. Their stability depends on a critical value of the ratio between length and height of the graphyne sheets. Our findings also show that these structures are structurally less stable then graphene-based nanoscrolls. This can be explained by the graphyne higher structural porosity which results in a decreased pi-pi stacking interactions.
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris–HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients. Highest recognition was observed for a 30–40 kDa mass range present in all antigenic fractions. The band encompassing this mass range was then excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Immunoreactive proteins identified in the soluble fractions corresponded to metabolic enzymes, whereas cytoskeletal proteins and galectins were more abundant in the membrane fractions. These results represent the first approach towards identification of S. venezuelensis antigens for use in immunodiagnostic assays for human strongyloidiasis.
The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow-band imaging, very wide field cosmological survey. It will last 5 years and will observe 8500 sq. deg. of the sky. There will be 54 contiguous narrow-band filters of 145Å FWHM, from 3,500 to 10,000Å. Two broad-band filters will be added at the extremes, UV and IR, plus the 3–g, r, and i– SDSS filters. Thus, J-PAS can be an important tool to search for new planetary nebulae (PNe) at the halo, increasing their numbers, because only 14 of them have been convincingly identified in the literature. Halo PNe are able to reveal precious information for the study of stellar evolution and the early chemical conditions of the Galaxy. The characteristic low continuum and intense emission lines of PNe make them good objects to be searched by J-PAS. Though covering a significantly smaller sky area, data from the ALHAMBRA survey were used to test our J-PAS strategy to search for PNe. Our first results are shown in this contribution.
The aim of this study is to analyse and determine elemental abundances for a large sample of distant B stars in the outer Galactic disk in order to constrain the chemical distribution of the Galactic disk and models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we present preliminary results on a few stars along with the adopted methodology based on securing simultaneous O and Si ionization equilibria with consistent NLTE model atmospheres.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.
To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders.
Data were from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face to face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n = 636 78) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity.
Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past 12 months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. A desire to handle the problem on one's own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers to both initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment drop-out (39.3%), followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders).
Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide.
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, little
information is available about the treatment of suicidal people, or about
barriers to treatment.
To examine the receipt of mental health treatment and barriers to care
among suicidal people around the world.
Twenty-one nationally representative samples worldwide
(n=55 302; age 18 years and over) from the World
Health Organization's World Mental Health Surveys were interviewed
regarding past-year suicidal behaviour and past-year healthcare use.
Suicidal respondents who had not used services in the past year were
asked why they had not sought care.
Two-fifths of the suicidal respondents had received treatment (from 17%
in low-income countries to 56% in high-income countries), mostly from a
general medical practitioner (22%), psychiatrist (15%) or
non-psychiatrist (15%). Those who had actually attempted suicide were
more likely to receive care. Low perceived need was the most important
reason for not seeking help (58%), followed by attitudinal barriers such
as the wish to handle the problem alone (40%) and structural barriers
such as financial concerns (15%). Only 7% of respondents endorsed stigma
as a reason for not seeking treatment.
Most people with suicide ideation, plans and attempts receive no
treatment. This is a consistent and pervasive finding, especially in
low-income countries. Improving the receipt of treatment worldwide will
have to take into account culture-specific factors that may influence the
process of help-seeking.
The ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) Nd60Fe30Al10system exhibits extremely large coercivities at low temperature and moderate coercivities near room temperature. The magnetic hardness, as best evidenced by the onset of magnetic irreversibility, was studied in bulk suction-cast and melt-spun alloys with the nominal composition Nd60Fe30Al10. Systematic x-ray diffraction studies of the degree of crystallinity performed as a function of position within the bulk suction-cast samples is found to correlate with the variation in the room-temperature magnetic hysteresis character. X-ray diffraction data clearly shows the presence of both crystallites and amorphous material on the samples' outmost surfaces; the amorphous phase content increases with distance into the cast sample. These results underscore the importance of solidification conditions and attendant nanophase selection, on the resultant magnetic properties of this class of alloys.
The magnetic properties of multilayer arrays of Fe nanoparticles were compared with those of frozen, dilute suspensions of the same particles. The array sample displayed larger coercivity in both hysteretic and remanent magnetization measurements. However, the derivative of the remanent magnetization curve shows a much broader switching field distribution for the arrays than for the dilute sample. Magnetic relaxation measurements show the convergence of the time dependent properties of the samples at large times, and much more rapid relaxation in the arrays at short times.
In the present work we use a scanning tunneling microscope to modify the surface structure of epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films. Point and line etching experiments were carried out in ultra-highvacuum, using tungsten tips. The point etchings showed that pulses fired at small (< 4.5V) bias voltages did not bring about any physical modifications of the film surface, while voltages in excess of4.5 V led to etched holes accompanied by mounds. Moreover, well-defined line etching was achieved with atypical depth of approximately two unit cells and linewidths as small as 5 nm. The experiments demonstrate that a scanning tunneling microscope can be used for nanometer-scale patterning of SrRuO3 thin film surfaces.
Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries.
To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education.
Sixteen countries taking part in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were surveyed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=41 688). Survival models were used to estimate associations between DSM–IV mental disorders and subsequent non-attainment of educational milestones.
In high-income countries, prior substance use disorders were associated with non-completion at all stages of education (OR 1.4–15.2). Anxiety disorders (OR=1.3), mood disorders (OR=1.4) and impulse control disorders (OR=2.2) were associated with early termination of secondary education. In LAMI countries, impulse control disorders (OR=1.3) and substance use disorders (OR=1.5) were associated with early termination of secondary education.
Onset of mental disorder and subsequent non-completion of education are consistently associated in both high-income and LAMI countries.
Risk for mood and anxiety disorders associated with US-nativity may vary across immigrant groups.
Using data from the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we examined the association of lifetime risk for mood and anxiety disorders with US-nativity and age at immigration across seven subgroups of the US population defined by country or region of ancestral origin: Mexico, Puerto-Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Africa and the Caribbean. Discrete time survival models were used to compare lifetime risk between the US-born, immigrants who arrived in the USA prior to the age of 13 years and immigrants who arrived in the USA at the age of 13 years or older.
The association of risk for mood and anxiety disorders with US-nativity varies significantly across ancestral origin groups (p<0.001). Among people from Mexico, Eastern Europe, and Africa or the Caribbean, risk for disorders is lower relative to the US-born among immigrants who arrived at the age of 13 years or higher (odds ratios in the range 0.34–0.49) but not among immigrants who arrived prior to the age of 13 years. There is no association between US-nativity and risk for disorder among people from Western Europe and Puerto Rico.
Low risk among immigrants relative to the US-born is limited to groups among whom risk for mood and anxiety disorder is low in immigrants who spent their pre-adolescent years outside of the USA.
Demonstrating the equivalence of constructs is a key requirement for cross-cultural empirical research. The major purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to assess measurement and functional equivalence or invariance using the 9-item, 3-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS, a second-order factor model) and the 4-item, 1-factor Pay Level Satisfaction Scale (PLSS, a first-order factor model) across 29 samples in six continents (N = 5973). In step 1, we tested the configural, metric and scalar invariance of the LOMS and 17 samples achieved measurement invariance. In step 2, we applied the same procedures to the PLSS and nine samples achieved measurement invariance. Five samples (Brazil, China, South Africa, Spain and the USA) passed the measurement invariance criteria for both measures. In step 3, we found that for these two measures, common method variance was non-significant. In step 4, we tested the functional equivalence between the Love of Money Scale and Pay Level Satisfaction Scale. We achieved functional equivalence for these two scales in all five samples. The results of this study suggest the critical importance of evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies. Suggestions for remedying measurement non-equivalence are offered.
Brazil has arid regions where livestock production is limited by forage source. However, some native herbaceous browses have a dry tolerance and have been used as animal feeds. Some of those plants have anti nutritional compounds such as tannins that can interfere on intake and digestibility. Tannins have a high affinity to proteins and could make these molecules unavailable for animal. Compounds as polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used on tannin studies, because it has more affinity with tannins than proteins. Based on that, it is possible to evaluate the nutritive potential of tanniniferous plants, using PEG in gas based techniques for assessing anti nutritional factors in tanniniferous plants for ruminants. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological activity of tannins using the in vitro gas method with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG).