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To quantitatively test the hypothesis that older patients have increased thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy by comparing thyroarytenoid muscle volumes across different age groups.
A retrospective chart review was conducted. The study included 111 patients with no history of laryngeal pathology. Two investigators reviewed magnetic resonance imaging studies of these patients and manually traced the thyroarytenoid muscles on multiple slices bilaterally. Thyroarytenoid muscle volumes were then computed using imaging analysis software. Patients were stratified into three age groups (18–50 years, 51–64 years, and 65 years or older) for comparison.
Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were excellent for all measurements (intraclass correlation co-efficient > 0.90). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean volumes of left and right thyroarytenoid muscles in all age and gender groups.
Given the lack of statistically significant difference in thyroarytenoid muscle volume between age groups on magnetic resonance imaging, the prevailing assumption that age-related thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy contributes to presbyphonia should be re-examined.
We apply gravitational lensing statistics to: (1) place a limit on the cosmological constant (ΩΛ); (2) place a limit on the average red-shift (< z >) of gamma-ray bursters (GRBs); (3) investigate models of galaxy evolution to see how compatible these models are with lensing statistics. We also point out the sources of uncertainty in lensing statistics, leading to uncertainty in the results.
Introduction: Despite strong evidence that antithrombotic drugs in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) patients reduce stroke risk, previous emergency department (ED) pre-novel anticoagulant (NOAC) studies have shown that most discharged patients are not optimally treated. This study sought to determine baseline antithrombotic management in AF patients, and appropriate antithrombotic prescription upon ED discharge since the introduction of NOACs. Methods: Consecutive AF patients discharged by the ED physician from three academic EDs in Toronto, Canada were retrospectively identified using ECG data. Primary AF was defined as AF in patients ≥18 years without congenital heart disease or other acute medical conditions. All management and disposition decisions were left to the discretion of the emergency doctor. Results: From July 2012 to October 2014, 691 patients with primary AF were identified. Of these, 34.4% (n=238) had new onset AF and 66.4% (n=459) were discharged home directly from the ED. Of those with previously known AF (n= 453), 44.2% (n=200) were on anticoagulation at ED arrival (warfarin 59.5%, dabigatran 23.0%, rivaroxaban 11.5%); 25.6% (n=116) on antiplatelets, and 29 (6.4%) on both. Based on 2012 Canadian AF guidelines, 60.1% of those who should have received anticoagulation were receiving it. In discharged patients meeting de novo criteria for anticoagulation (n=130), 20.0% (n=26) were started on anticoagulation and 23.1% (n=30) on antiplatelets. In patients with CHADS2 score ≥ 2 (n=61), 26.2% (n=16) were started on anticoagulation. Warfarin (73.1%) was most commonly prescribed followed by dabigatran (15.4%) and rivaroxaban (11.5%). Age was the only inverse independent predictor for appropriate anticoagulation (OR 0.92 per 5 year of age 95% CI 0.89-0.95, p <0.0001) i.e. older patients were less likely to be anticoagulated. The CHADS2 score was not an independent predictor of appropriate anticoagulation. Conclusion: Our study shows a persistent gap in the antithrombotic treatment of ED AF patients irrespective of their risk.
Soybean is a leading oilseed crop in India, which contains about 40% of protein and 20% of oil. Core collection will accelerate the management and utilization of soybean genetic resources in breeding programmes. In the present study, eight agromorphological traits of 3443 soybean germplasm were analysed for the development of core collection using the principal component score (PCS) strategy and the power core method. The PCS strategy yielded core collection (CC1) of 576 accessions, which accounted for 16.72% of the entire collection (EC). The analysis based on the power core programme resulted in CC2 of 402 accessions, which accounted for 11.67% of the EC. Statistical analysis showed similar trends for the mean and range estimated in both core collections and EC. In addition, the variance, standard deviation and coefficient of variance were in general higher in core collections than in the EC. The correlations observed in the EC in general were preserved in core collections. A total of 311 and 137 unique accessions were found in CC1 and CC2 in addition to 265 accessions that were found to be common in both core collections. These 265 common accessions were the most diverse core sets, which accounted for 7.64% of the EC. We proposed to constitute an integrated core collection (ICC) by integrating both common and unique accessions. The ICC comprised 713 accessions, which accounted for about 20.62% of the EC. Statistical analysis indicated that the ICC captured maximum variation than CC1 and CC2. Therefore, the ICC can be extensively evaluated for a large number of economically important traits for the identification of desirable genotypes and for the development of mini core collection in soybean.
A field experiment was carried out at the farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to quantify the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and different levels of N fertiliser application on nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil under maize. The experiment included five treatments: 60 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 120 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 160 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 120 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open top chambers (OTC) and 120 kg N ha−1 under elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) in the OTC. Peaks of N2O flux were observed after every dose of N application. Cumulative N2O emission was 13% lower under ambient CO2 as compared to the elevated CO2 concentrations. There was an increase in CO2 emissions with application of N from 60 kg ha−1 to 160 kg ha−1. Higher yield and root biomass was observed under higher N treatment (160 kg N ha−1). There was no significant increase in maize yield under elevated CO2 as compared to ambient CO2. The carbon emitted was more than the carbon fixed under elevated CO2 as compared to ambient CO2 levels. The carbon efficiency ratio (C fixed/C emitted) was highest in ambient CO2 treatment in the OTC.
Tribochemical studies of the effect of lubricant bonding on the tribology of the head/disk interface (HDI) were conducted using hydrogenated (CHx) carbon disk samples coated with perfluoropolyether ZDOL lubricant. The studies involved drag tests with uncoated and carboncoated Al2O3-TiC sliders and also thermal desorption experiments in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) tribochamber. We observed that a larger mobile lubricant portion significantly enhances the wear durability of the (head/disk interface) HDI by providing a reservoir to constantly replenish the lubricant displaced in the wear track during drag tests. In the thermal desorption tests we observed two distinct temperatures of desorption. The mobile ZDOL layer is desorbed at the lower thermal desorption temperature and the residual bonded ZDOL layer is desorbed at the higher thermal desorption temperature. We also observed that the hydrogen evolution from CHx overcoats initiates lubricant catalytic decomposition with uncoated Al2O3/TiC sliders, forming CF3 (69) and C2F5 (119). The generation of Hydroflouric acid (HF) during thermal desorption experiments provides the formation mechanism of Lewis acid, which is the necessary component for catalytic reaction causing Z-DOL lube degradation.
The phase-diagram of Ca2-xSrxRuO4 has been studied by several diffraction techniques as function of concentration, temperature, pressure and magnetic field. The substitution of Sr through the smaller Ca induces a series of structural phase transitions with a strong impact on the physical properties. The spin triplet superconductor Sr2RuO4 exhibits an undistorted crystal structure, and the Mott-insulator Ca2RuO4 strong structural distortions. For intermediate structural distortions samples stay metallic but with outstanding properties. Throughout the phase diagram we find a close coupling between the crystal structure on one side and magnetic and electronic behavior on the other side.
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is an alternative material to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) for use in thin film photovoltaic absorber layers composed solely of commodity elements [1,2]. Thus, if similar material quality and performance can be realized, its use would allow scale-up of terrestrial thin film photovoltaic production unhindered by material price or supply constraints. Here we report on our research on the deposition of CZTS by RF sputtering from a single CZTS target and co-sputtering from multiple binary sources on Mo-coated glass. We find some samples delaminate during post-sputtering furnace annealing in S vapor. Samples on borosilicate glass (BSG) delaminate much more frequently than those on soda-lime glass (SLG). We investigate the influences of the formation of frangible phases such as MoS2 at the CZTS/Mo interface and residual and thermal mismatch stress on delamination. We implicate fracture in a layer of MoS2 as the mechanism of delamination between the Mo and CZTS layers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Wafer curvature measurements show significant (˜400 MPa) deposition stress for minimally optimized Mo deposition; however nearly stress-free Mo layers with good adhesion can be deposited using a multi-step Mo deposition recipe. Co-sputtering CZTS adds 100 MPa of stress on both BSG and SLG, however delamination is nearly absent for samples deposited on low-stress Mo layers. We investigate metallic diffusion barrier layers to prevent the formation of MoS2 at the interface. Lastly we discuss the importance of removing Mo oxide by sputter etching before CZTS deposition and its effects on adhesion and series resistance.
X-ray diffraction with hard X-rays (E = 70 keV) was used to investigate the grain nucleation and grain growth during solidification of a grain refined Al-0.3Ti-0.02B (wt.%) alloy. The investigations showed for the first time the nucleation profile during solidification and how nucleation rate increases with cooling rate. The results indicate that the nucleation process is complete for solid fraction below 30 %, irrespective of the cooling rate. This is explained in terms of the release of latent heat during solidification. The growth of individual aluminium grains during solidification is experimentally observed and compared to model predictions for the diffusion limited grain growth. The experimental results are only in agreement with the theory in the first stage of the transformation. The difference between the experiment and the theory is discussed qualitatively.
In situ specular x-ray reflectivity was applied to study the growth kinetics of passive oxide films on iron and stainless steel substrates in pH 8.4 borate buffer solution. Under electrical potential from 0 to 800 mV, the growth rate of oxide films decreases exponentially in thickness following the direct logarithmic growth law predicted in the point defect model. The electric field in the oxide on iron is independent of the applied potentials consistent with the point defect model. In stainless steel, however, the electric field depends strongly on the applied potential indicating that the oxide properties change as the applied potential varies.
Pulsed laser deposited cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoporous thin film on platinum (Pt) coated glass has been used for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) by electrostatic interaction. Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO2 thin film. Differential pulse voltammetric and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO2/Pt bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of glucose over the concentration upto 300 mg/dl. A low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant∼1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose.
Ultra small angle x-ray scattering is used to probe the morphology of highly dispersed montmorillonite (MMT) in water and polyamide-66. In water the scattered intensity, I(q) shows a q-2 dependence for q > 0.01 Å-1, where q is the magnitude of the scattering vector. This is as expected for a two dimensional sheet-like object. On larger scales (smaller q) mass-fractal character is evident up to the radius-of-gyration of the individual scattering entities. The scattering profile is interpreted using a semi-flexible sheet model in which flat, disk-like entities of radius = 80 Å (an areal persistence length) are fractally distributed on large scales with a mass fractal dimension of 2.65. These size scales correspond to a scattering entity comprised of one or a few crumpled sheets. No evidence of inter-particle correlations is found at concentrations below the gel point. In polyamide-66 loaded with organically modified MMT long-range fractal behavior is also observed but with larger fractal dimension.
We have used ultra-small-angle scattering (USANS) and fluorescence microscopy to show the existence of large-scale structure in attractive colloidal glasses composed of block polyelectrolyte micelles. Our systems display evidence of surface scattering, with the scattered intensity I at low scattering vector q scaling as I ∼ qx with x in the range –3 to –4. We believe this is due to surface scattering from large, highly polydisperse aggregates with rough interfaces. USANS may provide an ideal way to distinguish fractal colloidal gels and colloidal glasses.
The properties of the NaxCoO2 class of materials are of interest from a number of viewpoints. These compounds are based on a triangular lattice of spin-½ ions—prototype RVB system— where a high thermoelectric-power Curie-Weiss metallic paramagnet is found for Na0.7CoO2, a charge ordered insulator at x=0.5, and a paramagnetic metal where superconductivity is induced in Na0.3CoO2 when it is intercalated with water. Here we briefly review our neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering measurements characterizing the crystal structure and lattice dynamics, and relate these to the observed physical properties. The basic structure of NaxCoO2 is hexagonal and consists of robust layers of CoO2 interspersed by Na layers with two inequivalent sites. Two special cases are x=1 where one of these sites is fully occupied and the other empty, and x=½ where both sites have equal occupancies of ¼ and the system is a charge ordered insulator. For general × the site occupancies are inequivalent and vary systematically with x. In the regime of x=0.75 we find a first-order transition from a high symmetry Na site at low T to a three-fold split site (with lower symmetry) at high T. This transition is first order and varies with x. For the Na0.3CoO2. 1.4(H/D)2O superconductor, the water forms two additional layers between the Na and CoO2, increasing the c -axis lattice parameter of the hexagonal P 63/mmc space group from 11.16 Å to 19.5 Å. The Na ions are found to occupy a different configuration from the parent compound, while the water forms a structure that replicates the structure of ice to a good approximation. We find a strong inverse correlation between the CoO2 layer thickness and the superconducting transition temperature (TC increases with decreasing thickness). The phonon density-of-states for Na0.3CoO2 exhibits distinct acoustic and optic bands, with a high-energy cutoff of ∼100 meV. The lattice dynamical scattering for the superconductor is dominated by the hydrogen modes, with librational and bending modes that are quite similar to ice, supporting the structural model that the water intercalates and forms ice-like layers in the superconductor.
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising alternative for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers in thin film solar cells and is comprised of commodity elements which will enable scale-up of chalcopyrite panel production unhindered by elemental supplies and costs. Various CZTS synthesis methods, especially sulfurization of stacked metal or metal sulfide layers, are being studied and have led to cell efficiencies up to 6.7% . Here we report our studies of CZTS thin film synthesis via room temperature sputtering from a single CZTS target and co-sputtering from Cu2S, ZnS and SnS2 binary targets, both followed by sulfurization between 500 C - 600 C using either elemental sulfur vapor or in-situ generated H2S. Sputtering from sulfur-containing targets is designed to increase the sulfur content in the precursor films to promote stoichiometry. We report on the effects of processing including deposition on soda-lime and borosilicate glasses and deposition of Na-containing layers on film morphology (AFM/SEM), composition (EDS), phase (XRD), grain size (XRD/EBSD), grain boundary structure (EBSD), optical (spectroscopic ellipsometry) and electrical properties. Processing conditions producing desirable Zn-rich/Cu-poor films are identified . The formation of MoSe2 at Mo/CIGS interface is believed to promote Ohmic contacts, but in CZTS we associate excessive formation of frangible MoS2 with film delamination from Mo/borosilicate glass substrates. Strategies for preventing delamination including adhesion layers are investigated and discussed. P-N junctions are formed with CdS/ZnO using chemical bath deposition and sputtering, and I-V characteristics are reported. Schottky junctions are formed and C-V measurements are used to determine the doping in the CZTS absorber layers. H. Katagiri, et al., MRS Symp. Proc. 1165 1165-M04-01 (2009).
CuInSe2 (CIS) is commercially processed using energy intensive vacuum processes such as sputtering and thermal evaporation followed by thermal annealing. In order to reduce the cost of fabricating CIS photovoltaic absorber layers we need fast and cheap processing methods. We have investigated the use of non-vacuum electrochemical deposition (ED) followed by ultra violet pulsed laser annealing (UV-PLA). We report here on the results of ns pulsed KrF irradiation of ED CIS films and ED CIS films which were first annealed in a Se atmosphere.
The deformation of polycrystalline uranium 6 wt. % niobium (U6Nb) was studied in-situ during uniaxial tensile and compressive deformation by time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Diffraction patterns were recorded at incremental strains to roughly 4% total deformation. The asymmetry in the crystallographic response of the lattice is discussed.
An in-situ DC magnetron sputter deposition system was constructed on the goniometer of an X-ray diffractometer for investigation of thin film nucleation and growth in real time. Tantalum films were deposited on silicon and A723 steel substrates under various deposition conditions. This paper showed: 1) Ta films evolved in single or mixed α-Ta and β-Ta phase on Si and Fe with very different growth characteristics. 2) Crystalline phase was sensitive to deposition mechanics, Ta film changed phase spontaneously without external parameter changes. 3) In pressure range 0.65–13 Pa at 100 watts, phase was not sensitive to pressure variations, but deposition rate and degree of texture decreased at high gas pressure. 4) Depositions using heavier gas showed higher a-Ta concentrations. 5) Reverse sputter cleaning of target and substrate surfaces improved Ta film adhesion.
The biocompatibility of 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces was increased by more than a factor of six through the covalent grafting of NH2 terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM) using APDEMS and APTES molecules. Surface functionalization began with a hydroxyl, OH, surface termination. The study included two NH2 terminated surfaces obtained through silanization with APDEMS (aminopropyldiethoxymethylsilane) and APTES (aminopropyltriethoxysilane) molecules (hydrophilic surfaces) and a CH3 terminated surface produced via alkylation with 1-octadecene (hydrophobic surface). H4 human neuroglioma and PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells were seeded on the functionalized surfaces and the cell morphology was evaluated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, 96 hour MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were employed to evaluate the cell viability on the SAM modified samples. The biocompatibility was enhanced with a 2 fold (171-240%) increase with 1-octadecene, 3-6 fold (320-670%) increase with APDEMS and 5-8 fold (476-850%) increase with APTES with respect to untreated 6H-SiC surfaces.
A bioglass of composition SiO2 (67.12 mol%), CaO (28.5 mol%), and P2O5 (4.38%) was synthesized and stabilized by a novel technique using ethanol. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of application in the field of biomaterials promoting bone bonding as well as bonding to soft tissue. Earlier our lab developed a novel PVA-PCL semi IPN porous and 3D scaffold that was found to favor chondrogenesis. In the present study, a composite of this polymer and bioglass is prepared by an emulsion freeze-drying process, as a porous 3 dimensional scaffold. The scaffolds were characterized for their physiochemical properties and ability to support cartilage tissue regeneration. The composite scaffolds were observed to be non-cytotoxic. The chondrocytes cells cultured in vitro for a month on the composite scaffolds regenerate cartilaginous tissue, secreting GAGs and collagen in amounts nearly comparable to the amounts on the control PVA-PCL scaffold. The composite scaffold is also biomimetic and bioactive and favors mineralization by forming a hydroxycarbonate apatite layer, when immersed in simulated body fluid for a 14 day period. The PVA-PCL-bioglass composite is hence expected to have potential implications as a scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering.