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Reproductive traits have a major influence on the economic effectiveness of horse breeding. However, there is little information available. We evaluated the use of reproductive traits as selection criteria in official breeding programs to increase the reproductive efficiency of breeding studs, analysing 696 690 records from the pedigree data of eight Spanish horse populations, with different breeding purposes. The reproductive parameters studied in both sexes were age at first foaling (AFF), age at last foaling, average reproductive life and generational interval. In the females, the average interval between foaling (AIF) and interval between first and second foaling were also studied. There were clear differences between sexes and breeds, which may be due to management practices, breeding purposes and the status of the populations, rather than to differences in actual physiological conditions. Riding mares were the most precocious (AFF, 1937.64 to 2255.69 days) and had a more intensive reproductive use (AIF, 625.83 to 760.07 days), whereas sires used for meat production were the most precocious males (AFF, 1789.93 to 1999.75 days), although they had a shorter reproductive life (1564.34 to 1797.32 days). Heritabilities (0.02 to 0.42 in females and 0.04 to 0.28 in males) evidenced the genetic component of the reproductive traits, with Sport Horses having the higher average values. These results support the selection by AFF to improve reproductive aspects because of its medium–high heritability and its positive correlations with other important reproductive traits. The inclusion of the AIF is also recommended in sport populations, because this determines the length of the breaks between foaling and conditions the reproductive performance of the dams, as well as their selective intensity, genetic gain and genetic improvement. It is therefore an important economic parameter in breeding studs.
Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) stand out by the diversity of phenological patterns used by plants to deal with dry periods. Although the predominant phenological pattern is dry deciduousness, in Mesoamerican SDTFs the heliophilous tree species Bonellia (formerly Jacquinia) nervosa displays an unusual inverted leaf phenology, producing and holding leaves through the dry season while becoming deciduous in the rainy season. Applying a dry season irrigation field experiment (no water, low watering, high watering), we studied the consequences of contrasting water availability from a phenological plasticity response perspective. Contrary to our expectations, our results show no effect of irrigation treatment on leaf phenology. In addition, mid-day twig water potential showed no significant differences across treatments, but reproductive phenological responses varied among treatments: canopy flowering per cent decreased gradually until the beginning of the wet season in all treatments; meanwhile canopy fruit per cent showed a significant decline under low irrigation. Finally, non-structural carbohydrate concentration (starch) was significantly higher in the high irrigation treatment. Our results showed that inverted leaf phenology remains unaffected regardless of supplemental water availability, and suggest a reallocation of non-structural carbohydrates to fruits and seeds in high-irrigation treatments. Given the current and expected increase in extreme drought events, investigations on the responses of trees of different phenologies, including those of inverted leafing such as Bonellia nervosa, are warranted.
In this paper, a robust geometric navigation algorithm, designed on the special Euclidean group SE(3), of a quadrotor is proposed. The equations of motion for the quadrotor are obtained using the Newton–Euler formulation. The geometric navigation considers a guidance frame which is designed to perform autonomous flights with a convergence to the contour of the task with small normal velocity. For this purpose, a super twisting algorithm controls the nonlinear rotational and translational dynamics as a cascade structure in order to establish the fast and yet smooth tracking with the typical robustness of sliding modes. In this sense, the controller provides robustness against parameter uncertainty, disturbances, convergence to the sliding manifold in finite time, and asymptotic convergence of the trajectory tracking. The algorithm validation is presented through experimental results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach and illustrating that the tracking errors converge asymptotically to the origin.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery specialists and trainees in Spain, and to measure the effect that physical exercise could have on muscular discomfort.
A cross-sectional survey was administered between September and December 2017 to practising otolaryngologists.
Four hundred and three ENT surgeons responded, with a median age of 44.9 years, and 89.8 per cent reported discomfort or physical symptoms that they attributed to surgical practice. More female surgeons reported musculoskeletal symptoms (92.8 per cent vs 87.1 per cent; p = 0.04). When the level of physical activity was compared with the frequency of physical discomfort, no significant difference was found.
This study has shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among ENT surgeons in Spain but has failed to demonstrate an important role of physical exercise in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.
The aim of the present study is to use the syndemic framework to investigate the risk of contracting HIV in the US population. Cross-sectional analyses are from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We extracted and aggregated data on HIV antibody test, socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, drug use, depression, sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases from cycle 2009–2010 to 2015–2016. We carried out weighted regression among young adults (20–39 years) and adults (40–59 years) separately. In total, 5230 men and 5794 women aged 20–59 years were included in the present analyses. In total, 0.8% men and 0.2% women were tested HIV-positive. Each increasing HIV risk behaviour was associated with elevated odds of being tested HIV-positive (1.15, 95% CI 1.15–1.15) among young adults and adults (1.61, 95% CI 1.61–1.61). Multi-faceted, community-based interventions are urgently required to reduce the incidence of HIV in the USA.
Filarial nematodes possess glutathione transferases (GSTs), ubiquitous enzymes with the potential to detoxify xenobiotic and endogenous substrates, and modulate the host immune system, which may aid worm infection establishment, maintenance and survival in the host. Here we have identified and characterized a σ class glycosylated GST (OoGST1), from the cattle-infective filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi, which is homologous (99% amino acid identity) with an immunodominant GST and potential vaccine candidate from the human parasite, O. volvulus, (OvGST1b). Onchocerca ochengi native GSTs were purified using a two-step affinity chromatography approach, resolved by 2D and 1D SDS-PAGE and subjected to enzymic deglycosylation revealing the existence of at least four glycoforms. A combination of lectin-blotting and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of the released N-glycans indicated that OoGST1 contained mainly oligomannose Man5GlcNAc2 structure, but also hybrid- and larger oligommanose-type glycans in a lower proportion. Furthermore, purified OoGST1 showed prostaglandin synthase activity as confirmed by Liquid Chromatography (LC)/MS following a coupled-enzyme assay. This is only the second reported and characterized glycosylated GST and our study highlights its potential role in host-parasite interactions and use in the study of human onchocerciasis.
Psychological risk factors that lead to impaired work performance, negatively impacting mental and physical health, have emerged as a concern across clinical settings. Although depression and anxiety are linked to poor physician mental health, physician burnout characterized by work related stress due to chronic exhaustion from clinical work, cynicism toward meaning of the medical profession, and feelings of inadequacy toward work related accomplishments, may be an even stronger indicator of well-being. Literature suggests that work satisfaction among physicians is rapidly deteriorating owing to high rates of burn out and poor mental health. Although the relationship between work burnout (WB) and negative affectivity has been well documented, the association with positive affect, such as trait forgiveness (TF) has been overlooked. On that note, research shows that lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness predict worse mental and physical health. Since TF has been linked strongly with healthy workplace relationships, positive occupational outcomes and general well-being, its association with WB remains to be investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the link between TF and WB among physicians. We hypothesized that TF would be associated with reduced levels of burnout.
A total of 62 (F=23) medical residents at a Teaching Hospital consented for the study. Residents were administered surveys on WB (Maslach BurnoutInventory), workplace bullying, personal bullying (PB), interpersonal rejection sensitivity (IRS), perceived stress scale (PSS), TF, anxiety, and depression, all of which were anonymously submitted via electronically. Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) models were used to determine the associations between WB, work environment social factors and TF. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
The mean age 33.1±SD 4.2 years. HMR analysis using WB as main outcome contained 6 predictors: Model 1 contained depression and anxiety, Model 2 added PB, Model 3 added IRS and PSS, Model 4 added TF. Anxiety and TF were the only significant predictors (p= >0.05) accounting for 10.4% and 17.5% of the variance in WB scores, respectively.
The novel finding of the present study is that TF was associated with low levels of burnout. Additionally, WB was found to be linked to anxiety and depression which is in line with previous research. These data suggest that TF could be a potential resolution to the deleterious influence of burnout. Further exploration is needed in order to understand the psychology of forgiveness as a potential adjuvant and/or therapeutic intervention for physicians’ burnout. These results suggest that strategies including forgiveness training aimed at decreasing WB while increasing job satisfaction among physicians warrant further exploration.
Since ancient times, lubricants have been used to reduce friction and wear problems of mechanical systems. However, nowadays, there is a constant effort to improve their performance through additives so that they can accomplish properly in this modern world. In that sense, in this study, it was proposed the use of Poly(ε-Caprolactone) (PCL) as a biodegradable additive in Castor oil. The effect that this additive has on the tribological properties of AISI 4140 steel/Al2O3 tribosystem was analyzed. For this purpose, PCL was dissolved in Castor oil at 65 °C for 15 minutes. Later, once the lubricant formulations got into room temperature, friction tests were conducted with a ball-on-disk configuration. Several experiments were systematically carried out in order to study the factors that could influence the performance of the tribological system, for instance: additive concentration, velocity, temperature, and wear track radius. The kinetic friction coefficient was used to analyze the results as an output variable. The parameters in which the best friction behavior was observed were employed again to compare the efficiency of the polymeric additive by profoundly analyzing and comparing the wear response of the system. The PCL additive showed great results by decreasing friction up to 30% compared to the neat Castor oil. Nevertheless, as the opposite effect, this additive increased the steel wear to almost half an order of magnitude. Given the above, this investigation showed that, with further studies, Poly(ε-Caprolactone) could be used as an additive in vegetable oil-based lubricants for the improvement of friction performance.
Differences in forage nutritive value between morning and afternoon are related to patterns of dehydration and carbohydrate accumulation throughout the day. In this way, management strategies that maximize grazing time during the afternoon could increase forage nutritive value and consequently nutrient intake. The aim of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of the time of day (06.00 h [designated AM] or 15.00 h [PM]) that cattle are moved to a new paddock on forage nutritive value, grazing behaviour and animal performance of beef cattle on rotationally stocked Marandu palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu Syn. Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) pastures. A spring and summer study was conducted in Pirassununga, SP, Brazil from October 2012 to March 2013 (182 days). Treatments were distributed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Herbage mass, morphological composition, herbage allowance and stocking rates were similar between treatments during spring and summer. Moving animals to a new paddock, regardless of the time of day – 06.00 h (AM) or 15.00 h (PM) – stimulated grazing, modifying the distribution of meals throughout the day. However, compensatory mechanisms among grazing time, bite rate and forage nutritive value throughout the day operated in order to generate similar performance between animals offered a new paddock in the morning or in the afternoon.
To investigate whether amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) identified with visual memory tests conveys an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (risk-AD) and if the risk-AD differs from that associated with aMCI based on verbal memory tests.
4,771 participants aged 70.76 (SD = 6.74, 45.4% females) from five community-based studies, each a member of the international COSMIC consortium and from a different country, were classified as having normal cognition (NC) or one of visual, verbal, or combined (visual and verbal) aMCI using international criteria and followed for an average of 2.48 years. Hazard ratios (HR) and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis analyzed the risk-AD with age, sex, education, single/multiple domain aMCI, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as covariates.
All aMCI groups (n = 760) had a greater risk-AD than NC (n = 4,011; HR range = 3.66 – 9.25). The risk-AD was not different between visual (n = 208, 17 converters) and verbal aMCI (n = 449, 29 converters, HR = 1.70, 95%CI: 0.88, 3.27, p = 0.111). Combined aMCI (n = 103, 12 converters, HR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.13, 4.84, p = 0.023) had a higher risk-AD than verbal aMCI. Age and MMSE scores were related to the risk-AD. The IPD meta-analyses replicated these results, though with slightly lower HR estimates (HR range = 3.68, 7.43) for aMCI vs. NC.
Although verbal aMCI was most common, a significant proportion of participants had visual-only or combined visual and verbal aMCI. Compared with verbal aMCI, the risk-AD was the same for visual aMCI and higher for combined aMCI. Our results highlight the importance of including both verbal and visual memory tests in neuropsychological assessments to more reliably identify aMCI.