Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (PXM) is sensitive to the density and organization of the dislocations, which occurs at several structural levels. At the lowest level statistically stored (dipolar) individual dislocations can exist within a crystal. At a higher structural level dislocations can organize into strongly correlated arrangements including walls and sub-boundaries. After plastic deformation geometrically necessary (polar) dislocations as well as geometrically necessary boundaries may be formed in a crystal. These dislocations cause not only random deformation, but also strongly correlated long range rotations within the crystal, grain, or subgrain. Non homogeneous plastic deformation is observed even in single crystals at smaller scale. Polar dislocations spread the conditions for x-ray (or neutron) diffraction transverse to the reciprocal space vector of each reflection. Diffracted intensity depends on the second rank dislocation density tensor. The polar dislocations density is related to the incompatibility of the plastic deformation and to the local lattice curvature. Laue patterns are therefore sensitive to the ratio between polar and dipolar dislocations density. Different slip systems of polar dislocations population cause distinctly different streaking in Laue patterns. Examination of streaked patterns enables one to determine statistically stored (dipolar) dislocations and geometrically necessary (polar) dislocations, GNDs, and to quantitativly determine the dislocation patterning parameters. The co-evolution of the statistically stored (dipolar) and geometrically necessary dislocations (polar) may be analyzed, and the ratio between the two densities may be obtained from the analysis of the Laue spots intensity distribution. The microbeam technique is applied to analyze a dislocation structure in a Ni bicrystal under uniaxial pulling.