To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Host behavioural manipulation is a common strategy used by parasites to enhance their survival and/or transmission. Baculoviruses induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (pre-death climbing behaviour) in their caterpillar hosts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this behavioural manipulation. A previous study showed that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induced tree-top disease at 3 days post infection in third instar S. exigua larvae and that light plays a key role in triggering this behaviour. Here we investigated the temporal requirements for the presence of light to trigger this behaviour and found that light from above was needed between 43 and 50 h post infection to induce tree-top disease. Infected larvae that were not exposed to light from above in this period finally died at low positions. Exposure to light prior to this period did not affect the final positions where larvae died. Overall we conclude that light in a particular time frame is needed to trigger SeMNPV-induced tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae.
Gender equity is imperative to the attainment of healthy lives and wellbeing of all, and promoting gender equity in leadership in the health sector is an important part of this endeavour. This empirical research examines gender and leadership in the health sector, pooling learning from three complementary data sources: literature review, quantitative analysis of gender and leadership positions in global health organisations and qualitative life histories with health workers in Cambodia, Kenya and Zimbabwe. The findings highlight gender biases in leadership in global health, with women underrepresented. Gender roles, relations, norms and expectations shape progression and leadership at multiple levels. Increasing women's leadership within global health is an opportunity to further health system resilience and system responsiveness. We conclude with an agenda and tangible next steps of action for promoting women's leadership in health as a means to promote the global goals of achieving gender equity.
The reminiscence functions scale (RFS) is a 43-item self-report instrument designed to assess the use of reminiscence for different functions. This study aims, on one hand, to analyze the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the RFS and, on the other, to examine the relationship between the functions of reminiscence and mental health.
RFS scale and measures of depressive symptomology, despair, and life satisfaction were administered to a sample of persons over the age of sixty (n = 364).
After eliminating three conflictive items from the original scale, the confirmatory factor analysis results present a factorial structure comprising eight traditional factors and adequate reliability scores (from 0.73 to 0.87). Using structural equation modeling, we find that these reminiscence factors are organized in three second-order factors (self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial). Results show that the self-positive factor relates negatively and the self-negative factor relates positively with symptoms of mental health problems.
These results, on one hand, confirm that the RFS scale is a useful instrument to assess reminiscence functions in a sample of Spanish older adults and, on the other, that the three-factor model of reminiscence is a better predictor of mental health than the alternative four-factor model.
The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.
The effects of bread consumption change over time on anthropometric measures have been scarcely studied. We analysed 2213 participants at high risk for CVD from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial to assess the association between changes in the consumption of bread and weight and waist circumference gain over time. Dietary habits were assessed with validated FFQ at baseline and repeatedly every year during 4 years of follow-up. Using multivariate models to adjust for covariates, long-term weight and waist circumference changes according to quartiles of change in energy-adjusted white and whole-grain bread consumption were calculated. The present results showed that over 4 years, participants in the highest quartile of change in white bread intake gained 0·76 kg more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0·003) and 1·28 cm more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend < 0·001). No significant dose–response relationships were observed for change in whole-bread consumption and anthropometric measures. Gaining weight (>2 kg) and gaining waist circumference (>2 cm) during follow-up was not associated with increase in bread consumption, but participants in the highest quartile of changes in white bread intake had a reduction of 33 % in the odds of losing weight (>2 kg) and a reduction of 36 % in the odds of losing waist circumference (>2 cm). The present results suggest that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread consumption, within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat.
We present preliminary results aimed at investigating the effects of unprecracked arsine and trimethylgallium on the CBE (chemical beam epitaxy) growth of GaAs epilayers. We find that the growth rate rises linearly as the V/III ratio is increased when TMGa and arsine are used. All of the runs produced p-type material mainly due to carbon incorporation with the hole concentration typically of 1017 cm−3. The impurity content of the layers was found to depend distinctly on the pressure of TMGa. The significant drop in hole concentration is due in part to the hydrogen atoms generated from decomposed AsH3 which then aids in the removal of CH3 radicals on the surface. As a result of using unprecracked arsine for growth of the GaAs epilayers, we measure substantial improvements in their electrical and optical properties.
MeV ion induced damage and annealing behavior in Si are reported using 3 ion species such as B, P and Si. Si self implantations were done to reveal the intrinsic behavior of secondary defect formation by excluding the possibility of chemical interactions between substrate atoms and dopant atoms. Experimental results of B and P implantations were compared to those of Si. TEM observations showed that interstitial type secondary defects are exclusively formed at around Rp. DCXRD rocking curve analyses indicated that an isolated layer of (+) strain is built up at around Rp after strain relaxation by annealing. Sources for secondary defects were thought to be Si self interstitials. Atomistic mechanisms of secondary defect formation and the effect of ion species on them are discussed.
The Bengal Florican is a ‘Critically Endangered’ bustard (Otididae) restricted to India, Nepal and southern Indochina. Fewer than 500 birds are estimated to remain in the Indian subcontinent, whilst the Indochinese breeding population is primarily restricted to grasslands surrounding the Tonle Sap lake, Cambodia. We conducted the first comprehensive breeding season survey of Bengal Florican within the Tonle Sap region (19,500 km2). During 2005/06 and 2006/07 we systematically sampled 1-km squares for territorial males. Bengal Florican were detected within 90 1-km squares at a mean density of 0.34 males km−2 which, accounting for unequal survey effort across grassland blocks, provides a mean estimate of 0.2 males km−2. Based on 2005 habitat extent, the estimated Tonle Sap population is 416 adult males (333–502 ± 95% CI), more than half of them in Kompong Thom province. Tonle Sap grasslands are rapidly being lost due to intensification of rice cultivation and, based on satellite images, we document declines of 28% grassland cover within 10 grassland blocks between January 2005 and March 2007. Based on mean 2005 population densities the remaining grassland may support as few as 294 adult male florican, a decline of 30% since 2005. In response to these habitat declines almost 350 km2 of grassland have been designated as protected areas, set aside for biodiversity and local livelihoods. Conservation activities in these areas include participatory land-use zoning, patrols reporting new developments to government officials, awareness-raising and incentive-led nest protection schemes.
Resveratrol has been shown to have beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidant and/or inflammatory processes and extends the lifespan of simple organisms including rodents. The objective of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of resveratrol and piceid (R&P) present in foods, and to identify the principal dietary sources of these compounds in the Spanish adult population. For this purpose, a food composition database (FCDB) of R&P in Spanish foods was compiled. The study included 40 685 subjects aged 35–64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. Usual food intake was assessed by personal interviews using a computerised version of a validated diet history method. An FCDB with 160 items was compiled. The estimated median and mean of R&P intake were 100 and 933 μg/d respectively. Approximately, 32 % of the population did not consume R&P. The most abundant of the four stilbenes studied was trans-piceid (53·6 %), followed by trans-resveratrol (20·9 %), cis-piceid (19·3 %) and cis-resveratrol (6·2 %). The most important source of R&P was wines (98·4 %) and grape and grape juices (1·6 %), whereas peanuts, pistachios and berries contributed to less than 0·01 %. For this reason the pattern of intake of R&P was similar to the wine pattern. This is the first time that R&P intake has been estimated in a Mediterranean country.
Intense and stable laser operation with Ni-like Zr and Ag was
demonstrated at pump energies between 2 J and 5 J energy from the PHELIX
pre-amplifier section. A novel single mirror focusing scheme for the TCE
x-ray laser (XRL) has been successfully implemented by the
LIXAM/MBI/GSI collaboration under different pump geometries. This
shows potential for an extension to shorter XRL wavelength. Generation of
high quality XRL beams for XRL spectroscopy of highly charged ions is an
important issue within the scientific program of PHELIX. Long range
perspective is the study of nuclear properties of radioactive isotopes
within the FAIR project.
In this article we report a new wavefront sensor, developed at the Laboratoire de
Spectroscopie Atomique et Ionique, for a full characterization of soft X-ray beams. The
Shack-Hartmann sensor has a theoretical accuracy in the order of
at a wavelength
around 13 nm. A cartography of the wave-vectors pointing of laser-pumped soft X-ray laser
has been achieved. It has shown the presence of many ripples probably coming from plasma
instabilities. Capillary discharge soft X-ray laser has been also investigated. For all the
pumping configurations, the wavefront is spherical, divergent with a radius of about 6.5 m at
2.5 m from the plasma end. The best wavefront exhibits an error to a perfect wave of 3λ rms.
Assuming to focus the beam with a f = 50 mm diffraction-limited mirror, a theoretical focal
spot size of 0.5 μm in diameter have been estimated containing 70% of the incident energy. In
that case an intensity of 4 × 1013 W cm−2 should be achieved.
Recent experiments undertaken at the Rutherford Appleton
Laboratory to produce X-ray lasing over the 5–30 nm
wavelength range are reviewed. The efficiency of lasing is
optimized when the main pumping pulse interacts with a preformed
plasma. Experiments using double 75-ps pulses and picosecond
pulses superimposed on 300-ps background pulses are described.
The use of travelling wave pumping with the approximately
picosecond pulse experiments is necessary as the gain duration
becomes comparable to the time for the X-ray laser pulse to
propagate along the target length. Results from a model taking
account of laser saturation and deviations from the speed of
light c of the travelling wave and X-ray laser group velocity
are presented. We show that X-ray laser pulses as short as
2–3 ps can be produced with optical pumping pulses of
Obtaining an X-ray laser emission from plasmas, created and
driven by an intense IR laser, has been pursued at the Laboratoire
de Spectroscopie Atomique et Ionique (LSAI) for several years.
At present, we operate various types of X-ray lasers driven
by IR laser pulses of different durations (600 ps, 100 ps, and
600 ps/1 ps). A review of different techniques used at the LSAI
to produce a strongly amplified emission using the collisional
excitation pumping is presented. In the second part of this
paper, to illustrate the potential of the X-ray lasers for
applications, we present the main results obtained with an X-ray
laser emitting at 21.2 nm in a study of surface defects of a
niobium cathode, induced by strong electrical fields. We also
describe a novel imaging interferometry device using an X-ray
laser as a source and designed as a tool for high-resolution
diagnostic of dense plasmas.
New fields of X-ray source applications (X-ray laser
and high order harmonic generation) could appear if an
intensity higher than 1012 Wcm−2
is reached. Following this goal, we have started a complete
investigation of the X-ray beam wavefront both numerically
and experimentally. The first XUV wavefront sensor has
been developed and tested on different XUV sources. For
a better comprehension of the experimental results, a numerical
work (ray-trace code) has been performed. We present and
discuss the first results obtained on the X-ray laser at
Genetic variability and population structure in the endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) were studied using DNA microsatellite markers. Special emphasis was placed on the subspecies F. p. peregrinus living in Scandinavia and Scotland. For comparative purposes, three North American peregrine subspecies (F. p. tundrius, F. p. pealei and F. p. anatum) and one Tasmanian subspecies (F. p. macropus) were included in this analysis. Twelve DNA microsatellite loci were analysed across a total of 146 individuals. The amount of genetic variation did not differ in peregrine populations for which adequate sample sizes were obtained. Within F. p. peregrinus, significant genetic differentiation was found between populations in northern and southern Scandinavia and between the Scandinavian and Scottish populations, while the populations in south-eastern Norway and south-western Sweden did not differ significantly. Analysis of cliff-nesting peregrines in northern Sweden and bog-nesting peregrines in northern Finland/Sweden suggests that the difference in nesting habitat is not associated with genetic differentiation. Population structuring in F. p. peregrinus is further supported by an assignment test, wherein simulated genotypes are correctly assigned to the northern and southern Scandinavian and Scottish populations with relatively high probabilities, and by analysis of allele-sharing among individuals. Cluster analysis of genetic distances grouped populations of peregrines in accordance with their subspecific designation, and peregrines on either side of the Atlantic Ocean were clearly separated.
Atracurium causes a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) which has been ascribed to histamine release. However, histamine receptor blockade does not prevent these decreases completely. The hypotensive side effects of atracurium may not only be caused by histamine. In this study we examined the vasoactive effects of atracurium with and without histamine receptor blockade in an isolated femoral artery preparation of the rabbit. We also investigated whether vasodilatation caused by atracurium depends on the presence of endothelial cells. Tyrode perfused, rabbit femoral arteries were constricted with noradrenaline (NA) to ±70% of their passive diameter. Endothelial function was checked with acetylcholine (ACh). The vessels were divided into two groups. In both groups the responses to histamine (1.0−10−6m) and atracurium (3.2−10−5m) were determined. In group one (n = 5), the histamine and atracurium responses were repeated during histamine receptor blockade. In group two (n = 5), the diameter responses to histamine and atracurium before and after endothelium removal were compared. Also, some vessel segments (n = 5) were histologically prepared and examined for mast cells. The vasodilatory responses to atracurium both with and without histamine receptor blockade were the same. Removal of endothelium caused an increase in the histamine response, while the dilating response to atracurium remained constant. We conclude that in the isolated femoral artery of the rabbit, atracurium induces vasodilatation that is not mediated by histamine release and cannot be prevented with histamine receptor blockade. The mechanism of atracurium induced dilation is independent of the endothelium and is located in the smooth muscle cell.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.