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Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93–95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.
Studies of recreation congestion generally utilize nonmarket valuation techniques to determine the use level and entrance price that maximize aggregate recreation benefits for a specific recreation area. This paper improves upon these previous studies by relaxing the assumption of homogeneous preferences among visitors of the same recreation area and accounting for visitor expectations of congestion. The results indicate that failing to account for heterogeneous preferences for congestion by time of visit leads to overestimates of the benefits of relieving peak-time congestion, while accounting for expectations raises questions about the validity of the standard optimal use model.
Contingent valuation is used to measure the benefits of a proposed public program to control black flies. Respondents’ reported values are analyzed from three perspectives: data outliers, consistency between respondents’ reported values and their perceptions of black flies, and the temporal reliability of the values expressed by respondents. The results suggest that the estimated contingent values are plausible even though a majority of respondents expressed a value of zero dollars for the black fly control program.
The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife is currently in the throes of a budgetary crisis. Negotiated employee salary increases and the general inflationary trend of the 1970's have resulted in significant increases in operating costs. The Department, like many of its counterpart agencies in other states, is funded primarily from dedicated revenues collected from the sale of hunting and fishing licenses. Since there are no built-in adjustments for inflation in license fees, as there are in sales taxes or even income taxes. Department revenues have not kept pace with costs. As a result, the Department is projecting a budget deficit of around one million dollars for FY 1980–81.
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