The success of childhood vaccination against hepatitis B relies on persistence of immunity into adolescence and adulthood. In 2000, two hexavalent vaccines with a hepatitis B component (Hexavac®, Infanrix hexa®) were introduced in Germany. Hexavac was withdrawn in 2005 amidst concerns about its long-term hepatitis B protection. We compared hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels in children fully vaccinated with Hexavac or Infanrix hexa (n=477) in a secondary data analysis of a large cross-sectional health survey in Germany. On average 2·4 years after vaccination, 25·3% of Hexavac vaccinees had anti-HBs levels <10 mIU/ml (95% CI 19·0–32·8) compared to 4·7% of Infanrix hexa vaccinees (95% CI 2·4–8·9). These findings suggest that short-term hepatitis B immunogenicity in Hexavac vaccinees may also be weaker. Further studies are warranted to assess whether Hexavac vaccinees should be re-vaccinated or receive a booster vaccination before these birth cohorts reach adolescence.