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A Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), based on a Michelson interferometer and Cassegrain telescope, was carried by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater and Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum to determine the bulk mineralogy of surface materials. Spectra from the plains of Gusev demonstrate the ubiquity of olivine-rich basaltic rocks, with additional examples lofted into the adjacent Columbia Hills by meteoroid impacts. Hundreds of rocks observed with mini-TES in the Columbia Hills display spectral characteristics of variable alteration intensity, but likely with very little water involved. Rare exceptions include a tephra deposit cemented by Mg–Fe carbonates and nodular opaline silica rocks, likely indicative of a hot spring/geyser environment. Opportunity’s mini-TES confirmed orbital identification of crystalline hematite at Meridiani Planum and spectral characteristics indicative of a transition from a precursor goethite phase. The sedimentary bedrock that hosts the hematite has spectral features consistent with Al-rich opaline silica, Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing sulfates, plagioclase feldspar, and nontronite. Rare rocks at both sites are recognizable as iron meteorites from their infrared reflective properties.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions. Despite many proven pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, high rates of partial response and low rates of long-term remission remain. Ketamine has been receiving increasing attention as an interventional treatment modality in psychiatry, especially among refractory conditions, including major depressive disorder. There is limited yet growing evidence to support the use of ketamine in anxiety disorders. In this review of the literature, we present case reports, case series, and controlled trials demonstrating proof-of-concept for its potential role in the treatment of anxiety and anxiety spectrum disorders. Its unique mechanism of action, rapid onset, and high rate of response have driven its use in clinical practice. Ketamine is generally well tolerated by patients and has a limited side effect profile; however, the effects of long-term use are unknown. While there is a growing body of research and increasing clinical experience to suggest ketamine may have clinical applications in the treatment of refractory anxiety disorders, further research to determine long-term safety and tolerability is indicated.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
The first ultraviolet photochemical oxidation (UVox) extraction method for marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as CO2 gas was established by Armstrong and co-workers in 1966. Subsequent refinement of the UVox technique has co-evolved with the need for high-precision isotopic (Δ14C, δ13C) analysis and smaller sample size requirements for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) measurements. The UVox line at UC Irvine was established in 2004 and the system reaction kinetics and efficiency for isolating seawater DOC rigorously tested for quantitative isolation of ∼1 mg C for AMS 14C measurements. Since then, improvements have been made to sampling, storage, and UVox methods to increase overall efficiency. We discuss our progress, and key UVox system parameters for optimizing precision, accuracy, and efficiency, including (1) ocean to reactor: filtration, storage and preparation of DOC samples, (2) cryogenic trap design, efficiency and quantification of CO2 break through, and (3) use of isotopic standards, blanks and small sample graphitization techniques for the correction of DOC concentrations and Fm values with propagated uncertainties. New DOC UVox systems are in use at many institutions. However, rigorous assessment of quantitative UVox DOC yields and blank contributions, DOC concentrations and carbon isotopic values need to be made. We highlight the need for a community-wide inter-comparison study.
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
The current study explored the temporal pathways of change within two treatments, the Healthy Activity Program (HAP) for depression and the Counselling for Alcohol Problems (CAP) Program for harmful drinking.
The study took place in the context of two parallel randomized controlled trials in Goa, India. N = 50 random participants who met a priori criteria were selected from each treatment trial and examined for potential direct and mediational pathways. In HAP, we examined the predictive roles of therapy quality and patient-reported activation, assessing whether activation mediated the effects of therapy quality on depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) outcomes. In CAP, we examined the predictive roles of therapy quality and patient change- and counter-change-talk, assessing whether change- or counter-change-talk mediated the effects of therapy quality on daily alcohol consumption.
In HAP, therapy quality (both general and treatment-specific skills) was associated with patient activation; patient activation but not therapy quality significantly predicted depression outcomes, and patient activation mediated the effects of higher general skills on subsequent clinical outcomes [a × b = −2.555, 95% confidence interval (CI) −5.811 to −0.142]. In CAP, higher treatment-specific skills, but not general skills, were directly associated with drinking outcomes, and reduced levels of counter-change talk both independently predicted, and mediated the effects of higher general skills on, reduced alcohol consumption (a × b = −24.515, 95% CI −41.190 to −11.060). Change talk did not predict alcohol consumption and was not correlated with counter-change talk.
These findings suggest that therapy quality in early sessions operated through increased patient activation and reduced counter-change talk to reduce depression and harmful drinking respectively.
The need for hollow microneedle arrays is important for both drug delivery and wearable sensor applications; however, their fabrication poses many challenges. Hollow metal microneedle arrays residing on a flexible metal foil substrate were created by combining additive manufacturing, micromolding, and electroplating approaches in a process we refer to as electromolding. A solid microneedle with inward facing ledge was fabricated with a two photon polymerization (2PP) system utilizing laser direct write (LDW) and then molded with polydimethylsiloxane. These molds were then coated with a seed layer of Ti/Au and subsequently electroplated with pulsed deposition to create hollow microneedles. An inward facing ledge provided a physical blocking platform to restrict deposition of the metal seed layer for creation of the microneedle bore. Various ledge sizes were tested and showed that the resulting seed layer void could be controlled via the ledge length. Mechanical properties of the PDMS mold was adjusted via the precursor ratio to create a more ductile mold that eliminated tip damage to the microneedles upon removal from the molds. Master structures were capable of being molded numerous times and molds were able to be reused. SEM/EDX analysis showed that trace amounts of the PDMS mold were transferred to the metal microneedle upon removal. The microneedle substrate showed a degree of flexibility that withstood over 100 cycles of bending from side to side without damaging. Microneedles were tested for their fracture strength and were capable of puncturing porcine skin and injecting a dye.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the origin of the photometric variations of 48 Lib using the data from the STEREO and to investigate their relations with the disk structure. The photometric data comprise a period of five years from 2007 to 2011. The spectroscopic data covering the same time interval are provided from the BeSS database. The Hα lines are examined by measuring their equivalent widths and line intensities. Hα variations are then compared with those displayed by the photometric data. From the photometry, high-precision results (10−5 c d−1 in frequency and 10−4 mag in amplitude) are obtained. It is detected that the star has shown 24 frequencies, mainly clustered around the peaks at 2.48896(1) and 5.08150(2) c d−1. The analysis reveals that the photometric frequencies are not due to pulsation, but caused by the rotation, and that the remaining frequencies arise from transient activities on or just above the photosphere. Also, it is shown that the spectroscopic data exhibit a significant Hα variability, and that the Hα line variation depends on the variation of frequency and amplitude, something which has been often proposed in the literature but has never before been demonstrated observationally. This proves that the disk structure and photometric variations are related.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
Silvery-Thread Moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.) is an undesirable invader of golf course putting greens across North America, establishing colonies and proliferating despite practices to suppress it. The goal was to grow genotypes of green (growing in putting greens) and native (growing in habitats outside of putting greens) B. argenteum in a common garden experiment, allowing an experimental test of life-history traits between genotypes from these two habitats. Seventeen collections of green and 17 collections of native B. argenteum were cloned to single genotypes and raised through a minimum of two asexual generations in the lab. A culture of each genotype was initiated using a single detached shoot apex and was allowed to grow for 6 mo under conditions of inorganic nutrients present and absent. Compared with genotypes from native habitats, genotypes of B. argenteum from putting greens exhibited earlier shoot regeneration and shoot induction, faster protonemal extension, longer (higher) shoots, lower production of gemmae and bulbils, and greater aerial rhizoid cover, and showed similar tendencies of chlorophyll fluorescence properties and chlorophyll content. Cultures receiving no inorganic nutrients produced less chlorophyll content, greatly reduced growth, and bleaching of shoots. Mosses from putting greens establish more quickly, grow faster, produce more abundant rhizoids, and yet do not produce as many specialized asexual propagules compared with mosses of the same species from native habitats. The highly managed putting green environment has either selected for a suite of traits that allow the moss to effectively compete with grasses, or genotypic diversity is very high in this species, allowing a set of specialized genotypes to colonize the putting green from native habitats. Successful golf course weeds have been able to adapt to this highly competitive environment by selection acting on traits or genotypes to produce plants more successful in competing with golf course grasses.
To describe an adenovirus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), including the use of qualitative and semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data to inform the outbreak response.
Mixed prospective and retrospective observational study.
A level IV NICU in the southeastern United States.
Two adenovirus cases were identified in a NICU. Screening of all inpatients with qPCR on nasopharyngeal specimens revealed 11 additional cases.
Outbreak response procedures, including enhanced infection control policies, were instituted. Serial qPCR studies were used to screen for new infections among exposed infants and to monitor viral clearance among cases. Changes to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) exam procedures were made after an association was noted in those patients. At the end of the outbreak, a retrospective review allowed for comparison of clinical factors between the infected and uninfected groups.
There were no new cases among patients after outbreak identification. One adenovirus-infected patient died; the others recovered their clinical baselines. The ROP exams were associated with an increased risk of infection (odds ratio [OR], 84.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5–1,601). The duration of the outbreak response was 33 days, and the previously described second wave of cases after the end of the outbreak did not occur. Revisions to infection control policies remained in effect following the outbreak.
Retinopathy of prematurity exams are potential mechanisms of adenovirus transmission, and autoclaved or single-use instruments should be used to minimize this risk. Real-time molecular diagnostic and quantification data guided outbreak response procedures, which rapidly contained and fully terminated a NICU adenovirus outbreak.
Ventilator bundles encompass practices that reduce the risk of ventilator complications, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. The impact of ventilator bundles on the risk of developing ventilator-associated events (VAEs) is unknown. We sought to determine whether decreased compliance to the ventilator bundle increases the risk for VAE development.
Nested case-control study.
This study was conducted at 6 adult intensive care units at an academic tertiary-care center in Tennessee.
In total, 273 patients with VAEs were randomly matched in a 1:4 ratio to controls by mechanical ventilation duration and ICU type.
Controls were selected from the primary study population at risk for a VAE after being mechanically ventilated for the same number of days as a specified case. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, overall cumulative compliance, and compliance with individual components of the bundle in the 3 and 7 days prior to VAE development (or the control match day) were examined.
Overall bundle compliance at 3 days (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; P=.34) and 7 days prior to VAE diagnosis (OR, 0.96; P=.83) were not associated with VAE development. This finding did not change when limiting the outcome to infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs) and after adjusting for age and gender. In the examination of compliance with specific bundle components increased compliance with chlorhexidine oral care was associated with increased risk of VAE development in all analyses.
Ventilator bundle compliance was not associated with a reduced risk for VAEs. Higher compliance with chlorhexidine oral care was associated with a greater risk for VAE development.
The aim of this study is to accurately calculate the rotational period of CS Vir by using STEREO observations and investigate a possible period variation of the star with the help of all accessible data. The STEREO data that cover 5-yr time interval between 2007 and 2011 are analysed by means of the Lomb–Scargle and Phase Dispersion Minimization methods. In order to obtain a reliable rotation period and its error value, computational algorithms such as the Levenberg–Marquardt and Monte Carlo simulation algorithms are applied to the data sets. Thus, the rotation period of CS Vir is improved to be 9.29572(12) d by using the 5-yr of combined data set. Also, the light elements are calculated as HJDmax = 2454715.975(11) + 9d· 29572(12) × E + 9d· 78(1.13) × 10 − 8 × E2 by means of the extremum times derived from the STEREO light curves and archives. Moreover, with this study, a period variation is revealed for the first time, and it is found that the period has lengthened by 0.66(8) s y−1, equivalent to 66 s per century. Additionally, a time-scale for a possible spin-down is calculated around τSD ~ 106 yr. The differential rotation and magnetic braking are thought to be responsible of the mentioned rotational deceleration. It is deduced that the spin-down time-scale of the star is nearly three orders of magnitude shorter than its main-sequence lifetime (τMS ~ 109 yr). It is, in return, suggested that the process of increase in the period might be reversible.