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Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (DII®) with gut microbiota diversity, composition, and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical center community, we assessed 16S rDNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n=101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n=34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate analysis of variance, and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Alpha- and beta-diversity did not significantly differ across DII levels; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini, and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum, A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating PAI-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho=0.40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
This paper focuses on the problem of skin corrosion on the upper wing surfaces of rib-stiffened aircraft. For maritime and military transport aircraft this often results in multiple co-located repairs. The common approach to corrosion damage in operational aircraft is to blend out the corrosion and rivet a mechanical doubler over the region. In particular this paper describes the results of a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the ability of the additive metal technology, Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD), to restore the load-carrying capacity of rib-stiffened wing planks with simulated skin corrosion. The experimental results reveal that unrepaired skin corrosion can result in failure by yielding. The experimental results also reveal that SPD repairs to skin corrosion can restore the stress field in the structure, and can ensure that the load-carrying capability of the repaired structure is above proof load.
We report on a novel processing route to prepare La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2/Cu bulk composites by low-temperature hot pressing. With increasing copper content, the compressive strength of the composites first decrease and then increase owing to the buffering effect of copper, but the magnetocaloric effect reduces to some extent. Copper addition improves the thermal conductivity of the composites, which compensates for the decrease in thermal conductivity due to porosity. A relatively large entropy change of 5.75–7.19 J/(kg K) at 2 T near the Curie temperature (249 K), good thermal conductivity of 7.51–15.55 W/(m·K), and improved compressive strength of 151.1–248.0 MPa make these composites attractive magnetic refrigeration materials.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
Thermoelectric CuIn1-xAlxTe2 compounds (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.50) have been synthesized by solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering. The influence of Al substitution on electrical and thermal transport properties has been investigated in the CuInTe2 compounds. It was found that the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is reduced by isovalent replacement of In with Al. Our first principle calculation indicates Al substitution leads to the widen band gap, the reduction in the number of degeneracy of valence band and the effective mass. Furthermore, a large reduction in thermal conductivity is achieved through the enhanced phonon scattering via point defect as well as the nano-sized particles observed between grain boundaries and on the grain surface. In spite of the reduced charge transport properties, an improved figure-of- merit ZT is achieved, reaching 0.8 at 800 K, 33% higher in comparison to the pure CuInTe2 compound.
Thermal transport across interfaces is an important issue for microelectronics, photonics, and thermoelectric devices and has been studied both experimentally and theoretically in the past. In this paper, thermal interface resistance (1/G) between aluminum and silicon with nanoscale vacancies was calculated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). Both phonon-phonon coupling and electron-phonon coupling are considered in calculations. The results showed that thermal interface resistance increased largely due to vacancies. The effect of both the size and the type of vacancies is studied and compared. And an obvious difference is found for structures with different type/size vacancies.
Discovery of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in the past 15 years blurs the once thought clear division between classic globular clusters (GCs) and early-type galaxies. The intermediate nature of UCDs, which are larger and more massive than typical GCs but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies, has triggered hot debate on whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin or merely the most extreme GCs. Previous studies of various scaling relations, stellar populations and internal dynamics did not give an unambiguous answer to the primary origin of UCDs. In this contribution, we present the first ever detailed study of global dynamics of 97 UCDs (rh ≳ 10 pc) associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. We found that UCDs follow a different radial number density profile and different rotational properties from GCs. The orbital anisotropies of UCDs are tangentially-biased within ~ 40 kpc of M87 and become radially-biased with radius further out. In contrast, the blue GCs, which have similar median colors to our sample of UCDs, become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc. Our analysis suggests that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the scenario that most UCDs originated from the tidally threshed dwarf galaxies.
Medication non-compliance is common in the treatment of depression, particularly in Asia.
1) To describe the frequency and factors associated with medication non-compliance. 2) To study the influence of non-compliance on treatment outcomes.
Nine hundred and nine in- and out-patients from Asia presenting with a new or first episode of major depressive disorder were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study. Clinical severity and quality of life were assessed, using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), and EuroQoL measures (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS). Medication compliance was also assessed by the investigator and patient. Linear and logistic multiple regression models were used to analyze the consequences of non-compliance.
The proportion of non-compliant patients as assessed by the investigator was 16%. Sociodemographic factors and clinical severity were not associated with compliance at baseline. Regression models showed that medication non-compliance was associated with worse depression severity (difference in HAMD-17 -3.98; 95% CI -5.10, -2.87) and overall clinical severity (CGI-S difference -0.46; 95%CI -0.68, -0.24) at three months. Medication non-compliance was also associated with lower quality of life at three months (EQ-VAS difference -7.47; 95%CI -11.13, - 3.82) and EQ-5D score difference -0.08; 95%CI -0.1, -0.04)). Compliant patients had higher odds of response (odds ratio (OR) 3.18; 95% CI 1.98, 5.10) and remission (OR 3.94; 95% CI 2.42, 6.43) compared with non-compliant patients.
Patients non-compliant with medication had worse 3-month outcomes in terms of depression severity, quality of life, and response and remission rates, compared with compliant patients.
The analysis of medication discontinuation may allow the comparison of the effectiveness of different medications and may help us understand treatment patterns in depression. Clinical guidelines recommend at least six months of antidepressant maintenance treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD).
To determine the duration of antidepressant treatment in Asian patients treated with antidepressants for a major depressive episode and to understand the reasons and factors associated with discontinuation.
Nine hundred and nine in- and out-patients from Asia, of which 569 started an antidepressant medication at the baseline visit, presenting with a new or first episode of MDD were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox models were used to estimate discontinuation rates and factors associated with discontinuation. Survival analysis with competing risks was used to analyze the influence of different reasons for discontinuation.
Of the 569 patients included in the study, 430 (75.6%) were evaluated at three months and analyzed. Of them, 242 (56%) discontinued the treatment during the three months follow-up and 188 maintained it. Of the overall sample, half of the patients discontinued the medication within 70 days. The most frequent reason for discontinuation was inadequate response (n=155, 64%), followed by adequate response (n=62, 26%). A relatively high proportion of patients with adequate response (30% at 130 days) discontinued the medication. Country and type of antidepressant were associated with medication discontinuation.
Medication discontinuation in Asian patients with depression is high, even for patients who respond adequately to treatment.
The aims of this study were to determine the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS) and its impact on depression outcomes in different gender and age groups.
Three hundred in- and out-patients from China presenting with a new or first episode of major depressive disorder were enrolled in a 3- month prospective observational study from Asia (N=909). Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), EuroQoL and the pain-related items of the Somatic Symptom Inventory were administered. Patients were classified into three age groups (<40, n=119; =40-<60, n=133; =60, n=48). Linear and logistic regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between PPS at baseline and outcomes.
Older patients had higher HAMD-17 severity at baseline. HAMD score was 25.9 (SD 6.1) in =60 vs. 22.5 (SD 5.0) in <40 and 24.8 (SD 5.2) in =40-<60. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of patients with PPS across gender and age groups. During follow-up, depression severity improved. There were no statistically significant differences in the degree of improvement by gender, but there were differences by age group. Mean change in HAMD was -16.4 (95%CI -17.7;-15.1) for those <40, -19.9 (95%CI -21.1;-18.7) in 40-60 and - 20.3 (95%CI -22.6;-17.9) in >60. PPS positive patients had worse clinical and quality of life outcomes across genders and age groups.
The presence of painful physical symptoms is associated with a lower improvement in depression outcomes and a lower quality of life in patients with major depression across different gender and age groups.
Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown.
Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population.
Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC.
These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.
To review the genotype and cochlear implantation outcome of patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.
Twenty-one Chinese children with nonsyndromic hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueduct underwent genetic examination. A DNA microarray was used to screen for the IVS7-2A>G and H723R mutations. Any DNA samples with one or none of the two mutant alleles were sequenced to detect other mutations in the SLC26A4 and FOXI1 genes.
Twelve SLC26A4 mutations were detected, including three novel mutations. The most common mutations detected were IVS7-2A>G and H723R. Twelve patients received cochlear implants, and subsequently demonstrated excellent speech perception.
Three novel mutations were detected in Chinese patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueduct. The SLC26A4 mutation spectrum in the Chinese population is similar to that in other East Asian populations. Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective treatment in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct.
The Working Group on the Natural Planetary Satellites has been created to promote the development of high-quality ephemerides. The Working Group encourages theoretical studies, coordinated observations, and makes all data available to the users through the NSDC web site (http://www.imcce.fr/nsdc).
As part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we have undertaken a Keck/LRIS spectroscopic campaign to determine membership for faint dwarf galaxies. In the process, we discovered a population of Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the core region of the Coma Cluster. At the distance of Coma, UCDs are expected to have angular sizes 0.01 < Re < 0.2 arcsec. With ACS imaging, we can resolve all but the smallest ones with careful fitting. Candidate UCDs were chosen based on magnitude, color, and degree of resolution. We spectroscopically confirm 27 objects as bona fide UCD members of the Coma Cluster, a 60% success rate for objects targeted with MR < −12. We attribute the high success rate in part to the high resolution of HST data and to an apparent large population of UCDs in Coma. We find that the UCDs tend to be strongly clustered around giant galaxies, at least in the core region of the cluster, and have a distribution and colors that are similar to globular clusters. These findings suggest that UCDs are not independent galaxies, but rather have a star cluster origin.
In this work, we investigate the emission of the
nano-hole array in an ultrathin silver film at infrared regime. It is shown
that when the incident light illuminates the nano-hole array, the localized
surface plasmons are excited and serve as electric dipoles. The emission of
the nano-hole array presents a strong directivity. The maximum radiation is
located at infrared regime, and it can be tuned by the period of the
nano-hole array, the incidence angle and the polarization of the excitation
light. These findings extend our understandings of optical property of
metallic nano-structures and provide a unique way to achieve infrared
antenna arrays, which may achieve potential applications in photovoltaics
Figs and their pollinating wasps are a classic example of an obligate mutualism. In addition, figs are parasitized by a suite of non-mutualistic wasps whose basic ecology is largely undescribed. Sycophilomorpha (subfamily Epichrysomallinae) fig wasps are ovule gallers and the genus contains only 1 described species. An undescribed Sycophilomorpha species parasitized Ficus altissima at Xishuangbana, Southwestern China. The wasp was observed ovipositing on the tiny immature figs that were still concealed beneath the involucral bracts. A Sycophilomorpha wasp oviposited on more than 1 fig and spent long time-periods to lay large clutches on a single fig. The wasps naturally occurred on all 7 sampled trees, but the occurrence of wasps was significantly different among trees, crops and months. These wasps were able to prevent unpollinated figs from being aborted, and their offspring were able to develop in the figs that otherwise had no pollinator wasps or seeds. The Sycophilomorpha wasp had a detrimental effect on the fig–fig wasp mutualism. Figs in which Sycophilomorpha wasps were present, produced significantly fewer seeds, pollinators and cheaters. However, the abundance of Sycophilomorpha in a fig was only significantly negatively correlated with pollinator production and not seed or cheater production. Our study illustrates a previously unknown fig wasp niche and expands our understanding of factors that can affect the fig–fig wasp interaction.
The evolution of glyphosate resistance in weedy species places an environmentally benign herbicide in peril. The first report of a dicot plant with evolved glyphosate resistance was horseweed, which occurred in 2001. Since then, several species have evolved glyphosate resistance and genomic information about nontarget resistance mechanisms in any of them ranges from none to little. Here, we report a study combining iGentifier transcriptome analysis, cDNA sequencing, and a heterologous microarray analysis to explore potential molecular and transcriptomic mechanisms of nontarget glyphosate resistance of horseweed. The results indicate that similar molecular mechanisms might exist for nontarget herbicide resistance across multiple resistant plants from different locations, even though resistance among these resistant plants likely evolved independently and available evidence suggests resistance has evolved at least four separate times. In addition, both the microarray and sequence analyses identified non–target-site resistance candidate genes for follow-on functional genomics analysis.
Within the Landauer framework of ballistic transport, we theoretically
investigate spin-dependent resonant transmission and magnetoresistance in
symmetric cascade junctions of ferromagnetic metal (FM) and semiconductor
(SC). It is shown that spin-up and spin-down electrons possess different
bandgap structures against the Rashba spin-orbit wave vector. Due to the
mirror symmetry, multiple spin-dependent perfect transmissions of electrons
can be obtained within the bandgap, thereafter, spin polarization has
multiple reversals. Around each resonant wave vector, high spin polarization
is achieved and the electrical conductance comes from one kind of spin
electrons. The resonant transmissions originate from the spin-dependent
quasi-bound states at energies above the potential barriers, which are
demonstrated by the electronic charge distributions in the system.
Furthermore, if we change the magnetization of FM in the centre of the
junctions, inverse magnetoresistance can be observed. The investigations may
have potential applications in spin filters and spin switches.