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There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
The new facility Artemis was installed in 2003 in Saclay, France. This 3MV NEC Pelletron is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements for French 14C laboratories. We will present information on Artemis along with our sample preparation methods. Results from measurements on some intercalibration samples will be given along with the values of measured blanks. Finally, we report on some problems we have encountered when measuring sputter cathodes with high CH− outputs.
A Hybrid Vlasov–Maxwell (HVM) model is presented and recent results about the link between kinetic effects and turbulence are reviewed. Using five-dimensional (2D in space and 3D in the velocity space) simulations of plasma turbulence, it is found that kinetic effects (or non-fluid effects) manifest through the deformation of the proton velocity distribution function (DF), with patterns of non-Maxwellian features being concentrated near regions of strong magnetic gradients. The direction of the proper temperature anisotropy, calculated in the main reference frame of the distribution itself, has a finite probability of being along or across the ambient magnetic field, in general agreement with the classical definition of anisotropy T⊥/T∥ (where subscripts refer to the magnetic field direction). Adopting the latter conventional definition, by varying the global plasma beta (β) and fluctuation level, simulations explore distinct regions of the space given by T⊥/T∥ and β∥, recovering solar wind observations. Moreover, as in the solar wind, HVM simulations suggest that proton anisotropy is not only associated with magnetic intermittent events, but also with gradient-type structures in the flow and in the density. The role of alpha particles is reviewed using multi-ion kinetic simulations, revealing a similarity between proton and helium non-Maxwellian effects. The techniques presented here are applied to 1D spacecraft-like analysis, establishing a link between non-fluid phenomena and solar wind magnetic discontinuities. Finally, the dimensionality of turbulence is investigated, for the first time, via 6D HVM simulations (3D in both spaces). These preliminary results provide support for several previously reported studies based on 2.5D simulations, confirming several basic conclusions. This connection between kinetic features and turbulence open a new path on the study of processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature-anisotropy, commonly observed in space plasmas.
To determine whether disparities exist in mental health care provision to immigrants and Italian citizens with severe mental illness in Bologna, Italy.
Records of prevalent cases on 31/12/2010 with severe mental illness and ≥1 contact with Community Mental Health Centers in 2011 were extracted from the mental health information system. Logistic and Poisson regressions were carried out to estimate the probability of receiving rehabilitation, residential or inpatient care, the intensity of outpatient treatments and the duration of hospitalisations and residential care for immigrant patients compared to Italians, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates.
The study population included 8602 Italian and 388 immigrant patients. Immigrants were significantly younger, more likely to be married and living with people other than their original family and had a shorter duration of contact with mental health services. The percentages of patients receiving psychosocial rehabilitation, admitted to hospital wards or to residential facilities were similar between Italians and immigrants. The number of interventions was higher for Italians. Admissions to acute wards or residential facilities were significantly longer for Italians. Moreover, immigrants received significantly more group rehabilitation interventions, while more social support individual interventions were provided to Italians.
The probability of receiving any mental health intervention is similar between immigrants and Italians, but the number of interventions and the duration of admissions are lower for immigrants. Data from mental health information system should be integrated with qualitative data on unmet needs from the immigrants' perspective to inform mental health care programmes and policies.
Placental lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is crucial for placental lipid transfer. Impaired LPL gene expression and activity were reported in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and intra-uterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that placental LPL DNA methylation is altered by maternal metabolic status and could contribute to fetal programming. The objective of this study was thus to assess whether placental LPL DNA methylation is associated with GDM and both maternal and newborn lipid profiles. Placenta biopsies were sampled at delivery from 126 women including 27 women with GDM diagnosed following a post 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between weeks 24 and 28 of gestation. Placental LPL DNA methylation and expression levels were determined using bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. DNA methylation levels within LPL proximal promoter region (CpG1) and intron 1 CpG island (CpGs 2 and 3) were lower in placenta of women with GDM. DNA methylation levels at LPL-CpG1 and CpG3 were also negatively correlated with maternal glucose (2-h post OGTT; r=–0.22; P=0.02) and HDL-cholesterol levels (third trimester of pregnancy; r=–0.20; p=0.03), respectively. Moreover, we report correlation between LPL-CpG2 DNA methylation and cord blood lipid profile. DNA methylation levels within intron 1 CpG island explained up to 26% (r⩽–0.51; P<0.001) of placental LPL mRNA expression variance. Overall, we showed that maternal metabolic profile is associated with placental LPL DNA methylation dysregulation. Our results suggest that site-specific LPL epipolymorphisms in the placenta are possibly functional and could potentially be involved in determining the future metabolic health of the newborn.
Acute care physicians are frequently faced with diagnosing and treating orthopedic emergencies with limited resources and without immediate specialist availability. Orthopedic Emergencies focuses on the acute management and stabilization of orthopedic injuries with specific recommendations on procedures and the stabilization of fractures and dislocation. The topics are organized anatomically with additional chapters on Procedures, Reduction Techniques, and Immobilization and Splinting. The information needed for a rapid diagnosis is available instantly through the bullet-point-style text, diagrams, images, pearls and pitfalls. There are specific recommendations on which splint to apply and how to position the affected limb, as well as advice on when to arrange follow up with an orthopedist or sports medicine physician. The spiral binding allows the book to lay flat for easy use at the bedside, making Orthopedic Emergencies the ideal companion for all emergency medicine providers including emergency department physicians, sports clinics, family medicine practitioners and mid-level providers.
Carrying the apoE ε4 allele (E4+) is the most important genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Unlike non-carriers (E4 − ), E4+ seem not to be protected against Alzheimer's disease when consuming fish. We hypothesised that this may be linked to a disturbance in n-3 DHA metabolism in E4+. The aim of the present study was to evaluate [13C]DHA metabolism over 28 d in E4+v. E4 − . A total of forty participants (twenty-six women and fourteen men) received a single oral dose of 40 mg [13C]DHA, and its metabolism was monitored in blood and breath over 28 d. Of the participants, six were E4+ and thirty-four were E4 − . In E4+, mean plasma [13C]DHA was 31 % lower than that in E4 − , and cumulative β-oxidation of [13C]DHA was higher than that in E4 − 1–28 d post-dose (P≤ 0·05). A genotype × time interaction was detected for cumulative β-oxidation of [13C]DHA (P≤ 0·01). The whole-body half-life of [13C]DHA was 77 % lower in E4+ compared with E4 − (P≤ 0·01). In E4+ and E4 − , the percentage dose of [13C]DHA recovered/h as 13CO2 correlated with [13C]DHA concentration in plasma, but the slope of linear regression was 117 % steeper in E4+ compared with E4 − (P≤ 0·05). These results indicate that DHA metabolism is disturbed in E4+, and may help explain why there is no association between DHA levels in plasma and cognition in E4+. However, whether E4+ disturbs the metabolism of 13C-labelled fatty acids other than DHA cannot be deduced from the present study.
A self-consistent nonlinear dynamo model is presented. The nonlinear behavior of the plasma at small scale is described by using a MHD shell model for fields fluctuations; this allow us to study the dynamo problem in a large parameter regime which characterizes the dynamo phenomenon in many natural systems and which is beyond the power of supercomputers at today. The model is able to reproduce dynamical situations in which the system can undergo transactions to different dynamo regimes. In one of these the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states reproducing the magnetic polarity reversals. From the analysis of long time series of reversals we infer results about the statistics of persistence times, revealing the presence of hidden long-time correlations in the chaotic dynamo process.
We prove that all g-natural contact metric structures on a two-point homogeneous space are homogeneous contact. The converse is also proved for metrics of Kaluza–Klein type. We also show that if (M,g) is an Einstein manifold and is a Riemannian g-natural metric on T1M of Kaluza–Klein type, then is H-contact if and only if (M,g) is 2-stein, so proving that the main result of Chun et al. [‘H-contact unit tangent sphere bundles of Einstein manifolds’, Q. J. Math., to appear. DOI: 10.1093/qmath/hap025] is invariant under a two-parameter deformation of the standard contact metric structure on T1M. Moreover, we completely characterize Riemannian manifolds admitting two distinct H-contact g-natural contact metric structures, with associated metric of Kaluza–Klein type.
ANALGESIA FOR THE EMERGENCY PATIENT
Carl A. Germann, Maine Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, 22 Bramhall St., Portland, ME 04102–3175, email@example.com,
Andrew D. Perron, Department of Emergency Medicine, Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME 04102
Chest pain is an extremely common complaint in the emergency department (ED), accounting for 5% of ED visits in the United States, or about 5 million visits annually. Pain in the chest may be caused by a wide variety of disease processes involving the cardiovascular, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, neurologic, and dermatologic systems (Table 16-1).
The differential diagnosis in the patient presenting with chest pain is broad and includes both acute, life-threatening illnesses and benign conditions. An accurate diagnosis and effective therapeutic strategy may be achieved by using a thorough knowledge of functional anatomy and physiology of the thorax in conjunction with a proper history and physical examination. The emergency physician's choice of analgesic should be based upon the known or suspected diagnosis.
One of the fundamental challenges in diagnosing and treating chest pain lies in the fact that neither the quality nor the intensity of the pain is specific for any single organ system. As an example, esophageal spasm and cardiac ischemia can present with nearly identical pain syndromes. A second challenge to treatment of this patient population is the fact that neither the location nor the radiation pattern reliably identifies the specific organ system. As a result, the clinician is frequently required to pursue a parallel course of both identification of the etiology of the pain and simultaneously treating the patient's pain syndrome. Once a definitive diagnosis is made, the analgesic regimen can be tailored to the individual pathologic process (Table 16-2).
In this paper we obtain criteria of stability for ηEinstein k-contact manifolds, for Sasakian manifolds of constant ϕ-sectional curvature and for 3-dimensional Sasakian manifolds. Moreover, we show that a stable compact Einstein contact metric manifold M is Sasakian if and only if the Reeb vector field ξ minimises the energy functional. In particular, the Reeb vector field of a Sasakian manifold M of constant ϕ-holomorphic sectional curvature +1 minimises the energy functional if and only if M is not simply connected.
Let M2n+1 be a compact contact manifold and 𝓐 the set of associated metrics. Using the scalar curvature R and the *-scalar curvature R*, in  we defined the "total scalar curvature", by and showed that the critical points of I(g) on 𝓐 are the K-contact metrics, i.e. metrics for which the characteristic vector field is Killing. In this paper we compute the second variation of I(g) and prove that the index of I(g) and of —I(g) are both positive at each critical point. As an application we show that the classical total scalar curvature A(g) = ∫M R dVg restricted to 𝓐 cannot have a local minimum at any Sasakian metric.
Chern and Hamilton considered the integral of the Webster scalar curvature as a functional on the set of CR-structures on a compact 3-dimensional contact manifold. Critical points of this functional can be viewed as Riemannian metrics associated to the contact structure for which the characteristic vector field generates a 1-parameter group of isometries i.e. K-contact metrics. Tanno defined a higher dimensional generalization of the Webster scalar curvature, computed the critical point condition of the corresponding integral functional and found that it is not the K-contact condition. In this paper two other generalizations are given and the critical point conditions of the corresponding integral functionals are found. For the second of these, this is the K-contact condition, suggesting that it may be the proper generalization of the Webster scalar curvature.