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In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
Adding another antipsychotic to a treatment regimen was previously used in evaluating the medication's efficacy. Supplementation of depot antipsychotics with oral antipsychotics is particularly meaningful because depot formulations are typically chosen for patients struggling with adherence to oral antipsychotics. This post-hoc analysis assessed supplementation of olanzapine long-acting injection (olanzapine-LAI) with oral olanzapine.
Subjects and methods
We used 12 months of data from an open-label, single-arm extension study of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 931) treated with olanzapine-LAI. The prevalence, duration, time to first supplementation, and best predictors of oral supplementation were assessed.
Oral supplementation occurred in 21% of patients for a median of 31 days with mean modal dose of 10.8 mg/day. Mean time to first supplementation was shorter for patients who were at least moderately ill at baseline compared to less ill patients (47 vs. 97 days, p < 0.001). Best predictors of oral supplementation included a more severe illness profile at baseline, lower olanzapine-LAI dose prior to oral supplementation, supervised living arrangements, and being African-American.
Supplementation of olanzapine-LAI appears to be infrequent, of relatively short duration, and reserved for more severely ill patients who may require a targeted rescue medication due to signs of impending relapse.
Medication non-compliance is common in the treatment of depression, particularly in Asia.
1) To describe the frequency and factors associated with medication non-compliance. 2) To study the influence of non-compliance on treatment outcomes.
Nine hundred and nine in- and out-patients from Asia presenting with a new or first episode of major depressive disorder were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study. Clinical severity and quality of life were assessed, using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), and EuroQoL measures (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS). Medication compliance was also assessed by the investigator and patient. Linear and logistic multiple regression models were used to analyze the consequences of non-compliance.
The proportion of non-compliant patients as assessed by the investigator was 16%. Sociodemographic factors and clinical severity were not associated with compliance at baseline. Regression models showed that medication non-compliance was associated with worse depression severity (difference in HAMD-17 -3.98; 95% CI -5.10, -2.87) and overall clinical severity (CGI-S difference -0.46; 95%CI -0.68, -0.24) at three months. Medication non-compliance was also associated with lower quality of life at three months (EQ-VAS difference -7.47; 95%CI -11.13, - 3.82) and EQ-5D score difference -0.08; 95%CI -0.1, -0.04)). Compliant patients had higher odds of response (odds ratio (OR) 3.18; 95% CI 1.98, 5.10) and remission (OR 3.94; 95% CI 2.42, 6.43) compared with non-compliant patients.
Patients non-compliant with medication had worse 3-month outcomes in terms of depression severity, quality of life, and response and remission rates, compared with compliant patients.
Bioinformatic investigations indicate that has-mir-206 (microRNA-206, miRNA-206) could regulate BDNF protein synthesis by interfering with BDNF mRNA translation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder (BPD).
This study is to investigate whether miRNA-206 gene variants were associated with BPD susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.
342 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I (BPD-I) or type II (BPD-II) and 386 matched health controls were enrolled into this study. the miRNA-206 gene and +/-500bp were selected for gene sequencing. for the case-control genetic comparisons, differences in the genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls were examined using Pearson's χ2 test.
Gene sequencing showed that there are two polymorphisms rs16882131(C/T) and rs62408583 (A/C) located at the upstream of miRNA-206 gene, which are complete linkage disequilibrium. the association analysis showed that there was no significant difference for genotype frequencies (χ2 = 2.075, df = 2, P = 0.354) or for allele frequencies (χ2 = 0.041, df = 1, P = 0.839) between BPD patients and controls. Similarly, no significant difference was found between BPD-I patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 1.411, df = 2, P = 0.494; allele χ2 = 0.380, df = 1, P = 0.538). However, there was significant difference between BPD-II patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 7.933, df = 2, P = 0.019; allele χ2 = 5.403, df = 1, P = 0.020).
Our findings do not support that BPD susceptibility was associated with miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms in the studied Han Chinese population. the association between miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder type II is needed to be carefully interpreted. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the involvement miRNA-206 in the pathophysiology of BPD.
The analysis of medication discontinuation may allow the comparison of the effectiveness of different medications and may help us understand treatment patterns in depression. Clinical guidelines recommend at least six months of antidepressant maintenance treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD).
To determine the duration of antidepressant treatment in Asian patients treated with antidepressants for a major depressive episode and to understand the reasons and factors associated with discontinuation.
Nine hundred and nine in- and out-patients from Asia, of which 569 started an antidepressant medication at the baseline visit, presenting with a new or first episode of MDD were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox models were used to estimate discontinuation rates and factors associated with discontinuation. Survival analysis with competing risks was used to analyze the influence of different reasons for discontinuation.
Of the 569 patients included in the study, 430 (75.6%) were evaluated at three months and analyzed. Of them, 242 (56%) discontinued the treatment during the three months follow-up and 188 maintained it. Of the overall sample, half of the patients discontinued the medication within 70 days. The most frequent reason for discontinuation was inadequate response (n=155, 64%), followed by adequate response (n=62, 26%). A relatively high proportion of patients with adequate response (30% at 130 days) discontinued the medication. Country and type of antidepressant were associated with medication discontinuation.
Medication discontinuation in Asian patients with depression is high, even for patients who respond adequately to treatment.
The aims of this study were to determine the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS) and its impact on depression outcomes in different gender and age groups.
Three hundred in- and out-patients from China presenting with a new or first episode of major depressive disorder were enrolled in a 3- month prospective observational study from Asia (N=909). Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), EuroQoL and the pain-related items of the Somatic Symptom Inventory were administered. Patients were classified into three age groups (<40, n=119; =40-<60, n=133; =60, n=48). Linear and logistic regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between PPS at baseline and outcomes.
Older patients had higher HAMD-17 severity at baseline. HAMD score was 25.9 (SD 6.1) in =60 vs. 22.5 (SD 5.0) in <40 and 24.8 (SD 5.2) in =40-<60. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of patients with PPS across gender and age groups. During follow-up, depression severity improved. There were no statistically significant differences in the degree of improvement by gender, but there were differences by age group. Mean change in HAMD was -16.4 (95%CI -17.7;-15.1) for those <40, -19.9 (95%CI -21.1;-18.7) in 40-60 and - 20.3 (95%CI -22.6;-17.9) in >60. PPS positive patients had worse clinical and quality of life outcomes across genders and age groups.
The presence of painful physical symptoms is associated with a lower improvement in depression outcomes and a lower quality of life in patients with major depression across different gender and age groups.
Epigenetic changes may play a role in the etiology of psychotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that olig2 is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD). the aim of this study was to investigate the methylation status of a promoter region of the olig2 gene in BPD and SCZ patients.
Our study included 41 BPD and 45 SCZ (DSM-IV criteria) as well as 53 control subjects. DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes and bisulfited sequence analysis was used to determine the DNA methylation status of a typical CpGs island within the promoter region of olig2.
We found the methylated cytosines occurred mainly in two clusters. Olig2 gene promoter was hyper-methylated(∼30%) in DNA derived from the blood leukocytes in SCZ and BD compared to the controls subjects(P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in frequency of site-specific cytosine methylation modification of Olig2 gene between SCZ patients and BD patients(P = 0.21).
We observed increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of the olig2 gene of SCZ and BPD. This could explain the reported decrease of the gene expression. the current study supports the growing interest of DNA methylation in psychopathology.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
Q fever (caused by Coxiella burnetii) is thought to have an almost world-wide distribution, but few countries have conducted national serosurveys. We measured Q fever seroprevalence using residual sera from diagnostic laboratories across Australia. Individuals aged 1–79 years in 2012–2013 were sampled to be proportional to the population distribution by region, distance from metropolitan areas and gender. A 1/50 serum dilution was tested for the Phase II IgG antibody against C. burnetii by indirect immunofluorescence. We calculated crude seroprevalence estimates by age group and gender, as well as age standardised national and metropolitan/non-metropolitan seroprevalence estimates. Of 2785 sera, 99 tested positive. Age standardised seroprevalence was 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.5%–6.8%), and similar in metropolitan (5.5%; 95% CI 4.1%–6.9%) and non-metropolitan regions (6.0%; 95%CI 4.0%–8.0%). More males were seropositive (6.9%; 95% CI 5.2%–8.6%) than females (4.2%; 95% CI 2.9%–5.5%) with peak seroprevalence at 50–59 years (9.2%; 95% CI 5.2%–13.3%). Q fever seroprevalence for Australia was higher than expected (especially in metropolitan regions) and higher than estimates from the Netherlands (2.4%; pre-outbreak) and US (3.1%), but lower than for Northern Ireland (12.8%). Robust country-specific seroprevalence estimates, with detailed exposure data, are required to better understand who is at risk and the need for preventive measures.
This paper focuses on the problem of skin corrosion on the upper wing surfaces of rib-stiffened aircraft. For maritime and military transport aircraft this often results in multiple co-located repairs. The common approach to corrosion damage in operational aircraft is to blend out the corrosion and rivet a mechanical doubler over the region. In particular this paper describes the results of a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the ability of the additive metal technology, Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD), to restore the load-carrying capacity of rib-stiffened wing planks with simulated skin corrosion. The experimental results reveal that unrepaired skin corrosion can result in failure by yielding. The experimental results also reveal that SPD repairs to skin corrosion can restore the stress field in the structure, and can ensure that the load-carrying capability of the repaired structure is above proof load.
Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for depression, anxiety and suicide. The estimated prevalence of these problems is essential to guide public health policy, but published results vary. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and suicide among Chinese MSM.
Systematic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang databases with languages restricted to Chinese and English for studies published before 10 September 2019 on the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Chinese MSM. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed journals and used validated instruments to assess depression and anxiety were included. The characteristics of studies and the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts were independently extracted by authors. Random-effects modelling was used to estimate the pooled rates. Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. This study followed the PRISMA and MOOSE.
Sixty-seven studies were included. Fifty-two studies reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with a combined sample of 37 376 people, of whom 12 887 [43.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.9–47.5] reported depressive symptoms. Twenty-seven studies reported the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, with a combined sample of 10 531 people, of whom 3187 (32.2%; 95% CI, 28.3–36.6) reported anxiety symptoms. Twenty-three studies reported the prevalence of suicidal ideation, with a combined sample of 15 034 people, of whom 3416 (21.2%; 95% CI, 18.3–24.5) had suicidal ideation. Nine studies reported the prevalence of suicide plans, with a combined sample of 5271 people, of whom 401 (6.2%; 95% CI, 3.9–8.6) had suicide plans. Finally, 19 studies reported the prevalence of suicide attempts, with a combined sample of 27 936 people, of whom 1829 (7.3%; 95% CI, 5.6–9.0) had attempted suicide.
The mental health of Chinese MSM is poor compared with the general population. Efforts are warranted to develop interventions to prevent and alleviate mental health problems among this vulnerable population.
This study assessed the relationships between different perpetrator-victim roles in intimate partner violence (IPV), emotion regulation (ER) and mental health problems among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.
From April to June 2019, 1233 participants were approached via gay-friendly non-governmental organisations in 15 cities across mainland China.
Of the total, 578 eligible participants completed an anonymous online survey. All participants provided informed consent and information about their violent perpetrator-victim role and mental health status. The results revealed a high prevalence of IPV in this study sample, with 32.7% of participants reporting IPV victimisation and 32.5% of participants reporting IPV perpetration during their lifetime. A total of 81 (14.0%) participants were suicidal, 309 (53.5%) participants reported poor general mental health and 208 (36.0%) had significant depressive symptoms. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that both physical victimisation (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–9.32) and sexual victimisation (ORa = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.39–6.05) had positive associations with suicidality, and unidirectional and bidirectional psychological perpetration were associated with poor general mental health and significant depressive symptoms. Although high cognitive reappraisal showed a negative association with poor general mental health (ORa = 0.89，95% CI = 0.86–0.92), the correlation with victims of IPV was weaker than it was with non-victims.
This study revealed that different perpetrator-victim roles in different IPV situations should be considered comprehensively in research, prevention and intervention. ER is not enough to buffer the effects of IPV on the mental health of MSM victims.
We use apatite fission track ages from sediments recovered by the International Ocean Discovery Program in the Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea, to constrain exhumation rates in the western Himalaya and Karakoram since 15.5 Ma. With the exception of a Triassic population in the youngest 0.93 Ma samples supplied from western Peninsular India, apatite fission track ages are overwhelmingly Cenozoic, largely <25 Ma, consistent with both a Himalaya–Karakoram source and rapid erosion. Comparison of the minimum cooling age of each sample with depositional age (lag time) indicates an acceleration in exhumation between 7.8 and 7.0 Ma, with lag times shortening from ∼6.0 Myr at 8.5–7.8 Ma to being within error of zero between 7.0 and 5.7 Ma. Sediment supply at 7.0–5.7 Ma was largely from the Karakoram, and to a lesser extent the Himalaya, based on U–Pb zircon ages from the same samples. This time coincides with a period of drying in the Himalayan foreland caused by weaker summer monsoons and Westerly winds. It also correlates with a shift of erosion away from the Karakoram, Kohistan and the Tethyan Himalaya towards more erosion of the Lesser and Greater Himalaya and Nanga Parbat, as shown by zircon U–Pb provenance data, and especially after 5.7 Ma based on Nd isotope data. Samples younger than 5.7 Ma have lag times of ∼4.5 Myr, similar to Holocene Indus delta sediments.
The late Miocene is a time of strong environmental change in SW Asia. Himalayan foreland stable isotope data show a shift in the dominant vegetation of the flood plains away from trees and shrubs towards more C4 grasslands at a time when oceanic upwelling increased along the Oman margin. We present integrated geochemical and colour spectral records from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1456 in the eastern Arabian Sea to reconstruct changing chemical weathering and erosion, as well as relative humidity during this climatic transition. Increasing hematite/goethite ratios derived from spectral data are consistent with long-term drying after c. 7.7 Ma. Times of dry conditions are largely associated with weaker chemical alteration measured by K/Rb and reduced coarse clastic flux, constrained by Si/Al and Zr/Al. A temporary phase of increased humidity from 6.3 to 5.95 Ma shows a reversal to stronger weathering and erosion. Wetter conditions can result in both more and less alteration due to the nonlinear relationship between weathering rates, precipitation and sediment transport times. Trends in relative aridity do not follow existing palaeoceanographic records and are not apparently linked to changes in Tibetan or Himalayan elevation, but more closely correlate with global cooling. An apparent opposing trend in the humidity evolution in the Indus compared to southern China, as tracked by spectrally estimated hematite/goethite, likely reflects differences in the topography in the Indus compared to the Pearl River drainage basins, as well as the generally wetter climate in southern China.
We report on a novel processing route to prepare La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2/Cu bulk composites by low-temperature hot pressing. With increasing copper content, the compressive strength of the composites first decrease and then increase owing to the buffering effect of copper, but the magnetocaloric effect reduces to some extent. Copper addition improves the thermal conductivity of the composites, which compensates for the decrease in thermal conductivity due to porosity. A relatively large entropy change of 5.75–7.19 J/(kg K) at 2 T near the Curie temperature (249 K), good thermal conductivity of 7.51–15.55 W/(m·K), and improved compressive strength of 151.1–248.0 MPa make these composites attractive magnetic refrigeration materials.
The question of causality is pervasive to fluid–structure interactions, where it finds its most alluring instance in the study of fish swimming in coordination. How and why fish align their bodies, synchronize their motion, and position in crystallized formations are yet to be fully understood. Here, we posit a model-free approach to infer causality in fluid–structure interactions through the information-theoretic notion of transfer entropy. Given two dynamical units, transfer entropy quantifies the reduction of uncertainty in predicting the future state of one of them due to additional knowledge about the past of the other. We demonstrate our approach on a system of two tandem airfoils in a uniform flow, where the pitch angle of one airfoil is actively controlled while the other is allowed to passively rotate. Through transfer entropy, we seek to unveil causal relationships between the airfoils from information transfer conducted by the fluid medium.