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We have found a class of circular radio objects in the Evolutionary Map of the Universe Pilot Survey, using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The objects appear in radio images as circular edge-brightened discs, about one arcmin diameter, that are unlike other objects previously reported in the literature. We explore several possible mechanisms that might cause these objects, but none seems to be a compelling explanation.
Ageing is associated with reduced muscle mass, strength, flexibility and balance, resulting in a poor quality of life (QOL). Past studies have occurred in highly controlled laboratory settings which provide strong support to determine whether similar gains can be made in community programmes. Twenty participants were enrolled in an eight-week community-based resistance training programme (mean age = 61.3 (standard error (SE) = 0.9) years); Body Mass Index = 32.0 (SE = 1.3) kg/m2). All participants completed surveys to assess outcomes associated with QOL. Given the relationship between muscle function and nerve health, nerve conduction studies (NCS) were also conducted in a separate group of participants (mean age = 64.9 (SE = 2.0) years; Body Mass Index = 32.6 (SE = 1.9) kg/m2). This community-based training programme significantly improved QOL measures in older adults (p < 0.001). Although weight loss was not the primary outcome of the study, participants reduced their body weights (p < 0.001), by primarily reducing fat mass (p = 0.007) while maintaining muscle mass. Significant improvements were observed in muscle strength (2.2%), flexibility and balance (3.2–464.2%, p ⩽ 0.05 for all). Improvements were also observed in plasma glucose (p = 0.05), haemoglobin A1C (p = 0.06) and aldolase enzyme levels (p < 0.001). Scores for surveys on memory and sleep improved (p < 0.05). Improved QOL was associated with increased lean mass (r = −0.714, p = 0.002), decreased fat mass (r = −0.702, p = 0.003) and improved flexibility and balance (r = −0.627, p = 0.008). An eight-week, community-based resistance training programme significantly improved QOL in older adults. Influence on the lipid profile and NCS still needs further investigation.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, typically progressive immune-mediated disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with a wide range of neurological, physical, and psychosocial effects. For people living with MS, access to relevant, timely, and accessible health information and resources may contribute to effective illness management, psychosocial health, and quality of life (QOL). In this study, we sought to increase understanding of the specific types of information most wanted by people with MS, as well as the sources and effects of this information. Specifically, we surveyed 748 adults with MS about (a) the sources from which they obtain information about MS, (b) the type of information that is most important in terms of improving their QOL, and (c) specific topics about which they would like to have more information, services, or resources. Content analysis of the qualitative results demonstrated the diversity of information sources accessed by people with MS and the importance of providing information through different formats and media. The participants prioritized information related to new MS medications and treatments, physical and mental health and wellness, and local opportunities for support. Implications for practicing rehabilitation counselors are discussed.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of the Federal Reserve as a leading actor in global economic governance. As a creature of U.S. domestic law with an international presence and operational independence, the Fed wields authority without a well-defined international legal status, international legal standards to guide its conduct, or accountability to those around the world affected by its decisions. This Essay explores three conceptual approaches that could be used to develop norms, standards, and principles to address this gap.
Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
Prehospital intramuscular (IM) ketamine is increasingly used for chemical restraint of agitated patients. However, few studies have assessed emergency department (ED) follow-up of patients receiving prehospital ketamine for this indication, with previous reports suggesting a high rate of post-administration intubation. This study examines the rate of and reasons for intubation and other airway interventions in agitated patients who received ketamine by Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
This retrospective cohort study included patients who received prehospital ketamine for agitation and were transported to two community hospital EDs. Charts were reviewed for demographics, ketamine dose, and airway intervention by EMS or in the ED. Characteristics of patients who were intubated versus those who did not receive airway intervention were analyzed.
Over 28 months, 86 patients received ketamine for agitation. Fourteen (16.3%) underwent endotracheal intubation. Patients with a higher temperature and a lower Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were more likely to require intubation. There was no age or dose-dependent association on intubation rate. Intubated patients averaged 39 years old versus 44 for patients not intubated (negative five-year difference; 95% CI, -16 to 6). The mean ketamine dose was 339.3mg in patients intubated versus 350.7mg in patients not (-11.4mg difference; 95% CI, -72.4 to 49.6). The mean weight-based ketamine dose was 4.44mg/kg in patients intubated versus 4.96mg/kg in patients not (-0.53mg/kg difference; 95% CI, -1.49 to 0.43).
The observed rate of intubation in patients receiving prehospital ketamine for agitation was 16.3%. Study data did not reveal an age or dose-dependent rate of intubation. Further research should be conducted to compare the airway intervention rate of agitated patients receiving ketamine versus other sedatives in a controlled fashion.
Anthocyanins and bromelain have gained significant attention due to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Both have been shown to improve endothelial function, blood pressure (BP) and oxygen utility capacity in humans; however, the combination of these two and the impacts on endothelial function, BP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oxygen utility capacity have not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of a combined anthocyanins and bromelain supplement (BE) on endothelial function, BP, TAC, oxygen utility capacity and fatigability in healthy adults. Healthy adults (n 18, age 24 (sd 4) years) received BE or placebo in a randomised crossover design. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), BP, TAC, resting heart rate, oxygen utility capacity and fatigability were measured pre- and post-BE and placebo intake. The BE group showed significantly increased FMD, reduced systolic BP and improved oxygen utility capacity compared with the placebo group (P < 0·05). Tissue saturation and oxygenated Hb significantly increased following BE intake, while deoxygenated Hb significantly decreased (P < 0·05) during exercise. Additionally, TAC was significantly increased following BE intake (P < 0·05). There were no significant differences for resting heart rate, diastolic BP or fatigability index. These results suggest that BE intake is an effective nutritional therapy for improving endothelial function, BP, TAC and oxygen utility capacity, which may be beneficial to support vascular health in humans.
Combinational creativity can play a significant role in supporting designers to produce creative ideas during the early stages of new product development. This paper explores conceptual distances in combinational creativity from computational perspectives. A study conducted indicates that different computational measurements show different conceptual distance results. However, the study suggests far-related ideas could lead to outcomes that are more creative than closely-related ones. This paper provides useful insights into exploring future computational design support tools.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) utilization during pregnancy may be common, but data specific to universal healthcare systems like Canada are lacking, where pregnancy care is supposed to be standardized. The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize ED utilization among all Ontarian women who had a recognized pregnancy, including by trimester and within 42 days after pregnancy, and further stratified by pregnancy outcome. Methods: Utilizing provincial administrative health databases, this retrospective population-based cohort study included all recognized pregnancies in Ontario conceived between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2017. Peri-pregnancy ED utilization was defined as any ED visit from 0-42 weeks’ gestation, or within 42 days after the end of pregnancy. Modified Poisson regression was used to generate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcome of any peri-pregnancy ED utilization in association with maternal characteristics. Results: Peri-pregnancy ED utilization occurred among 1,075,991 of 2,728,236 recognized pregnancies (39.4%), including among 35.8% of livebirths, 47.3% of stillbirths, 73.7% of miscarriages, and 84.8% of threatened abortions. There were 22,802 (0.84%) ectopic pregnancies among all pregnancies in the cohort. ED utilization peaked in the first trimester and in the first week postpartum. A dose-response effect was seen in the number of peri-pregnancy ED visits in relation to certain maternal characteristics. Women residing in rural areas had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.44 (95% CI 3.39 to 3.49) for ≥ 3 ED visits, compared to those in urban areas. Women with 3-5 (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.97-2.01), 5-6 (OR 3.55, 95% CI 3.49 to 3.61), or ≥ 7 (OR 7.59, 95% CI 7.39 to 7.78) pre-pregnancy comorbidities were more likely to have ≥ 3 peri-pregnancy ED visits than those with 0-2 comorbidities. Of all recognized pregnancies in the cohort, only 106,989 (3.9%) had an injury-related ED visit. Conclusion: Peri-pregnancy ED utilization occurs in nearly 40% of pregnancies, notably in the first trimester and immediately postpartum. Efforts are needed to streamline rapid access to ambulatory obstetrical care during these peak periods, when women are vulnerable to either a miscarriage, or a complication after a livebirth.
Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe—primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship.
The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) and its correlates in schizophrenicoutpatients.
The 14 items of self-reported night eatingquestionnaire (NEQ) was administered to 201 schizophrenic patients in psychiatricoutpatient clinic. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics, bodymass index (BMI), subjective measures of mood, sleep, binge eating, andweight-related quality of life using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI),Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Koreanversion of Obesity-Related Quality of Life Scale (KOQoL), respectively.
The prevalence of night eaters in schizophrenicoutpatients was 10.4% (21 of 201). Comparisons between NES group and non-NES grouprevealed no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and BMI. Compared to non-NES, patients with NES reportedsignificantly greater depressed mood and sleep disturbance, more binge eatingpattern, and decreased weight-related quality of life. While 'morning anorexia'and 'delayed morning meal' (2 of 5 NES core components in NEQ) were notdiffered between groups, 'nocturnal ingestions', 'evening hyperphagia', and'mood/sleep' were more impaired in NES group.
These findings are the first to describe theprevalence and its correlates of night eaters in schizophrenic outpatients. These results suggest that NES has negative mental health implications, although it was not associated with obesity. Further study to generalize theseresults is required.
Thisstudy was to assess the prevalence and its correlates of restless legs syndrome(RLS) in outpatients with bipolar disorder.
A total of 100clinical stabilized bipolar outpatients were examined. The presence of RLS andits severity were assessed using the International Restless Legs Sydrome StudyGroup (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberg's StateAnxiety Inventory (STAI-X-1), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Koreanversion Drug Attitude Inventory (KDAI-10), Subjective Well-Beings under NeurolepticTreatment Scale-Short Form(SWN-K) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) wereused to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, level of anxiety, subjectivequality of sleep, subjective feeling of well-being, drug attitude, presence ofakathisia, respectively.
Of the 100 bipolar outpatients,7 (7%) were met to full criteria of IRLSSG and 36 (36%) have at least one ofthe 4 IRLSSG criterion. Because of relatively small sample size, non-parametricanalysis were done to compare the characteristics among 3 groups (full-RLS, 1≥positiveRLS-symptom and Non-RLS). There were no significant differences in sex, age, and other sociodemographic and clinical data among 3 groups. BDI, STAI-X-1 andPSQI are tended to be impaired in RLS and 1≥positive RLS-symptomgroups.
This is the first preliminarystudy for studying the prevalence and its correlates of RLS in bipolardisorder. The results shows that RLS was relatively smaller presentin bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Sametendencies shown in schizophrenic patients were found that bipolar patientswith RLS had more depressive symptoms, state anxiety and poor subjective sleepquality.
Life events and accompanying psychological and behavioral reactions frequently have an impact upon people's daily lives and are believed to predispose them to disease. Psychological stressors impact many physiological and pathological disease outcomes, including mental illness. Positive social interactions have in turn been shown to exert powerful beneficial effects on health outcomes and longevity.
The Objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of Psychological Distress, Social Support, and Mental Fitness among patients of mental health services.
This article aims to discuss the evidence supporting the mediating effect of social support between psychological stress and mental health.
This study was performed on patients who visited the mental health services in Daejeon from October to December 2011. In total, 395 patients were evaluated with Mental Fitness Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale(KPDS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support(MSPSS).
Correlations among variables of psychological distress and social support on subordinate variable of mental fitness of patients were significant. The result of the regression analysis, psychological distress and social support have a positively significant influence on mental fitness of patients. social support showed mediating effects between psychological distress and mental fitness.
These results suggest that health care providers ought to seek social support for patients, in order to provide positive mental fitness of patients.
Both trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and antidepressant medication are regarded as the first line treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about sequential or combined efficacy of these two different treatment options. This prospective study examined the add-on efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy among adult civilians with PTSD who continued to be symptomatic after antidepressant treatment.
Adult patients with PTSD at a specialized trauma clinic who received treatment doses of antidepressants for more than 12 weeks were recruited; definition of symptomatic PTSD was a total score > 40 on the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The CAPS and the global improvement from Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were rated prior to EMDR, after termination and six months follow-up.
A total of 15 patients underwent an average of six sessions of EMDR and 7 (47%) of 15 no longer met the criteria for PTSD and 10 (67%) were given status of very much or much improved. The CAPS scores and significantly decreased after EMDR therapy (paired t = 7.38, df = 14, P < 0.0001).
These results indicate that EMDR or trauma-focused CBT can be successfully added to those who failed to improve after initial pharmacotherapy for PTSD. Further studies are needed to explore the best sequence or components of therapies in the treatment of PTSD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries. To encourage establishment of actionable and standardized SSI surveillance in these countries, we propose simplified surveillance case definitions. Here, we use NHSN reports to explore concordance of these simplified definitions to NHSN as ‘reference standard.’
Numerous studies reported on the frequency of, and factors associated with inappropriate or unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits using clinician judgment as the gold standard of appropriateness. This study evaluated the reliability of clinician judgment for assessing appropriateness of pediatric ED visit.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing 3 clinicians’ determination of ED visit appropriateness with and without guidance from a three-question structured algorithm. We used a cohort of scheduled ED return visits deemed appropriate by the index treating clinician between May 1, 2012, and April 30, 2013. We measured the level of agreement among three clinician investigators with and without use of the structured algorithm.
A total of 207 scheduled ED return visits were reviewed by the primary clinician reviewer who agreed with the index treating clinician for 79/207 visits (38.2%). Among a random subset of 90 return visits reviewed by all three clinicians, agreement was 67% with a Fleiss’ Kappa of 0.30 (0.17–0.44). Using a three-question algorithm based on objective criteria, agreement with the index treating provider increased to 115/207 (55.6%).
Although an important contributor to pediatric ED overcrowding, unnecessary or inappropriate visits are difficult to identify. We demonstrated poor reliability of clinician judgment to determine appropriateness of ED return visits, likely due to variability in clinical decision-making and risk-tolerance, social and systems factors impacting access and use of health care. We recommend that future studies evaluating the appropriateness of ED use standardized, objective criteria rather than clinician judgment alone.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
Common mental disorders are highly prevalent among Syrian refugees. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief, transdiagnostic, non-specialist helper delivered, psychological intervention targeting psychological distress. This single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) on PM+ delivered by peer-refugees examined trial procedures in advance of a definitive RCT, evaluated PM+ 's acceptability and feasibility, and investigated its likely effectiveness and cost-effectiveness among Syrian refugees in the Netherlands.
Adult Syrian refugees (N = 60) with elevated psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) score >15) and reduced pychosocial functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS) score >16) were randomised into PM+ in addition to care as usual (CAU) (PM+/CAU; n = 30) or CAU alone (n = 30). Primary outcomes were symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist; HSCL-25) at 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were pychosocial functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule; WHODAS 2.0), symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (PTSD Checklist for DSM 5; PCL-5) and self-identified problems (Psychological Outcomes Profiles; PSYCHLOPS). Changes in service utilisation and time out of employment and/or adult education were estimated (adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory; CSRI). Semi-structured interviews on the implementation of PM+ were conducted with stakeholders (i.e. six PM+ participants, five non-specialist helpers and five key informants).
Recruitment, randomization and blinding procedures were successful. PM+ was generally perceived positively by stakeholders, especially regarding the intervention strategies, accommodation of the intervention and the helpers. Two serious adverse events not attributable to the trial were reported. At 3-month follow-up, the HSCL-25 total score was significantly lower for the PM+/CAU group (n = 30) than CAU group (n = 30) (p = 0.004; d = 0.58). Significant differences in favour of PM+/CAU were also found for WHODAS psychosocial functioning (p = 0.009, d = 0.73), PCL-5 symptoms of PTSD (p = 0.006, d = 0.66) and PSYCHLOPS self-identified problems (p = 0.005, d = 0.81). There were no significant differences in mean health service costs (p = 0.191) and the mean costs of lost productive time (p = 0.141). This suggests PM+ may potentially be cost-effective with an incremental cost from a health system perspective of €5047 (95% CI €0–€19 773) per additional recovery achieved.
Trial procedures and PM+ delivered by non-specialist peer-refugee helpers seemed acceptable, feasible and safe. Analyses indicate that PM+ may be effective in improving mental health outcomes and psychosocial functioning, and potentially cost-effective. These results support the development of a definitive RCT with a larger sample of refugees and a longer follow-up period.