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Using legumes in forage mixes can help decrease the use of nitrogen fertilizers and possibly increase the nutritive value of pasture. The aim of the current study was to determine animal production and behavioural and ingestion parameters by evaluating the production and nutritive value of Aruana grass (Panicum maximum ‘Aruana’) intercropped with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi ‘Amarillo’) or fertilized with nitrogen. The treatments were N200 (200 kg N/ha per season – summer and winter), 100N + PE (100 kg N/ha per season plus pasture mixture with forage peanut) and N100 (100 kg N/ha per season). The presence of forage peanut in the pasture did not replace nitrogen fertilization as the pasture fertilized with 200 kg of nitrogen had a greater leaf/stem ratio (0.66 v. 0.54), stocking rate (2600 v. 2290 kg live weight/ha), average daily gain (0.880 v. 0.700 kg/day) and live weight gain (LWG) (652 v. 468 kg/ha) during summer. During winter, no effect of increased nitrogen fertilization on pasture and animal production was observed. In the total study period (summer + winter), a greater LWG (897 v. 741 kg/ha) occurred when a higher quantity of nitrogen (N200) was placed in the pasture compared to the insertion of forage peanuts in the system.
Three clayey materials named MY3, KK and KG originating from the Foumban region (west Cameroon) were analysed to determine their granulometry, plasticity, major-element chemistry and mineralogy. Dilatometric and ceramic behaviour were also investigated. Clays were shaped by uniaxial pressing in a steel mould. Shaped samples were heated at 1300, 1400 and 1500°C. The end products were characterized in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength. Raw materials differ in terms of their mineralogical composition, grain-size distribution, Al2O3 content and the nature and abundance of impurities inducing specific thermal behaviour during dilatometric analysis and sintering tests. The final material properties may be related to the main features of the raw materials used.
This paper provides a summary of recent research connected with the shock ignition (SI) concept of the inertial confinement fusion which was carried out at PALS. In the experiments, Cu planar targets coated with a thin CH layer were used. Two-beam irradiation experiment was applied to investigate the effect of preliminary produced plasma to shock-wave generation. The 1ω or 3ω main beam with a high intensity >1015 W/cm2 generates shock wave, while the other 1ω beam with the intensity below 1014 W/cm2 creates CH pre-plasma simulating the pre-compressed plasma related to SI. Influence of laser wavelength on absorbed energy transfer to shock wave was studied by means of femtosecond interferometry and measuring the crater volume. To characterize the hot electron and ion emission, two-dimensional (2D) Kα-imaging of Cu plasma and grid collector measurements were used. In single 1ω beam experiments energy transport by fast electrons produced by resonant absorption made a significant contribution to shock-wave pressure. However, two-beam experiments with 1ω main beam show that the pre-plasma is strongly degrading the scalelength which leads to decreasing the fast electron energy contribution to shock pressure. In both the single 3ω beam experiments and the two-beam experiments with the 3ω main beam, do not show any clear influence of fast electron transport on shock-wave pressure. The non-monotonic behavior of the scalelength at changing the laser beam focal radius in both presence and absence of pre-plasma reflects the competition of plasma motion and electron heat conduction under the conditions of one-dimensional and 2D plasma expansion at large and small focal radii, respectively.
During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ∼ 6, MUVT ≳-13.3; for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* ≲ 47 km s−1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.
Functional modeling is an analytical approach to design problems that is widely taught in certain academic communities but not often used by practitioners. This approach can be applied in multiple ways to formalize the understanding of the systems, to support the synthesis of the design in the development of a new product, or to support the analysis and improvement of existing systems incrementally. The type of usage depends on the objectives that are targeted. The objectives can be categorized into two key groups: discovering a totally new solution, or improving an existing one. This article proposes to use the functional modeling approach to achieve three goals: to support the representation of physics-based reasoning, to use this physics-based reasoning to assess design options, and finally to support innovative ideation. The exemplification of the function-based approach is presented via a case study of a glue gun proposed for this Special Issue. A reverse engineering approach is applied, and the authors seek an incremental improvement of the solution. As the physics-based reasoning model presented in this article is heavily dependent on the quality of the functional model, the authors propose a general approach to limit the interpretability of the functional representations by mapping the functional vocabulary with elementary structural blocks derived from bond graph theory. The physics-based reasoning approach is supported by a mathematical framework that is summarized in the article. The physics-based reasoning model is used for discovering the limitations of solutions in the form of internal contradictions and guiding the design ideation effort.
We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.
The paper is a continuation of research carried out at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) related to the shock ignition (SI) approach in inertial fusion, which was carried out with use of 1ω main laser beam as the main beam generating a shock wave. Two-layer targets were used, consisting of Cu massive planar target coated with a thin polyethylene layer, which, in the case of two-beam irradiation geometry, simulate conditions related to the SI scenario. The investigations presented in this paper are related to the use of 3ω to create ablation pressure for high-power shock wave generation. The interferometric studies of the ablative plasma expansion, complemented by measurements of crater volumes and Kα emission, clearly demonstrate the effect of changing the incident laser intensity due to changing the focal radius on efficiency of laser energy transfer to a shock wave and fast electron emission. The efficiency of the energy transfer increases with the radius of the focused laser beam. The pre-plasma does not significantly change the character of this effect. However, it unambiguously results in the increasing temperature of fast electrons, the total energy of which remains very small (<0.1% of the laser energy). This study shows that the optimal radius from the point of view of 3ω radiation energy transfer to the shock wave is the maximal one used in these experiments and equal to 200 µm that corresponds to the minimal effect of two-dimensional (2D)-expansion. Such a result is typical for the ablation process determined by electron conductivity energy transfer under the conditions of one-dimensional or 2D matter expansion without any appreciable effect due to energy transfer by fast electrons. The 2D simulations based on application of the ALANT-HE code and an analytical model that includes generation and transport of hot electrons has been used to support of experimental data.
The effect of laser intensity on characteristics of the plasma ablated from a low-Z (CH) planar target irradiated by a 250 ps, 0.438 µm laser pulse with the intensity of up to 1016 W/cm2 as well as on parameters of the laser-driven shock generated in the target for various scale-lengths of preformed plasma was investigated at the kilojoule Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) laser facility. Characteristics of the plasma were measured with the use of 3-frame interferometry, ion diagnostics, an X-ray spectrometer, and Kα imaging. Parameters of the shock generated in a Cl doped CH target by the intense 3ω laser pulse were inferred by numerical hydrodynamic simulations from the measurements of craters produced by the shock in the massive Cu target behind the CH layer. It was found that the pressure of the shock generated in the plastic layer is relatively weakly influenced by the preplasma (the pressure drop due to the preplasma presence is ~10–20%) and at the pulse intensity of ~1016 W/cm2 the maximum pressure reaches ~80–90 Mbar. However, an increase in pressure of the shock with the laser intensity is slower than predicted by theory for a planar shock and the maximum pressure achieved in the experiment is by a factor of ~2 lower than predicted by the theory. Both at the preplasma absence and presence, the laser-to-hot electrons energy conversion efficiency is small, ~1% or below, and the influence of hot electrons on the generated shock is expected to be weak.
This paper reports on properties of a plasma formed by sequential action of two laser beams on a flat target, simulating the conditions of shock-ignited inertial confinement fusion target exposure. The experiments were performed using planar targets consisting of a massive copper (Cu) plate coated with a thin plastic (CH) layer, which was irradiated by the 1ω PALS laser beam (λ = 1.315 μm) at the energy of 250 J. The intensity of the fixed-energy laser beam was scaled by varying the focal spot radius. To imitate shock ignition conditions, the lower-intensity auxiliary 1ω beam created CH-pre-plasma which was irradiated by the main beam with a delay of 1.2 ns, thus generating a shock wave in the massive part of the target. To study the parameters of the plasma treated by the two-beam irradiation of the targets, a set of various diagnostics was applied, namely: (i) Two-channel polaro-interferometric system irradiated by the femtosecond laser (~40 fs), (ii) spectroscopic measurements in the X-ray range, (iii) two-dimensional (2D)-resolved imaging of the Kα line emission from Cu, (iv) measurements of the ion emission by means of ion collectors, and (v) measurements of the volume of craters produced in a massive target providing information on the efficiency of the laser energy transfer to the shock wave. The 2D numerical simulations have been used to support the interpretation of experimental data. The general conclusion is that the fraction of the main laser beam energy deposited into the massive copper at two-beam irradiation decreases in comparison with the case of pre-plasma. The reason is that the pre-formed and expanding plasma deteriorates the efficiency of the energy transfer from the main laser pulse to a solid part of the targets by means of the fast electrons and the wave of an electron thermal conductivity.
Since 1876, statistical data on twin and multiple (TAM) births and deliveries have been registered in Hungary. Although there were some years during this 138-year period when twin births and deliveries were left out of the statistics, the trends can be followed, except for the period of World War II. The trends of twinning over the past four decades are summarized in this article, relying on official statistical data since 1970. Notably, the TAM birth rate rose following the Act CLIV of 1997 on Health. The Act provided state support for assisted reproductive treatments (ART), which spectacularly increased the ratio of twins — and especially of triplets — among live births. The trend has turned around since 2009–2010, and a decreasing era of TAM births seems to have begun. This article discusses some of the main and most interesting findings connected with TAM births, including twinning rates associated with different age groups, educational level, and actual place of residence by mothers, and the number of previous pregnancies of the mother. Ratios of live born males compared with live born females, lengths and weights at birth both among twins and singletons, and infant mortality rates have been calculated from the data. Twinning rates are higher in the western counties, the capital and its suburbs, and lower in the eastern counties.
Aiming to perform the first sociological survey of Hungarian twins, our main question was whether being a twin has positive consequences on one's life. Adult twins completed our questionnaire at three Hungarian summer twin festivals, in hospitals during medical twin studies, and on some websites online. Data represent 140 twin pairs (mean age: 38.2 ± 14.6 years). We employed some indices for measuring the resource nature of twinship. Three main types of benefits were distinguished: profit of attraction, as ‘material capital’; the easier obtainability of cultural goods when twins take part in it, as ‘cultural capital’; and positive aspects of an a priori existing dyadic relation, as ‘relational capital’. We were interested in the difference among types of twins regarding advantages. We paid special attention to the five groups of twins derived from gender and zygosity (i.e., monozygotic females, monozygotic males, dizygotic females, dizygotic males, opposite-sex pairs). Our analysis showed that Hungarian twins involved in our research basically enjoy their twinship; during their lives they used and still make use of different benefits given by it. In our twin samples, women had more advantages from being a twin than men. Significant differences could be observed on all indicators between monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
A space-resolved charge density of ions is derived from a time-resolved current of ions emitted from laser-produced plasma and expanded into the vacuum along collision-free and field-free paths. This derivation is based on a similarity relationship for ion currents with “frozen” charges observed at different distances from the target. This relationship makes it possible to determine a map of ion charge density at selected times after the laser plasma interaction from signals of time-of-flight detectors positioned at a certain distance from the target around a target-surface normal. In this work, we present maps of the charge density of ions emitted from Cu and polyethylene plasmas. The mapping demonstrates that bursts of ions are emitted at various ejection angles ϕn with respect to the target-surface normal. There are two basic directions ϕ1 and ϕ2, one belonging to the fastest ions, i.e., protons and carbon ions, and the other one to the slowest ions being a part of each plasma plume.
The risks of flooding in rice production include losses that can affect some 13 million ha of rice lands in Southeast Asia. This study integrated social and gender perspectives into the varietal evaluation process to contribute to planned faster uptake of submergence-tolerant rice (Sub1) varieties. In this study, the participatory varietal selection (PVS) process was used in eliciting male and female farmers' opinions with respect to selecting popular varieties with the SUB1 gene introgressed, for added tolerance of flash floods of up to two weeks. Fifteen Sub1 varieties and the farmers' local check were tested under the PVS researcher-managed (PVS-RM) trials, which involved farmers' preference analysis (PA). The farmers tested the pre-selected lines with the SUB1 gene in their own fields to further evaluate their performance under varying conditions. During flooding, farmers experienced lower production depending on water depth, timing with respect to rice growth stage, duration, frequency of occurrence and quality. On-farm PA results showed wide variability in the performance of the Sub1 varieties compared with local popular varieties. This implies the need for further testing of pre-released lines in terms of adaptability and the continuous development of rice genotypes for varying flood-prone rice ecosystems. Women are as knowledgeable as men because of the significant roles they play in rice production and food preparation. Moreover, farmers and breeders have almost the same criteria in choosing the best performing rice lines. Sensory tests revealed the eating and cooking qualities important to farmers. The findings of this study can provide feedback to breeding programmes to ensure a greater likelihood of adoption and ultimately increasing rice productivity in submergence-prone rice areas.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
This paper assesses farmer adoption of rice varieties and new genotypes introduced through participatory varietal selection (PVS) in villages which represent submergence- and drought/submergence-prone villages in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. It focuses on the involvement of women farmers in participatory research for screening improved varieties for areas which suffer from abiotic stresses. It further assesses the impact on the decision-making authority (or women's empowerment) on rice varietal choice, seed acquisition and disposal, and crop management after participating in PVS trials. It suggests strategies to empower women farmers in making sound and timely decisions on farm-related matters and to enhance their roles in accelerating the adoption of new varieties.
In a recent essay, George Annas, the legal columnist for The New
England Journal of Medicine, observed that the resuscitation of
extremely premature infants, even over parental objection, is not
problematic because “once the child's medical status has been
determined, the parents have the legal authority to make all subsequent
decisions.” Annas himself is quick to concede that treatment in a
high-technology neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) frequently takes on a
life of its own. He also acknowledges that although bioethicists and
courts agree that there is no ethical or legal difference between
withholding or withdrawing a respirator from a patient, parents and
physicians find the withdrawal much more emotionally troubling.