To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Arctic rabies virus variant (ARVV) is enzootic in Quebec (Canada) north of the 55th parallel. With climate change, increased risk of re-incursion of ARVV in more densely populated southern regions raises public and animal health concerns. The objective of this study was to prioritise geographical areas to target for an early detection of ARVV incursion south of the 55th parallel based on the historical spatio-temporal trends of reported rabies in foxes in Quebec. Descriptive analyses of fox rabies cases from 1953 to 2017 were conducted. Three periods show increases in the number of fox rabies cases in southern regions and indicate incursion from northern areas or neighbouring provinces. The available data, particularly in central and northern regions of the province, were scarce and of low spatial resolution, making it impossible to identify the path of spread with precision. Hence, we investigated the use of multiple criteria, such as historical rabies cases, human population density and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) relative abundance, to prioritise areas for enhanced surveillance. This study underscores the need to define and maintain new criteria for selecting samples to be analysed in order to detect rapidly ARVV cases outside the current enzootic area and any potential re-incursion of the virus into central and southern regions of the province.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of heroin dependent patients before and 1 year after the start of methadone maintenance treatment. Subjects were patients (n = 102) requesting treatment in a public methadone maintenance programme in Geneva (Switzerland). This was a prospective follow-up study using a validated questionnaire (SQLP). The SQLP was well accepted by patients and staff. Validity of the questionnaire was reconfirmed in this population. Compared to previously studied populations, the quality of life of heroin dependent patients before start of treatment was poor. More than half the patients were still in treatment after 1 year and their quality of life had clearly improved, in most domains. Like many of their peers in the psychiatric field, the patients had high initial expectations. Expectations decreased significantly over time. It was found that the higher were the initial expectations, the poorer was the quality of life after 1 year. The quality of life of heroin abusers requesting treatment is mediocre, and improved considerably after 1 year of comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment. Quality of life evaluation is feasible in this population and can offer an additional evaluation of quality of substance abuse treatment.
Les AVP sont le principal pourvoyeur d’ESPT (Kupchik et al., 2007), dont la prévalence fluctue de 6 à 45 % entre les études (Heron-Delaney et al., 2013). En l’absence de repérage clinique, l’ESPT peut se chroniciser (Kessler et al., 1995). Les outils actuels permettent son diagnostic (Jackson et al., 2011), mais pas de dépister précocement les sujets à risque de développer un ESPT post-AVP en aigu (8 semaines) comme en chronique (6 mois) ou en tardif (1 an). Nous présentons une étude longitudinale réalisée sur 274 patients répartis sur 6 centres de traumatologie ayant pour objectif principal de valider un outil infirmier de dépistage précoce d’ESPT après un AVP (DEPITAC). Dix questions ont été soumises à tout patient hospitalisé dans les 15 jours après un AVP, ainsi qu’une PDI et un MINI DSM-IV. La PCL-S (cut-off à 44) a permis le diagnostic à 8 semaines, 6 mois et 1 an. L’analyse statistique a été réalisée avec le logiciel SAS Institute 9.4. Le score total DEPITAC était significativement associé au diagnostic d’ESPT à 1 an (OR : 1,43 ; IC95 % : 1,14–1,79) avec un pouvoir discriminant de 0,64 (IC95 % : 0,56–0,72). DEPITAC était corrélé à l’échelle PDI (p < 0,0001) avec un faible coefficient de corrélation (r = 0,32) montrant une faible redondance. Seules 3 questions après analyses bivariées s’avèrent significatives : « présence d’autres blessés ou décédés lors de l’AVP », « présence d’une dissociation post-AVP » et « s’être vu mourir lors de l’AVP » avec un pouvoir discriminant de 0,65 (IC95 % : 0,57–0,73). Aucun effet centre n’a été mis en évidence (p = 0,90). Nos résultats semblent montrer qu’à l’aide de seulement 3 questions de dépistage, les équipes infirmières pourraient repérer les patients à risque de développer un ESPT aigu ou tardif, leur permettant ainsi d’alerter précocement les équipes psychiatriques de liaison ou de pschotraumatologie.
Introduction: Community Paramedics (CPs) require access to timely blood analysis in the field to guide treatment and transport decisions. Point of care testing (POCT), as opposed to traditional laboratory analysis, may offer a solution, but limited research exists on CP POCT. The objective of this study is to compare the validity of two POCT devices (Abbott i-STAT® and Alere epoc®) and their use by CPs in the community. Methods: In a CP programme responding to 6,000 annual patient care events, a split sample validation of POCT against traditional laboratory analysis for seven analytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose) was conducted on a consecutive sample of patients. The difference of proportion of discrepant results between POCT and laboratory was compared using a two sample proportion test. Usability was analysed by survey of CP experience, an expert heuristic evaluation of devices, a review of device-logged errors, coded observations of POCT use during quality control testing, and a linear mixed effects model of Systems Usability Scale (SUS) adjusted for CP clinical and POCT experience. Results: Of 1,649 CP calls for service screened for enrollment, 174 had a blood draw, with 108 patient care encounters (62.1%) enrolled from 73 participants. Participants had a mean age of 58.7 years (SD16.3); 49% were female. In 4 of 646 (0.6%) individual comparisons, POCT reported a critical value that the laboratory did not; with no statistically significant difference in the number of discrepant critical values reported with epoc® compared to i-STAT®. There were no instances of the laboratory reporting a critical value when POCT did not. In 88 of 1,046 (8.4%) individual comparisons, the a priori defined acceptable difference between POCT and the laboratory was exceeded; occurring more often in epoc® (10.7%;95%CI:8.1%,13.3%) compared to i-STAT® (6.1%;95%CI:4.1%,8.2%)(p=0.007). Eighteen of 19 CP surveys were returned, with 11/18 (61.1%) preferring i-STAT® over epoc®. The i-STAT® had a higher mean SUS score (higher usability) compared to the epoc® (84.0/100 vs. 59.6/100; p=0.011). Fewer field blood analysis device-logged errors occurred in i-STAT® (7.8%;95%CI:2.9%,12.7%) compared to epoc® (15.5%;95%CI:9.3%,21.7%) although not statistically significant (p=0.063). Conclusion: CP programs can expect valid results from POCT. Usability assessment suggests a preference for i-STAT.
The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications). The panel discussion ‘Traditional methods v. new technologies: dilemmas for dietary assessment in population surveys’, was held at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, September 2015. Despite respondent and researcher burden, traditional methods have been most commonly used in nutrition surveys. However, dietary assessment technologies offer potential advantages including faster data processing and better data quality. This is a fast-moving field and there is evidence of increasing demand for the use of new technologies amongst the general public and researchers. There is a need for research and investment to support efforts being made to facilitate the inclusion of new technologies for rapid, accurate and representative data.
Latest Sandbian to early Katian sequences across Laurentia's epicontinental sea exhibit a transition from lithologies characterized as ‘warm-water’ carbonates to those characterized as ‘cool-water'carbonates. This shift occurs across the regionally recognized M4/M5 sequence stratigraphic boundary and has been attributed to climatic cooling and glaciation, basin reorganization and upwelling of open ocean water, and/or increased water turbidity and terrigenous input associated with the Taconic tectophase. Documentation of oxygen isotopic trends across the M4/M5 and through bracketing strata provides a potential means of distinguishing among these alternative scenarios; however, oxygen isotopic records generated to date have failed to settle the debate. This lack of resolution is because δ18O records are open to multiple interpretations and potentially confounding factors related to local environmental conditions have not been tested by examining the critical interval in multiple areas and different depositional settings. To begin to address this shortcoming, we present new species-specific and mixed assemblage conodont δ18O values in samples spanning the M4/M5 boundary from the Upper Mississippi Valley, Alabama, and Virginia. The new results are combined with previous studies, providing a record of δ18O variability across SE Laurentia. The combined dataset allows us to test for regional trends at a resolution not previously available. Our results document a ~1.5‰ decrease in values across Laurentia instead of increasing δ18O values across the M4/M5 as predicted in various ‘cool-water’ scenarios. In short, these results do not support a shift to ‘cool-water’ conditions as an explanation for changes in early Katian carbonates across the M4/M5.
Lycopene (LYC) bioavailability is relatively low and highly variable, because of the influence of several factors. Recent in vitro data have suggested that dietary Ca can impair LYC micellarisation, but there is no evidence whether this can lead to decreased LYC absorption efficiency in humans. Our objective was to assess whether a nutritional dose of Ca impairs dietary LYC bioavailability and to study the mechanism(s) involved. First, in a randomised, two-way cross-over study, ten healthy adults consumed either a test meal that provided 19-mg (all-E)-LYC from tomato paste or the same meal plus 500-mg calcium carbonate as a supplement. Plasma LYC concentration was measured at regular time intervals over 7 h postprandially. In a second approach, an in vitro digestion model was used to assess the effect of increasing Ca doses on LYC micellarisation and on the size and zeta potential of the mixed micelles produced during digestion of a complex food matrix. LYC bioavailability was diminished by 83 % following the addition of Ca in the test meal. In vitro, Ca affected neither LYC micellarisation nor mixed micelle size but it decreased the absolute value of their charge by 39 %. In conclusion, a nutritional dose of Ca can impair dietary LYC bioavailability in healthy humans. This inhibition could be due to the fact that Ca diminishes the electrical charge of micelles. These results call for a thorough assessment of the effects of Ca, or other divalent minerals, on the bioavailability of other carotenoids and lipophilic micronutrients.
Biochar systems are designed to meet four related primary objectives: improve soils, manage waste, generate renewable energy, and mitigate climate change. Supply chain models provide a holistic framework for examining biochar systems with an emphasis on product life cycle and end use. Drawing on concepts in supply chain management and engineering, this chapter presents biochar as a manufactured product with a wide range of feedstocks, production technologies, and end use options. Supply chain segments are discussed in detail using diverse examples from agriculture, forestry and other sectors that cut across different scales of production and socioeconomic environments. Particular attention is focused on the environmental impacts of different production and logistics functions, and the relationship between supply chain management and life cycle assessment. The connections between biochar supply chains and those of various co-products, substitute products, and final products are examined from economic and environmental perspectives. For individuals, organizations, and broad associations connected by biochar supply and demand, achieving biochar’s potential benefits efficiently will hinge on understanding, organizing, and managing information, resources and materials across the supply chain, moving biochar from a nascent to an established industry.
Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the feasibility of using in-woods mobile pyrolysis systems to convert excess forest biomass into biochar. Biochar may be applied to forest sites in order to positively influence soil properties (nutrient leaching, water holding capacity), but its biggest benefit may be in facilitating reforestation of degraded or contaminated sites, and in sequestering carbon in soils. The majority of data on biochar applications on forest sites focus on seedling responses and short-term impacts on nutrients, soil physical properties and microbial changes. Long-term field research is necessary to determine water use, carbon sequestration, nutrient use, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the subsequent alteration of forest growth and stand dynamics.
All products, including bioproducts, have an impact on the environment by consuming resources and releasing emissions during their production. Biochar, a bioproduct, has received considerable attention because of its potential to sequester carbon in soil while enhancing productivity, thus aiding sustainable supply chain development. In this chapter, the environmental impacts of producing biochar using a holistic method called life-cycle assessment (LCA) or more generally life-cycle analysis are discussed. LCA is an internationally accepted method that can calculate greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions for part or all of a product life cycle. The present chapter will show how LCA can assess environmental impacts of the entire supply chain associated with all steps of the biochar system, from biomass harvesting through biochar production to soil amendment, with a focus on the production stage. Exploring a biochar system from a forestry LCA perspective, a new thermochemical conversion technology developed in the United States and used to process waste woody biomass, will be described. In particular, the conversion unit’s environmental performance based on the LCA research conducted so far will be described. Although this chapter will present LCA mostly from a forestry perspective, non-forestry agricultural activities will also be discussed.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
There has been increasing emphasis on performing ‘same-day’ or ‘out-patient’ thyroidectomy to reduce associated costs. However, acceptance has been limited by the risk of potentially life-threatening post-operative bleeding. This study aimed to review current rates of post-operative bleeding in a metropolitan teaching hospital and identify risk factors.
Medical records of patients undergoing thyroidectomy between January 2007 and March 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Pre-operative, operative and pathological data, and post-operative complication data, were examined.
The study comprised 205 thyroidectomy cases. Mean age was 51.6 years (standard deviation = 14.74), with 80 per cent females. Unilateral thyroidectomy was performed in 81 cases (39.5 per cent) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 74 cases (36.1 per cent; 5.3 per cent with concomitant lymph node dissection). Nine patients (4.4 per cent) suffered post-operative bleeding, of which six required re-operation. Analysis showed that post-operative systolic blood pressure of 180 mmHg or greater was associated with post-operative bleeding (p = 0.003, chi-square test).
Rates of significant post-operative bleeding are consistent with recent literature. Post-operative hypertension, diabetes and high post-operative drain output were identified as independent risk factors on multivariate analysis; when identified, these may be caveats to same-day discharge of thyroidectomy patients.