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The aim of the studies presented in this research communication was to compare species of origin (goat and sheep) and the effect of treatment (pasteurization at 56, 63 and 72 °C, skimming and curding) and refrigeration time on colostrum antimicrobial activity (AnAc). Two experiments were performed. In experiment 1, twenty-four first milking colostrum samples were obtained (12 goats, 12 sheep) and an aliquot of each sample was subjected to 6 different treatments, control (untreated), pasteurization at 56, 63 and 72 °C, skimming and curding. Colostrum AnAc was tested directly against E. coli using disks in a Petri dish and Enrofloxacin (antibiotic) and saline serum as positive and negative control, respectively. Species had no effect (P > 0.05) on colostrum AnAc, and neither did pasteurization at different temperatures or skimming. However, curding showed the lowest colostrum AnAc (P < 0.05) in both species. In the second experiment, four treatments were assayed, control, pasteurization at 56 and 63 °C and skimming. An aliquot of twelve goat colostrum samples were refrigerated after treatments for 10 d at 4 °C. Colostrum AnAc was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. A reduction in colostrum AnAc was observed due to refrigeration time. The results suggest that if farmers use frozen colostrum for neonates, the process of curding colostrum or refrigeration at 4 °C longer than 4 d is not recommended.
The BW has been largely used as a selection criterion in genetic selection programmes; however, increases in BW can affect animal metabolism and metabolites. The knowledge of how genetic potential for growth affects the metabolites can give a footprint of growth metabolism. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic potential for post-weaning growth (GG) on performance, carcass traits and serum metabolome of non-castrated Nellore males during the finishing phase. Forty-eight Nellore non-castrated males, with divergent potential for post-weaning growth, were selected and divided into two groups: high potential for post-weaning growth (HG; n = 24) and low potential for post-weaning growth (LG; n = 24). Animals were kept and fed for 90 days where performance and ultrasound carcass traits were evaluated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of feeding period to analyse serum metabolites concentration. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were recorded at slaughter. The feedlot performance and carcass traits were not affected by genetic potential. The HG animals had a lower glucose (P = 0.039), glutamate (P = 0.038), glutamine (P = 0.004), greater betaine (P = 0.039) and pyruvate (P = 0.039) compared to the LG group at the beginning of feedlot. In addition, higher creatine phosphate concentrations were observed at the beginning of feeding period, compared to final, for both groups (P = 0.039). In conclusion, the genetic potential for post-weaning growth does not affect performance and carcass traits during the finishing period. Differences in metabolite concentrations can be better found at the beginning of feedlot, providing a footprint of growth metabolism, but similar metabolite concentration at the end of finishing period.
Oxtotitlán Cave paintings have been considered among the earliest in Mesoamerica on stylistic grounds, but confirmation of this hypothesis through absolute dating has not been attempted until now. We describe the application of advanced radiocarbon strategies developed for situations such as caves with high carbon backgrounds. Using a low-temperature plasma oxidation system, we dated both the ancient paint and the biogenic rock coatings that cover the paint layers at Oxtotitlán. Our research has significantly expanded the time frame for the production of polychrome rock paintings encompassing the Early Formative and Late Formative/Early Classic periods, statistically spanning a long era from before ca. 1500 cal B.C. to cal A.D. 600.
Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P<0.05), as a result of muscle accretion (i.e. change in muscle depth: control 0.21 cm v. β-AA 0.97 cm; P<0.05) but not adipose tissue (i.e. change in back fat depth; control 0.13 cm v. β-AA −0.06 cm; P<0.05). The changes in body composition in β-AA cows were associated with a reduction in serum concentrations of IGF-I (25.4%) and leptin (27.9%), without observed changes in insulin. Ovulation and pregnancy to 1st service (P>0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) and the percentage cycling (control 6/8 v. β-AA 3/10; P=0.07) after progestin treatment and the pregnancy percentage at the end of the breeding period (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) were lower in β-AA than control cows. In summary, the increase BCS through muscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment; which was associated with a decrease in serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I.
This is the first detailed analysis of a CO2 diffuse degassing time series from Deception volcano, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, performed during an episode of anomalously high long-period (LP) seismicity. Diffuse CO2 emissions measured by an automatic geochemical station between 7 December 2009 and 13 February 2010 showed an excellent temporal agreement with the LP seismicity in December 2009. The absence of such a temporal correlation with the second burst of seismicity that occurred in late January 2010 suggests a different source for this LP activity. This was confirmed by analysis of seismic array data. The LP seismicity observed during December 2009 was caused by fluid-driven cracks that originated from pressure fluctuations in the volcano-hydrothermal systems beneath Deception volcano that were probably caused by a deep injection of undegassed magma before December 2009. The diffuse CO2 degassing data have provided evidence of the activation of at least two different sources of seismicity during the study period at Deception volcano.
Cosmic voids are becoming key players in testing the physics of our Universe.
Here we concentrate on the abundances and the dynamics of voids as these are among the best candidates
to provide information on cosmological parameters. Cai, Padilla & Li (2014)
use the abundance of voids to tell apart Hu & Sawicki f(R) models from General Relativity. An interesting
result is that even though, as expected, voids in the dark matter field are emptier in f(R) gravity due to the fifth force expelling
away from the void centres, this result is reversed when haloes are used to find voids. The abundance of voids in this case
becomes even lower in f(R) compared to GR for large voids. Still, the differences are significant and this
provides a way to tell apart these models. The velocity field differences between f(R) and GR, on the other hand, are
the same for halo voids and for dark matter voids.
Paz et al. (2013), concentrate on the velocity profiles around voids. First they show the necessity
of four parameters to describe the density profiles around voids given two distinct void
populations, voids-in-voids and voids-in-clouds. This profile is used to predict peculiar velocities around voids,
and the combination of the latter with void density profiles allows the construction of model
void-galaxy cross-correlation functions with redshift space distortions. When these models
are tuned to fit the measured correlation functions for voids and galaxies in the Sloan
Digital Sky Survey, small voids are found to be of the void-in-cloud type, whereas larger
ones are consistent with being void-in-void. This is a novel result that is obtained
directly from redshift space data around voids. These profiles can be used to
remove systematics on void-galaxy Alcock-Pacinsky tests coming from redshift-space distortions.
We present a study of the evolution of early-type galaxies (ETGs) that combines luminosity function and clustering measurements. This technique shows that ETGs at a given redshift evolve into brighter galaxies in the rest-frame passively evolved optical at lower redshifts. Notice that this indicates that a stellar-mass selection at different redshifts does not necessarily provide samples of galaxies in a progenitor-descendant relationship. The comparison between high redshift ETGs and their likely descendants at z = 0 points to a higher number density for the progenitors by a factor 3 to 11, implying the need for mergers to decrease their number density by today. Because the progenitor-to-descendant ratios of luminosity density are consistent with the unit value, our results show no need for strong star-formation episodes in ETGs since z = 1, which indicates that the needed mergers are dry, i.e. gas free.
Cardiovascular response patterns to laboratory-based social and physical exercise challenges were evaluated in 69 children and adolescents, 20 with selective mutism (SM), to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may mediate the behavioral features of SM. Results suggest that SM is associated with a dampened response of the vagal brake to physical exercise that is manifested as reduced reactivity in heart rate and respiration. Polyvagal theory proposes that the regulation of the vagal brake is a neurophysiological component of an integrated social engagement system that includes the neural regulation of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. Within this theoretical framework, sluggish vagal brake reactivity may parallel an inability to recruit efficiently the structures involved in speech. Thus, the findings suggest that dampened autonomic reactivity during mobilization behaviors may be a biomarker of SM that can be assessed independent of the social stimuli that elicit mutism.
The study examined the interaction between early maturational timing (measured by premature adrenarche [PA]) and executive functioning and cortisol reactivity on symptoms of psychopathology. The study included 76 girls aged 6 through 8 years (mean = 7.50, SD = 0.85) with PA (n = 40) and on-time adrenarche (n = 36). Girls completed a battery of psychological and neuropsychological tests and blood sampling for cortisol. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results demonstrated that girls with PA with lower levels of executive functioning had higher externalizing and anxious symptoms compared to other girls. In addition, girls with PA who demonstrated increases in serum cortisol had higher externalizing symptoms than those with stable patterns. Finally, girls with PA who demonstrated decreases in cortisol reported higher depressive symptoms. The findings from this study provide important information concerning the impact of cognitive functioning and stress reactivity on adjustment to early maturation in girls with PA. The results of this research may inform screening and intervention efforts for girls who may be at greatest risk for emotional and behavioral problems as a result of early maturation.
Oil industry is very strategic for any country. Not only for their market share and their budgets, but also for the critical infrastructure interdependences that creates. Considering statistics and fractal geometry as a support for analysis, interpretation of data and as an aid in taking decisions, this paper deals with data obtained in 1994 and 2004 from the inspection of the onshore pipelines in Mexico. Making use of software Benoit and ITSM-2000, the time series were found to have a fractal behavior. Further analysis and contrast with a previous research base on artificial neural networks was also accomplished. As a result it was obtained a forecast for 2014, based on the sum of the time series of data.
Contemporary research indicates that brain development occurs during childhood and into early adulthood, particularly in certain regions. A critical question is whether premature or atypical hormone exposures impact brain development (e.g., structure) or function (e.g., neuropsychological functioning). The current study enrolled 40 girls (aged 6–8 years) diagnosed with premature adrenarche (PA) and a comparison group of 36 girls with on-time maturation. It was hypothesized that girls with PA would demonstrate lower IQ and performance on several neuropsychological tasks. The potential for a sexually dimorphic neuropsychological profile in PA was also explored. No significant univariate or multivariate group differences emerged for any neuropsychological instrument. However, effect size confidence intervals contained medium-sized group differences at the subscale level. On-time girls performed better on verbal, working memory, and visuospatial tasks. Girls with PA showed improved attention, but not a sexually dimorphic profile. These results, though preliminary, suggest that premature maturation may influence neuropsychological functioning. (JINS, 2012, 18, 151–156)
Metabolic rate is one of the most frequently measured physiological variables and the relationship between oxygen uptake and body mass is one of the most controversial issues in biology. The present study used closed chamber respirometry to compare the oxygen uptake of 32 species of benthic British gastropod molluscs of a wide size-range (from less than 0.001 g to greater than 10 g dry tissue weight). We investigated the effects of body size on the respiratory rate at 10°C to explore the evolutionary and phylogenetically determined patterns of metabolic scaling both among different gastropods groups, and within siphonate and asiphonate caenogastropods. Resting oxygen uptake (O2) increased with body mass (W) with a slope value of 0.6 using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and standard major axis (SMA) where N = 488, over a 6 fold range of body mass. The slopes b of the regression lines relating oxygen uptake to body mass were similar for all heterobranch molluscs and most caenogastropods. Highest mass-specific rates for oxygen consumption were found for the smallest littorinid species. Trophic mode significantly affected the amount of oxygen consumed with higher oxygen uptake in herbivores than other groups, including detritivores and predators. All of the gastropods reduced their oxygen consumption when exposed to declining oxygen conditions; however, about a third of the species exhibited partial regulation at higher oxygen partial pressures. When exposed to 20% normal saturation levels, smaller gastropods respired at approximately 25% of their rates in fully saturated seawater whereas larger species (above 0.1 g dry tissue weight) respired at approximately 35% of the values recorded at full saturation. Our study suggests that a scaling exponent relating O2 to body mass of 0.6 is typical and may be ‘universal’ for gastropods. It is below the 0.75 scaling exponent which has been proposed for ectothermic invertebrates. It is concluded that size does matter in determining the metabolic patterns of gastropods and that the quantity of oxygen consumed and the energy balance of gastropods is affected by activity, food type and exposure to declining oxygen conditions.
Lagos, Padilla & Cora (2009) show that if alignments between the galaxy kinematics and the AGN system were to occur, massive galaxies should host BHs with high spin values, regardless of the detailed physics of the BH. Since the BH spin regulates the mass-to-energy conversion (Marconi et al. 2004) and possibly the existence of radio jets (Sikora et al. 2007), this study has a strong impact in our understanding of galaxy formation.
The pipelines are the main transport and distribution system of production in the oil industry, which are subject to environmental and operational conditions which are not favorable for the operation of the pipelines and sometimes represent the risk of accidents and high economic losses. The evolution of risk begins with a systematic search of possible threats to the integrity of the pipeline. The identification of potential threats should not be limited to known risk categories reviewed, but must complete the steps to find new and unique expressions of risk and the study of particular cases. Thus, the importance of a comprehensive risk assessment of the transmission pipeline is crucial. In this paper an integrity assessment for corrosion damages in pipelines was developed through a methodology based on risk analysis to estimate the propagation rate on the time, the size, location and number of damages. To perform this study a data obtained from smart pig runs and an artificial neural network (ANN) model with retro propagation was used. From the data obtained from launching smart pigs on the pipeline it was carried out the training of the neural network, later on it was applied the network previously trained to get the predictions of damages on the pipeline, considering that pipeline did not have any maintenance.
Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is a major health concern in performance horses, but the presence and severity of this condition in racing greyhounds has received little attention. While equids and greyhounds share many physiological attributes, there are important structural and functional differences that may help protect greyhounds from EIPH. We tested the hypothesis that greyhounds performing a simulated 503 m race would experience EIPH and that the time course of recovery would be similar to the horse, even though the severity or relative extent as indexed by the concentration of red blood cells [RBCs] in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid would be lower in comparison with that demonstrated previously in horses. Greyhound dogs (n = 6) raced on two occasions (separated by 7 weeks) and BAL was performed 1 week before, 2 h after and each week for 4 weeks following each race to examine the [RBC], concentration of white blood cells [WBCs], WBC differentials and haemosiderophages in the lungs. Racing increased 10 min post-exercise venous blood [lactate] to 18.6 ± 0.4 mmol l− 1. No epistaxis or pink froth was observed at the nose or mouth of any of the dogs. The [RBC] in the BAL fluid was increased significantly 2 h post-race (baseline = 109.6 ± 11.7 × 103; post-race = 292.3 ± 69.9 × 103 RBC ml− 1 BAL fluid, P < 0.05) and returned to baseline 1 week post-race (149.2 ± 46.2 × 103 RBC ml− 1 BAL fluid, P>0.05 versus baseline). The number of haemosiderophages was not different for any of the measurement periods. The [WBC] in the BAL fluid decreased from baseline and race values at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-exercise (all P < 0.05). Alveolar neutrophil concentrations were also decreased from baseline and immediate post-race values for 4 weeks post-race. The increased [RBC] in the BAL fluid post-exercise is consistent with the presence of EIPH in these greyhounds. However, the relative extent of EIPH in greyhounds (as indexed by [RBC] in the BAL fluid), as compared with that in the horse, was mild, and the lack of elevation of WBC suggests that, unlike their equine counterparts, inflammatory airway disease was absent.
The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum holds promise for spectroscopic imaging of illicit and hazardous materials, and chemical fingerprinting using moment of inertia vibrational transitions. Passive and active devices operating at THz frequencies are currently a challenge, and a promising emerging technology for such devices is optical metamaterials. In particular, a chem/bio sensing scheme based on the sensitivity of metamaterials to their dielectric environment has been proposed but may be limited due to the large concentration of electric flux in the substrate. In addition, there is an interest in fabricating 3D metamaterials, which is a challenge at these and shorter wavelengths due to fabrication constraints. In order to address both of these problems, we have developed a process to fabricate THz metamaterials on free-standing, 1 micron thick silicon nitride membranes. We will present THz transmission spectra and the corresponding simulation results for these metamaterials, comparing their performance with previously fabricated metamaterials on various thick substrates. Finally, we will present a scheme for implementing a 3D THz metamaterial based on stacking and possibly liftoff of these silicon nitride membranes.
A new asymptotic approach is suggested for studying spectra of linear differential operators with periodic coefficients. The resulting formal recurrent procedure and its rigorous justification allow us to prove a classical theorem on the density of states in one dimension.
We analyse statistically the infall of mass onto clusters in $\Lambda$-CDM numerical simulations. Also, we consider numerical simulations which include galaxy formation through semi-analytical models to compare the expected infall of mass and galaxies. We find the most probable values at $V \sim 300-400$ km/s and a significant tail of large infall velocities ($V > 1000$ km/s). The flow onto cluster is more pronounced for high local density regions. Mass and galaxies behave similarly although with a slightly lower amplitude.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
We describe here the limnological characteristics of the Santillana Reservoir (Spain) and study the phytoplankton distribution
during a typical growing season (July to November). The reservoir is a eutrophic stratified waterbody in central part of Spain,
in which the average phytoplankton biomass in summer is higher than 20 µg chlorophyll a 1-1. Maximum phytoplankton biomass
in 1999 occurred between the end of summer and the beginning of autumn (September-October). Cyanobacteria, that were
generally prevalent in phytoplankton community, clearly dominated during the peak of phytoplankton biomass. Microcystis
wesenbergii was dominant amongst the cyanobacteria and represented almost 100 % of the biomass at the time of maximum
phytoplankton value. The importance of environmental variables triggering cyanobacterial bloom events is discussed. Our
results indicate that neither temperature nor N/P ratio are related to the bloom development. However, high nutrient concentration
(ammonium in particular) and stability of the watercolumn seems to coincide with the maximum abundance of Microcystis wesenbergii.