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This paper focuses on the problem of skin corrosion on the upper wing surfaces of rib-stiffened aircraft. For maritime and military transport aircraft this often results in multiple co-located repairs. The common approach to corrosion damage in operational aircraft is to blend out the corrosion and rivet a mechanical doubler over the region. In particular this paper describes the results of a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the ability of the additive metal technology, Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD), to restore the load-carrying capacity of rib-stiffened wing planks with simulated skin corrosion. The experimental results reveal that unrepaired skin corrosion can result in failure by yielding. The experimental results also reveal that SPD repairs to skin corrosion can restore the stress field in the structure, and can ensure that the load-carrying capability of the repaired structure is above proof load.
The story of Japanese and Korean lexicography from the beginnings to the eighteenth century was told in Chapter 10 above as part of the story of the lexicography of the Chinese periphery, and the story of the earliest lexicography of Vietnamese, which was undertaken by European missionaries, is told in Chapter 29 below. The story which this chapter will tell is a complex one, tracing the continuing development of the traditions of Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese lexicography, in contact with each other and with Western and Chinese traditions.
Since the start of the nineteenth century, Japanese lexicography has been transformed by interlocking social, linguistic, and technological changes. During the Tokugawa period (seventeenth to mid nineteenth centuries), a feedback loop between expanding literacy and woodblock printing led to a boom in commercial publishing, including many dictionaries and encyclopedias.
In 2008, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency commissioned a database known as the Integrated Crisis Early Warning System to serve as the foundation for models capable of detecting and predicting increases in political conflict worldwide. Such models, by signalling expected increases in political conflict, would help inform and prepare policymakers to react accordingly to conflict proliferation both domestically and internationally. Using data from the Integrated Crisis Early Warning System, we construct and test a self-exciting point process, or Hawkes process, model to describe and predict amounts of domestic, political conflict; we focus on Colombia and Venezuela as examples for this model. By comparing the accuracy of fitted models to the observed data, we find that we are able to closely describe occurrences of conflict in each country. Thus, using this model can allow policymakers to anticipate relative increases in the amount of domestic political conflict following major events.
When sober, problematic drinkers display exaggerated reactivity to threats that are uncertain (U-threat). Since this aversive affective state can be alleviated via acute alcohol intoxication, it has been posited that individuals who exhibit heightened reactivity to U-threat at baseline are motivated to use alcohol as a means of avoidance-based coping, setting the stage for excessive drinking. To date, however, no study has attempted to characterize the dispositional nature of exaggerated reactivity to U-threat and test whether it is a vulnerability factor or exclusively a disease marker of problematic alcohol use.
The current investigation utilized a family study design to address these gaps by examining whether (1) reactivity to U-threat is associated with risk for problematic alcohol use, defined by family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and (2) reactivity to U-threat is correlated amongst adult biological siblings. A total of 157 families, and 458 individuals, participated in the study and two biological siblings completed a threat-of-shock task designed to probe reactivity to U-threat and predictable threat (P-threat). Startle potentiation was collected as an index of aversive responding.
Within biological siblings, startle potentiation to U-threat [intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.35] and P-threat (ICC = 0.63) was significantly correlated. In addition, independent of an individuals’ own AUD status, startle potentiation to U-threat, but not P-threat, was positively associated with risk for AUD (i.e. AUD family history).
This suggests that heightened reactivity to U-threat may be a familial vulnerability factor for problematic drinking and a novel prevention target for AUD.
Recent meta-analyses of resting-state networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) implicate network disruptions underlying cognitive and affective features of illness. Heterogeneity of findings to date may stem from the relative lack of data parsing clinical features of MDD such as phase of illness and the burden of multiple episodes.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 17 active MDD and 34 remitted MDD patients, and 26 healthy controls (HCs) across two sites. Participants were medication-free and further subdivided into those with single v. multiple episodes to examine disease burden. Seed-based connectivity using the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed to probe the default mode network as well as the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) seeds to probe the salience network (SN) were conducted.
Young adults with remitted MDD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the left PCC to the left inferior frontal gyrus and of the left sgACC to the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left hippocampus compared with HCs. Episode-independent effects were observed between the left PCC and the right dorsolateral PFC, as well as between the left amygdala and right insula and caudate, whereas the burden of multiple episodes was associated with hypoconnectivity of the left PCC to multiple cognitive control regions as well as hypoconnectivity of the amygdala to large portions of the SN.
This is the first study of a homogeneous sample of unmedicated young adults with a history of adolescent-onset MDD illustrating brain-based episodic features of illness.
The Vibrio cholerae O1 (VCO1) El Tor biotype appeared during the seventh cholera pandemic starting in 1961, and new variants of this biotype have been identified since the early 1990s. This pandemic has affected Vietnam, and a large outbreak was reported in southern Vietnam in 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to screen 34 VCO1 isolates from the southern Vietnam 2010 outbreak (23 patients, five contact persons, and six environmental isolates) to determine if it was genetically distinct from 18 isolates from outbreaks in southern Vietnam from 1999 to 2004, and two isolates from northern Vietnam (2008). Twenty-seven MLVA types and seven PFGE patterns were identified. Both analyses showed that the 2008 and 2010 isolates were distinctly clustered and separated from the 1999–2004 isolates.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is characterised by persistent inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are likely to exist. Previous research has focused predominantly on T-helper type cytokines to highlight the inflammatory mechanisms. However, proteins such as nuclear factor kappa B and transforming growth factor beta are increasingly recognised to have important roles in sinonasal inflammation and tissue remodelling.
This review article explores the roles of T-helper type cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B and transforming growth factor beta in the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic rhinosinusitis. An understanding of these mechanisms will allow for better identification and classification of chronic rhinosinusitis endotypes, and, ultimately, improved therapeutic strategies.
Anxiety disorders are associated with abnormalities in amygdala function and prefrontal cortex–amygdala connectivity. The majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have examined mean group differences in amygdala activation or connectivity in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders relative to controls, but emerging evidence suggests that abnormalities in amygdala function are dependent on the timing of the task and may vary across the course of a scanning session. The goal of the present study was to extend our knowledge of the dynamics of amygdala dysfunction by examining whether changes in amygdala activation and connectivity over scanning differ in pediatric anxiety disorder patients relative to typically developing controls during an emotion processing task. Examining changes in activation over time allows for a comparison of how brain function differs during initial exposure to novel stimuli versus more prolonged exposure. Participants included 34 anxiety disorder patients and 19 controls 7 to 19 years old. Participants performed an emotional face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and the task was divided into thirds in order to examine change in activation over time. Results demonstrated that patients exhibited an abnormal pattern of amygdala activation characterized by an initially heightened amygdala response relative to controls at the beginning of scanning, followed by significant decreases in activation over time. In addition, controls evidenced greater context-modulated prefrontal cortex–amygdala connectivity during the beginning of scanning relative to patients. These results indicate that differences in emotion processing between the groups vary from initial exposure to novel stimuli relative to more prolonged exposure. Implications are discussed regarding how this pattern of neural activation may relate to altered early-occurring or anticipatory emotion-regulation strategies and maladaptive later-occurring strategies in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.
Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) exhibit attentional bias to salient stimuli, which is reduced in patients whose symptoms improve after treatment, indicating that mechanisms of bias mediate treatment success. Therefore, pre-treatment activity in regions implicated in attentional control over socio-emotional signals (e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) may predict response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), evidence-based psychotherapy for gSAD.
During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 21 participants with gSAD viewed images comprising a trio of geometric shapes (circles, rectangles or triangles) alongside a trio of faces (angry, fearful or happy) within the same field of view. Attentional control was evaluated with the instruction to ‘match shapes’, directing attention away from faces, which was contrasted with ‘match faces’, whereby attention was directed to emotional faces.
Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses showed that symptom improvement was predicted by enhanced pre-treatment activity in the presence of emotional face distractors in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, CBT success was foretold by less activity in the amygdala and/or increased activity in the medial orbitofrontal gyrus during emotion processing.
CBT response was predicted by pre-treatment activity in prefrontal regions and the amygdala. The direction of activity suggests that individuals with intact attentional control in the presence of emotional distractors, regulatory capacity over emotional faces and/or less reactivity to such faces are more likely to benefit from CBT. Findings indicate that baseline neural activity in the context of attentional control and emotion processing may serve as a step towards delineating mechanisms by which CBT exerts its effects.
In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infections in poultry often occur without concomitant clinical signs and outbreaks are not consistently reported. Live bird markets represent a convenient site for surveillance that does not rely on farmers' notifications. Two H5N1 surveys were conducted at live bird markets/slaughter points in 39 districts (five provinces) in the Red River, Mekong delta, and central Vietnam during January and May 2011. Oropharyngeal and rectal swab samples from 12 480 ducks were tested for H5N1 by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in pools of five. Traders and stallholders were interviewed using standardized questionnaires; 3·3% of pools tested positive. The highest prevalence (6·6%) corresponded to the Mekong delta, and no H5N1 was detected in the two Red River provinces. The surveys identified key risk behaviours of traders and stallholders. It is recommended that market surveys are implemented over time as a tool to evaluate progress in HPAI control in Vietnam.
Multiple salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contaminated tomatoes. We investigated a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections among 190 cases. For hypothesis generation, review of patients' food histories from four restaurant-associated clusters in four states revealed that large tomatoes were the only common food consumed by patients. Two case-control studies were conducted to identify food exposures associated with infections. In a study conducted in nine states illness was significantly associated with eating raw, large, round tomatoes in a restaurant [matched odds ratio (mOR) 3·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3–7·3]. In a Minnesota study, illness was associated with tomatoes eaten at a restaurant (OR 6·3, mid-P 95% CI 1·05–50·4, P=0·046). State, local and federal regulatory officials traced the source of tomatoes to Ohio tomato fields, a growing area not previously identified in past tomato-associated outbreaks. Because tomatoes are commonly eaten raw, prevention of tomato contamination should include interventions on the farm, during packing, and at restaurants.
The current status of the DRIFT (Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks)
experiment at Boulby Mine is presented, including the latest limits on the WIMP
spin-dependent cross-section from 1.5 kg days of running with a mixture of CS2
and CF4. Planned upgrades to DRIFT IId are detailed, along with ongoing work
towards DRIFT III, which aims to be the world’s first 10 m3-scale directional
Dark Matter detector.
We report on the use of La2O3 (LO) as a capping layer for ferroelectric-gate thin-film transistors (FGTs) with solution-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) channel and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate insulator. The fabricated FGT exhibited excellent performance with a high “ON/OFF” current ratio (ION/IOFF) and a large memory window (∆Vth) of about 108 and 3.5 V, respectively. Additionally, a significantly improved data retention time (more than 16 hours) as compared to the ITO/PZT structure was also obtained as a result of good interface properties between the ITO channel and LO/PZT stacked gate insulator. We suggest that the LO capping layer acts as a barrier to prevent the interdiffusion and provides atomically flat ITO/LO/PZT interface. This all-oxide FGT device is very promising for future ferroelectric memories.
To characterize the relationship between serum carotenoids, retinol and anaemia among pre-school children.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in two groups: anaemic and non-anaemic. Serum levels of retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin were measured in the study subjects.
Six rural communes of Dinh Hoa, a rural and mountainous district in Thai Nguyen Province, in the northern mountainous region of Vietnam.
A total of 682 pre-school children, aged 12–72 months, were recruited.
Geometric mean serum concentrations of carotenoids (μmol/l) were 0·056 for α-carotene, 0·161 for β-carotene, 0·145 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0·078 for lycopene, 0·388 for lutein and 0·075 for zeaxanthin. The mean levels of Hb and serum retinol were 108·8 g/l and 1·02 μmol/l, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency was 53·7 % and 7·8 %, respectively. After adjusting for sex and stunting, serum retinol concentrations (μmol/l; OR = 2·06, 95 % CI 1·10, 3·86, P = 0·024) and total provitamin A carotenoids (μmol/l; OR = 1·52, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·28, P = 0·046) were independently associated with anaemia, but non-provitamin A carotenoids (μmol/l; OR = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·63, 1·37, P = 0·710) were not associated with anaemia.
Among pre-school children in the northern mountainous region of Vietnam, the prevalences of vitamin A deficiency and anaemia are high, and serum retinol and provitamin A carotenoids are independently associated with anaemia. Further studies are needed to determine if increased consumption of provitamin A carotenoids will reduce anaemia among pre-school children.
Exact solutions are presented of two-dimensional steady-state incompressible stagnation point flows at a current sheet separating two colliding plasmas. They describe the process of resistive field annihilation (zero reconnection) where the magnetic field in each plasma is strictly parallel to the current sheet, but may have different magnitudes and direction on its two sides. The flow in the (x, y) plane toward the current sheet, located at x = 0, may have an arbitrary angle of incidence and an arbitrary amount of divergence from or convergence towards the stagnation point. We find the most general form of the solution for the plasma velocity and for the magnetic field. For the z compenents of the flow and field, solutions in the form of truncating power series in y are found. The cases obtained in this study contain the solutions obtained by Parker, Sonnerup & Priest, Gratton et al. and Besser, Biernat & Rijnbeek as special cases. The role of viscosity in determining the flow and field configurations is examined. When the two colliding plasmas have the same viscosity and density, it is shown that viscous effects usually are important only in strongly divergent or convergent viscous flows with viscous Reynolds number of the order of unity or smaller. For astrophysical applications the viscous Reynolds number is usually high and the effects of viscosity on the interaction of plasmas of similar properties are small. The formulation of the stagnation-point flow problem involving plasmas of different properties is also presented. Sample cases of such flows are shown. Finally, a possible application of the results from this study to the earth's magnetopause is discussed briefly.
An analysis is presented of linear stability against tearing modes of a current sheet formed between two oppositely magnetized plasmas forced towards each other in two-dimensional steady stagnation-point flow. The velocity vector in this flow is confined to planes perpendicular to the reversing component of the magnetic field. The unperturbed state is an exact resistive and viscous equilibrium in which the resistive diffusion outwards from the current sheet is exactly balanced by the inward motion associated with the stagnation-point flow. Thus the behaviour of the tearing mode can be examined even when the resistive diffusion time is comparable to or smaller than the growth time of the instability. The linear ordinary differential equation describing the mode structure is integrated numerically. For large Lundquist number S and viscous Reynolds number Re the Furth-Killeen-Rosenbluth scaling of the growth rate is recovered with excellent accuracy. The influence of the stagnation-point flow on the tearing mode is as follows: (i) long-wavelength perturbations are stabilized so that the unstable regime falls between a short-wavelength and a long-wavelength marginal state; (ii) for sufficiently low Lundquist number (S < 12.25) the current sheet is completely stable to tearing-mode perturbations; (iii) the presence of high viscosity reduces the growth rate of the tearing instability. This effect is more important at small wavelength. Finally, application of the results from this study to the problem of solar-wind plasma flow past the earth's magnetosphere is briefly discussed.
Basalts associated with sapphire deposits are widespread in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. In Vietnam, blue, green and yellow sapphires are recovered from eluvial and alluvial placers hosted in basaltic fields of the Dak Lak Province. Two distinct basalt suites are recognized in this field: a tholeiitic suite without any xenocrysts and an alkaline suite with mantle and lower crustal xenocrysts. The sapphires are enriched in Fe (0.43 to 1.26 wt.%), with moderate contents of Cr (33–1582 ppm), Ti (35–1080 ppm), Ga (149–308 ppm) and V (28–438 ppm) and they are poor in Zn and Mg. Their O-isotope compositions range from 6.0 to 6.9% and are not in equilibrium with the alkali basalts which have δ18O values between 5.0 and 5.7%. The U-Pb dating of zircons recovered from the basaltic placers provides evidence of two eruptional events: one at ~6.5 Ma followed by another one at ~1 Ma. The petrography of the basalts and the oxygen isotopic composition of the sapphires suggest that the sapphires are xenocrysts and that they crystallized in a deep magma chamber, at the lower continental lithosphere and the upper mantle boundary, in evolved melts issued from the fractionation of alkali basaltic magmas contaminated with lower crustal fluids.