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A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years.
The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18–22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders.
Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.
Background:DEPDC5 gene, mapped to 22q12.2-q12.3, has been associated with a variety of familial epilepsies, including FFEVF, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and familial TLE. Notably, DEPDC5 has never been linked to increased risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Methods: Cases review. Results: We studied a three-generation, non-consanguineous, French-Canadian family with nine clinically affected individuals. The index case is a 39-year-old man who started having seizures (as 2rily GTCS) at the age of 13 years. EEGs showed interictal discharges over the right anterior-temporal region. Brain MRI was unremarkable. Two individuals in this family suffered definite autopsy-confirmed SUDEP, at the ages of 58 and 50 years, respectively. Overall, seizure-history in this family can be summarized by an onset before reaching adulthood followed by subsequent progressive decrease in seizure frequency. Seizures were predominantly nocturnal 2rily GTC. Genetic analysis revealed a pathogenic heterozygous variant in the DEDPC5 gene (p.Gln216, c.646C>T), which results in a premature stop codon, in all affected family members plus on heatlhy relative. Importantly, all the subjects were cognitively intact, and there was no history of cardiac symptomatology/cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions: The finding in this family suggests that DEPDC5 mutations may be a risk factor for SUDEP.
Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.
Important transformations in psychiatric healthcare (HC) delivery have been implemented in Latin America during the beginning of 21st century. However, information on current service uses patterns is scant, obstructing the estimates and proper planning of service needs for general population. The current investigation aims to describe patterns and estimates predictors of 12-month HC use by individuals with mental disorders in São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil.
Data are from São Paulo Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional multistage representative study. Participants were face-to-face interviewed in their household, using a structured diagnostic interview, the World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A total of 5037 respondents, non-institutionalised, aged 18 years and older were interviewed. The response rate was 81.3%. We determined the percentages of individuals with 12-month DSM-IV anxiety, mood and substance disorders that received treatment in the 12 months prior to assessment in main service sectors (specialty mental health, general medicine, human services (HS), and complementary and alternative medicine). The number of visits and percentage of individuals who received treatment at minimally adequacy also was estimated. Multilevel regression controlled contextual variables that influenced the use of service and treatment adequacy.
Only 10.1% of respondents used some HC service in the 12 months prior to assessment for their psychiatric problems, including 3.9% of them being treated either by a psychiatrist, 3.5% by a non-psychiatrist mental health specialist, 3.3% by a general medical (GM) provider, 1.5% by a HS provider and 1.4% by a complementary and alternative medical provider. In general, those participants who received service in the mental health specialty sector reported more visits than those in the GM sector (median 3.9 v. 1.5 visits). The cases seen in specialty sector outnumber those visiting GM treatment in terms of minimally adequate treatment (54.6 v. 23.2%). The likelihood of receiving treatment was significantly greater among individuals diagnosed with any anxiety and mood disorder, presenting more severe disorders, and with possession of HC insurance.
The great majority of individuals with an active mental disorder in São Paulo were either untreated or insufficiently treated. Awareness and training programmes to GM professionals are advocated to improve recognition, care take and referral to specialty care when needed. Proper integration among HC sectors is recommended.
To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD).
Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74 045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range (IQR) across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset (AOO) of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier AOO of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same AOO of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4 v. 46.0%; χ21 = 187.0, p < 0.001) and suicide ideation (19.5 v. 8.9%; χ21 = 71.6, p < 0.001). Significantly more respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD received treatment for their depression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high-income countries (68.8 v. 45.4%; χ21 = 108.8, p < 0.001) than low/middle-income countries (30.3 v. 20.6%; χ21 = 11.7, p < 0.001).
Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69.6–74.7%) is especially noteworthy. However, the fact that these proportions are not higher among respondents with 12-month than lifetime comorbidity means that temporal priority between lifetime anxiety disorders and MDD is not related to MDD persistence among people with anxious MDD. This, in turn, raises complex questions about the relative importance of temporally primary anxiety disorders as risk markers v. causal risk factors for subsequent MDD onset and persistence, including the possibility that anxiety disorders might primarily be risk markers for MDD onset and causal risk factors for MDD persistence.
Current trends in population aging affect both recipients and providers of informal family caregiving, as the pool of family caregivers is shrinking while demand is increasing. Epidemiological research has not yet examined the implications of these trends for burdens experienced by aging family caregivers.
Cross-sectional community surveys in 20 countries asked 13 892 respondents aged 50+ years about the objective (time, financial) and subjective (distress, embarrassment) burdens they experience in providing care to first-degree relatives with 12 broadly defined serious physical and mental conditions. Differential burden was examined by country income category, kinship status and type of condition.
Among the 26.9–42.5% respondents in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries reporting serious relative health conditions, 35.7–42.5% reported burden. Of those, 25.2–29.0% spent time and 13.5–19.4% money, while 24.4–30.6% felt distress and 6.4–21.7% embarrassment. Mean caregiving hours per week in those giving any time were 16.6–23.6 (169.9–205.8 h/week per 100 people aged 50+ years). Burden in low-/lower-middle-income countries was 2- to 3-fold higher than in higher-income countries, with any financial burden averaging 14.3% of median family income in high-, 17.7% in upper-middle-, and 39.8% in low-/lower-middle-income countries. Higher burden was reported by women than men and for conditions of spouses and children than parents or siblings.
Uncompensated family caregiving is an important societal asset that offsets rising formal healthcare costs. However, the substantial burdens experienced by aging caregivers across multiple family health conditions and geographic regions threaten the continued integrity of their caregiving capacity. Initiatives supporting older family caregivers are consequently needed, especially in low-/lower-middle-income countries.
Nanocomposites formed by ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric materials are multiferroic material in which magnetoelectric coupling occurs via piezoelectricity and magnetostriction phenomena. These nanocomposites have a variety of applications in tunable microwave devices using electric control of spin wave propagation or new magnetic memories in which the magnetic response is controlled by electric field.
In this work, transparent and homogeneous thin films of barium titanate interleaved with cobalt ferrite were prepared by sol–gel method using dip-coating process. Films of pure barium titanate and cobalt ferrite were also prepared for comparison. The nanocomposite films were deposited onto clean quartz substrates, where a coating of each material was deposited interleaved, where the cobalt ferrite film formed the last layer. The films were dried in air after each dipping and heated at 900 oC for 1 hour to convert the amorphous films into crystalline ones. The samples were characterized by low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.
The natural weathering process of fly ashes was studied in artificial fly ash beds. The ashes were previously classified according to their total alkali content into acid, neutral and alkaline. After 4 years the effects of weathering are minor. The formation of concretions due to local cementation by calcite is observed in alkaline fly ash. Small brown pellets, highly enriched in some heavy metals, are present in the acid fly ash beds. Under natural conditions leaching is mainly confined to the alkaline fly ash. Elements which are leached most are sulphur and some alkalis as well as minor amounts of some trace elements.
Shake- and column experiments of the weathered fly ashes with acids of pH 1 and 4, the latter also in combination with complexing agents, were carried out in order to check if the natural leaching process may be accelerated artificially. Strong acids (pH= 1) were most effective, but relatively large quantities of major elements were also leached. Experiments with the weak acids, combined with complexing agents, resulted in leaching percentages which did not significantly differ from experiments without these agents. This indicates that a major part of the elements are present in an immobile form; because of the use of sulphuric acid, it is likely that they are in some cases precipitated as sulphates (e.g. barium, calcium).
Migratory wader populations face global threats, mainly related to increasing rates of habitat loss and disturbance driven by human activities. To a large extent, the long-term survival of these populations requires the conservation of networks of sites along their migratory flyways. The Tagus estuary, Portugal, is among the most important wetlands for waders in the East Atlantic Flyway. Annual winter wader counts have been carried in this wetland since 1975 and a monthly roost-monitoring programme was implemented in 2007. Wintering populations of three out of the five most abundant species, Dunlin Calidris alpina, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola and Redshank Tringa totanus, showed significant population declines over the past three decades, which are most likely due to the loss and degradation of roost sites as a result of increasing human activity. The situation is unlikely to improve, as a high proportion of the wintering waders use roost sites that are situated in highly urbanised areas with no legal protection. The use of different roost sites by waders is highly variable both temporally and spatially, thus emphasizing the need for a network of good quality roost sites. Additionally, during migration, 60–80% of all the waders of the Tagus estuary concentrate at a single refuge, thus increasing the risk for wader populations during these periods.
The effect of phosphorus deficiency on yield formation in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Prointa Oasis) was investigated, focusing on crop growth and dry matter partitioning during the spike growth period (SGP), which is critical for grain number determination. Two experiments combining shading and P deficiency were performed at Balcarce, Argentina (37°45′S). The main treatments were two levels of soil P-availability: low P, a naturally low P fertility soil (7·0 and 5·5 mg Bray extractable P/kg soil, in the first and second experiments respectively) and high P, a P dose that does not limit growth. The sub-treatments were two levels of radiation (shaded and control). Phosphorus deficiency affected yield mainly through the number of grains/unit surface (m2). Differences in grain number/m2 were related to differences in dry weight of spikes/m2, measured 7 days after anthesis, excluding grain weight. The duration of the SGP did not change much as result of P deficiency: 27 days with high P and only 3 days more with low P. Therefore, changes in spike dry weight were mainly due to differences in spike growth rate. In turn, the spike growth rate of all treatments was linearly related to crop growth rate, with little effect of dry matter partitioning to spikes. Finally, differences in crop growth rate between P treatments were mainly determined by the amount of intercepted radiation. It was concluded that P deficiency resulted in a reduction in intercepted radiation during the SGP, thus causing a reduction in grain number and crop yield.
We present experimental studies on the interaction of soft X-rays on gas-phase and solid-phase amino acids and nucleobases in an attempt to verify if these molecules (supposed to be formed in molecular clouds/protostellar clouds) can survive long enough to be observed or even to be found in meteorites. Measurements have been undertaken employing 150 eV photons under high vacuum conditions at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The produced ions from the gas-phase experiments (glycine, adenine and uracil) have been mass/charge analyzed by time-of-flight spectrometer. The analysis of solid phase samples (glycine, DL-proline, DL-valine, adenine and uracil) were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer coupled to the experimental chamber. Photodissociation cross sections and halflives were determined and extrapolated to astrophysical environments. The nucleobases photostability was up to two orders of magnitude higher than for the amino acids.
Despite previous research on mycorrhizal association with plants, the data on associations with coffee (Coffea species) are very sparse despite the great economic importance of this crop for many tropical developing countries. The present paper reviews the main aspects of the association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and coffee plants. This review includes topics on mycorrhizal effects on coffee nutritional status, pathogen–AMF interactions and responses to several environmental stresses. It also summarizes findings about the natural occurrence of AMF in different soils in which coffee is cultivated, some ecological aspects of this specific association and outlines trends for future investigations, which must elucidate the real benefits of mycorrhizae to coffee plants.
Phenotypical Down syndrome includes pharyngeal and maxillary hypoplasia and, frequently, constricted maxillary arch with nasal obstruction.
This clinical trial assessed the effects of rapid maxillary expansion on ENT disorders in 24 children with Down syndrome randomly allocated to receive either rapid maxillary expansion or not. Each group received ENT and speech therapy assessments before expansion and after the device had been removed.
In the rapid maxillary expansion group, the yearly ENT infection rate was reduced when assessed after device removal (p < 0.01). The parents of rapid maxillary expansion children reported a reduction in respiratory obstruction symptoms. Audiological assessment revealed improvements in the rapid maxillary expansion group (p < 0.01). Cephalometry showed increased maxillary width in the rapid maxillary expansion group.
Rapid maxillary expansion resulted in a reduction in hearing loss, yearly rate of ENT infections and parentally assessed symptoms of upper airway obstruction, compared with no treatment. These findings are probably related to expanded oronasal space, due to rapid maxillary expansion.
We present experimental results obtained from photoionization and photodissociation processes of abundant interstellar methanol (CH3OH) as an alternative route for the production of H3+ in dense clouds. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) employing soft X-ray and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. Absolute averaged cross sections for the production of H3+ due to molecular dissociation of methanol by soft X-rays (C1s edge) were determined. The H3+'s photoproduction rate and column density were been estimated adopting a typical soft X-ray luminosity inside dense molecular and the observed column density of methanol. Assuming a steady state scenario, the highest column density value for the photoproduced H3+ was about 1011 cm2, which gives the ratio photoproduced/observed of about 0.05%, as in the case of dense molecular cloud AFGL 2591. Despite the small value, this represent a new and alternative source of H3+ into dense molecular clouds and it is not been considered as yet in interstellar chemistry models.
We present experimental studies on the photoionization and photodissociation processes (photodestruction) of gaseous amino acids and nucleobases in interstellar and interpla-netary radiation analogs conditions. The measurements have been undertaken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray photons. The experimental set up basically consists of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer kept under high vacuum conditions. Mass spectra were obtained using a photoelectron photoion coincidence technique. We have shown that the amino acids are effectively more destroyed (up to 70–80%) by the stellar radiation than the nucleobases, mainly in the VUV. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have the same survival capability and seem to be ubiquitous in the ISM, it is not unreasonable to predict that nucleobases could survive in the interstellar medium and/or in comets, even as a stable cation.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol supplement as a dietary additive to rumen fermentors, fed a barley seed:alfalfa hay (70:30) ration and to compare its effect with monensin supplementation. The material was incubated with goat ruminal fluid and four different treatments were included: no additive (C), 7.5 mg/l monensin (M), 250 mg/l carvacrol (C250) and 500 mg/l carvacrol (C500). The addition of carvacrol reduced in vitro dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) digestion. The effects induced by C250 on DM digestion at 72 h of incubation were comparable with those of M, whereas a greater reduction was obtained when carvacrol was supplemented at 500 mg/l concentration (68.9, 68.5 and 53.0 v. 76.1% for M, C250 and C500 v. C, respectively). The reduced CP potential degradability by supplements (51.2, 53.9 and 51.5 v. 72.8% for M, C250 and C500 v. C, respectively) was mainly caused by a reduction of the slowly degradable fraction. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles determined after 48 h of incubation showed C250 increased butyrate and decreased acetate proportions, whereas M mainly stimulated propionate proportions, suggesting that the mechanism of action of carvacrol and M differs. C500 significantly reduced total VFA production. Carvacrol could be of great interest for its usage as a potential modulator of ruminal fermentation. Future research, including in vivo studies, in order to understand the factors that contribute to its antimicrobial activity and the selection of the optimal dose is required.
Optical spectroscopy studies of Nd3+-doped scheelite
calcium molybdate (CaMoO4) single crystal grown by a floating zone-like
technique was performed using Judd-Ofelt analysis, besides luminescence data
and lifetime measurements in the visible and near infrared domains. The
excited state absorption in cross section units of this material was
measured by two different methods for all expected infrared emission. By
using calculated intensity parameters
(t=2, 4, 6), it were
determined branching ratios, emission cross-sections, and lifetimes for all
related transitions. The observed single excited state absorption calibrated
in absorption cross-section units was found too small to disturb the laser
efficiency in the 1030–1100 nm spectral range. A comparison of main
spectroscopic parameters of this material with those of other
Nd3+-doped crystals is presented.