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We develop rapid chemical vapor sensors and micro gas chromatography (μGC) analyzers based on the optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR). An OFRR is a micro-sized thin-walled glass capillary; the circular cross-section of the capillary acts as an optical ring resonator while the whispering gallery modes or circulating waveguide modes (WGMs) supported by the ring resonator interact with the vapor samples passing through the capillary. The OFRR interior surface is coated with a vapor-sensitive polymer. The analyte and polymer interaction causes the polymer refractive index (RI) and the thickness to change, which is detected as a WGM spectral shift. Owing to the excellent fluidics, the OFRR vapor sensor exhibits sub-second detection and recovery time with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. On-column separation and detection in the OFRR based μGC system is also demonstrated, showing efficient separation of vapor mixtures and presenting highly reproducible retention time for the individual analyte. Compared to the conventional GC system, the OFRR μGC has the advantage of small size, rapid response, and high selectivity over a short length of column.
Background: Brain tumors present unique challenges to patient and family quality of life (QOL). Cognitive dysfunction is common and functionally limiting, with no established treatments. These studies evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of behavioral interventions developed for neuro-oncology patients. Study 1: A randomized controlled trial (N=25 primary brain tumor patients) compared an adapted version of Goal Management Training (GMT, a neuroscience-based integration of mindfulness and strategy training) and a newly-designed supportive psychoeducational intervention (Brain Health Program, BHP) to standard of care. Each intervention comprised 8 individual sessions and at-home practice between sessions. GMT patients’ executive functions improved immediately (p=.077, d=1.13), with maintenance at 4-month follow-up (p=.046, d=1.09). Both intervention groups reported improvements in everyday cognitive functioning immediately (p=.049; d’s GMT=0.43, BHP=0.79) and at follow-up (p=.001; d’s GMT=0.22, BHP=1.01). BHP patients also reported improved mood (p’s=.026 & .012, d’s=0.61 & 0.62). Study 2: Following a needs assessment about cognitive concerns and QOL in brain metastases patients (N=109) and caregivers (N=31), we developed a novel, brief (3 sessions + homework) Cognitive Support Program to provide education and strategy-training in key areas of concern: executive functions, memory, and communication. Options include caregiver co-training, and in-person or web-based delivery. Preliminary data from a pilot trial in progress demonstrate objective and subjective improvements. Conclusions: Cognitive rehabilitation may be a feasible and effective option for primary or metastatic brain tumor patients, addressing a need that is largely unmet in standard cancer care. Further development and larger trials appear warranted, with capacity for remote delivery recommended.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10 000 km2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.
We report photometric results from 44 runs at 11 observatories during the international campaign ‘TT Ari–94’. No coherent oscillations in the frequency range 10… 900 cycle d−1 are found. The highest peaks in the power spectrum cover the wide range of 28… 139 cycle d−1. Variations occur at a few preferred time-scales rather than at one cycle length, with a possible secular decrease. In the frequency range 90… 900 cycle d−1 the power spectrum obeys a power law with slope γ ranging from 0.8 to 2.6 for different runs.
TT Ari is one of the brightest cataclysmic variables and remains one of the most interesting objects of this class. It exhibits a variety of phenomena observed at time-scales from seconds to months. A recent detailed photometric study of this object and a bibliographical overview may be found in Tremko et al. (1996). Tremko et al. (1992, 1993, 1994) discuss aspects of the TT Ari–88 campaign. Our campaign TT Ari–94 was unprecedented, as the observations were longitude-dispersed, from Japan through Turkmenia, to Europe and the American continent. Moreover, our optical data on October 7 partially overlap with the HST observations obtained by Home & Welsh (1995, private communication). The numerical results of observations obtained during these nights are shown in Table 1.
A geological disposal facility (GDF) will include fissile materials that could, under certain conditions, lead to criticality. Demonstration of criticality safety therefore forms an important part of a GDF's safety case.
Containment provided by the waste package will contribute to criticality safety during package transport and the GDF operational phase. The GDF multiple-barrier system will ensure that criticality is prevented for some time after facility closure. However, on longer post-closure timescales, conditions in the GDF will evolve and it is necessary to demonstrate: an understanding of the conditions under which criticality could occur; the likelihood of such conditions occurring; and the consequences of criticality should it occur.
Work has addressed disposal of all of the UK's higher-activity wastes in three illustrative geologies. This paper, however, focuses on presenting results to support safe disposal of spent fuel, plutonium and highlyenriched uranium in higher-strength rock.
The results support a safety case assertion that post-closure criticality is of low likelihood and, if it was to occur, the consequences would be tolerable.
1.1.1. In October 1980 the Council of the Faculty of Actuaries set up a Working Party with the following brief:—
(1) To investigate the criteria by which the solvency of life assurance companies should be assessed and to determine the amount of the solvency margin which should be required in practice by supervisory authorities. The existing requirements of the E.E.C. Life Establishment Directive should be considered with a view to recommending any desirable alterations thereto to be made when those requirements are reviewed in due course by the E.E.C. Commission. In carrying out its work the Working Party should co-operate with Working Parties or Committees of other actuarial bodies.
(2) To report the result of their investigations to Council.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
In support of the disposal system safety case for a geological disposal facility (GDF) there is a requirement to consider 'what-if' hypothetical scenarios for post-closure nuclear criticality. Although all such scenarios are considered very unlikely, one 'what-if' scenario is the mobilization of fissile material from a number of waste packages and its slow accumulation within the GDF or the immediate surroundings. Should sufficient fissile material accumulate a quasi-steady-state (QSS) transient criticality event could result. A computer model has been developed to understand the evolution and consequences of such an event.
Since a postulated QSS criticality could persist for many millennia, building confidence in the modelling approach is difficult. However, the Oklo natural reactors in Africa operated for similar durations around two billion years ago, providing a natural analogue for comparison. This paper describes the modelling approach, its application to hypothetical criticality events for a GDF, and how the model can be compared to Oklo. The model results are found to be in agreement with the observational evidence from Oklo, building confidence in the use of the QSS model to simulate postulated post-closure criticality events in GDFs.
The Environment Agency Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation (GRA) of a geological disposal facility (GDF) requires a demonstration that "the possibility of a local accumulation of fissile material such as to produce a neutron chain reaction is not a significant concern." A neutron chain reaction that is just self-sustaining is also known as critical.
Waste packages can be designed to ensure that criticality is impossible during the transport and operational phases of a GDF, and for a significant period post-closure. Over longer times, however, packages may degrade, and groundwater flows could lead to a localized accumulation of fissile material. Hence, even though the initial distribution of materials would need to change substantially, criticality cannot be ruled out completely.
This paper describes how an accumulation of fissile material could, hypothetically, lead to a critical configuration; how such a system could evolve; what the local consequences could be; and how the engineered and geological barriers could be affected. The conclusion from studies to date is that, even for large (and very unlikely) fissile accumulations, the consequences of a post-closure criticality event are not a significant concern.
Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with diabetes, hypertension and CHD. However, because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case–control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low ( < 50 nmol/l) in 29 % and very low ( < 37 nmol/l) in 11 % of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD was 7, 30 and 10 %, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by sex, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·5 (95 % CI 0·3, 0·9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/l. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)2D ( ≥ 103 pmol/l) were less than half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·3 (95 % CI 0·1, 0·7)) than those in the lowest quartile ( < 72 pmol/l). In conclusion, the independent associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with diabetes prevalence in a large population are new findings, and thus warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies.
Two β-NiAl plus α -Re alloys with near eutectic composition were produced by rapid solidification and then consolidated through a powder extrusion process. Microstructures of the rapidly solidified, as-consolidated, and deformed alloys were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Both compression and tensile properties of these alloys were determined over the temperature range of 300–1300 K. The Re additions were found to greatly enhance low and intermediate temperature yield strengths when compared to other β-NiA1 alloys. This enhancement was attributed to a combination of solid solution strengthening, precipitate hardening, and grain size refinement. Above 1200K the strength of these Re-modified alloys was comparable to the binary β-NiAl compound.
Arc-melted alloys of stoichiometric β-NiAl with additions of up to 1.5 atomic percent Re were examined to determine the nature of the quasi-binary phase diagram. Analysis of the Re segregation during solidification confirmed the eutectic nature. Solubility of Re in the β-NiAl structure was limited to approximately 0.5 atomic percent and precipitation of α-Re was observed in the hypoeutectic alloys. An orientation relationship with (101)β // (0001)α and α // βwas determined for these rod-like precipitates.
The addition of Mo5Si3 as a reinforcing second phase in a MoSi2 matrix has been investigated for possible high temperature strengthening effects. MoSi2 with up to 45 vol % Mo5Si3 was fabricated using powder metallurgy (PM) and arc-casting (AC) techniques. Effects of processing routes, which result in different microstructures, on their mechanical properties are given. PM composites, which have an equiaxed microstructure, exhibit a limited increase in hardness. Higher hardnesses are observed in script-structured AC eutectics and Er-modifiedeutectics throughout the temperatures studied (25–1300°C). Crack propagation paths induced by indentation show long transphase cracks in the AC materials vs short intergranular and interphase cracks in the PM composites at high temperatures.
Transmission electron microscopy discloses that the interface in the AC composites has a low-index orientation relationship between the two phases and shows regularly faceted interfacial structures, while planar interfaces are found in the PM composites. These observations suggest the interface is stronger and lower in energy in the AC composites, which is consistent with the higher hardness values and long transphase cracks observed.
Dislocation analysis shows the presence of ordinary dislocations (<100>, <110> and 1/2<111>) in MoSi2 in the as-fabricated composites. These types of dislocation are also responsible for the high temperature plastic deformation in compression in both the monolithic MoSi2 and the composites. <331> types of dislocation are only found in MoSi2 either near the interface of the AC composites or in materials deformed below 1000°C.