Chapter 17 explores possible transformational pathways of the future global energy system with the overarching aim of assessing the technological feasibility as well as the economic implications of meeting a range of sustainability objectives simultaneously. As such, it aims at the integration across objectives, and thus goes beyond earlier assessments of the future energy system that have mostly focused on either specific topics or single objectives. Specifically, the chapter assesses technical measures, policies, and related costs and benefits for meeting the objectives that were identified in Chapters 2 to 6, including:
providing almost universal access to affordable clean cooking and electricity for the poor;
limiting air pollution and health damages from energy use;
improving energy security throughout the world; and
limiting climate change.
The assessment of future energy pathways in this chapter shows that it is technically possible to achieve improved energy access, air quality, and energy security simultaneously while avoiding dangerous climate change. In fact, a number of alternative combinations of resources, technologies, and policies are found capable of attaining these objectives. From a large ensemble of possible transformations, three distinct groups of pathways (GEA-Supply, GEA-Mix, and GEA-Efficiency) have been identified and analyzed. Within each group, one pathway has been selected as “illustrative” in order to represent alternative evolutions of the energy system toward sustainable development. The pathway groups, together with the illustrative cases, depict salient branching points for policy implementation and highlight different degrees of freedom and different routes to the sustainability objectives.
It will be readily apparent from the preceding chapters that there have been enormous advances in recent years in our understanding of the immunopathology of the gut. This chapter examines the impact which such advances have made in the clinical management of patients with immunologically mediated intestinal disease. In view of the potential size and complexity of this field the discussion has been necessarily restricted, but it is hoped that the examples covered will serve to illustrate important underlying concepts. The first section of this chapter will deal with selected clinical manifestations of various diseases and the role of immunological processes in their pathophysiology, diagnosis and assessment. This will be followed by an overview of immunomodulatory therapy in current use as well as prospects for the future.
Clinical manifestations, diagnosis and assessment
When the host immune response to antigen is inappropriate or exaggerated and leads to tissue damage, hypersensitivity is said to exist. This is a feature common to many of the diseases considered in this volume. Various aspects of these disorders will now be examined in terms of hypersensitivity according to the four part classification originally proposed by Coombs and Gell in 1963. In this way, certain characteristic clinical features of different intestinal diseases can be related to underlying immune processes. In addition, the role of immunological markers will be considered with respect to diagnosis and disease assessment.
Type I reactions
Type I, or immediate, hypersensitivity arises as a consequence of the interaction of allergen with specific mast cell-bound IgE. Subsequent degranulation leads to the release of various inflammatory mediators including histamine and kinins.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.