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Elemental powders of Cu and Ni, binary alloys (Cu-Ni and Cu-Zr) and ternary alloy (Cu-Ni-Zr) obtained by mechanical alloying and uniaxial compaction hot microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The alloys studied were: pure Cu, pure Ni, binary alloys (Cu-Ni; Cu-Zr) and ternary alloys (Cu-Ni-Zr) under the same mechanical milling and hot pressing conditions. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM); the mechanical properties were studied by compression tests and hardness in Vickers scale (HV0.5) on polished surfaces at room temperature. According to XRD results, hot pressing process crystallite size increase and microstrain decreases in the compact samples due to the release of crystalline defects. The compacted samples have porosity of approximately 20%. The milling powder samples have a higher hardness than the unmilled samples, this because during milling crystal defects are incorporated together with the microstructural refinement. Ternary alloy is the one with the highest hardness of all systems studied, reaching 689 HV0.5. In compression tests determined a strain 5 %, Zr-containing samples become more fragile presenting the lowest values of compressive strength. In contrast, samples of Ni and Cu-Ni binary alloy are more resistant to compression.
We demonstrate the eclipsing binary detection performance of the Gaia variability analysis and processing pipeline using Hipparcos data. The automated pipeline classifies 1 067 (0.9%) of the 118 204 Hipparcos sources as eclipsing binary candidates. The detection rate amounts to 89% (732 sources) in a subset of 819 visually confirmed eclipsing binaries, with the period correctly identified for 80% of them, and double or half periods obtained in 6% of the cases.
We present the variability processing and analysis that is foreseen for the Gaia mission within Coordination Unit 7 (CU7) of the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). A top level description of the tasks is given.
In this work results are presented regarding carbon composites produced by high energy mechanical milling and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The involved energy input in such a processing method has been used to develop composite materials and to synthesize effective in-situ reinforcement. In the as milled and sintered composites various dispersions of graphene, graphitic carbon, and diamonds in an amorphous matrix are found. The graphene, graphitic carbon and diamond phases are synthesized primarily during milling. The TEAM-05 microscope has been used for characterization that is complemented with Raman results. The spark plasma sintering method enhances the presence of graphene, graphitic carbon and diamonds.
We started a systematic search for periodic variable-star candidates in the EROS-2 database in the context of preparatory work for the Gaia satellite mission. The goal is to evaluate different classification tools and strategies, and to identify a large sample of variable candidates. In this paper we present the results of an assessment study of a three-step identification and classification process. In the study we took a sample of about 80,000 stars from one of the LMC EROS fields.
Fascioliasis pathogenesis depends on fluke burden. In human hyperendemic zones, individual infection intensities reach very high levels and the majority of infected subjects should be in the advanced chronic phase. The rat model offers a useful approach for pathological research in the advanced chronic period. The influence of infection intensity per rat on fluke development, pre-patent period and egg shedding (eggs/g faeces/worm) was analysed in 3 groups (I: 1–3 worms/rat; II: 4–6; III: 7–9). Ontogenetic trajectories of fluke body measures followed a logistic model. Results showed that when the burden increases, the maximum values of fluke measures decrease. The crowding effect is manifest when fluke measures approximate their maximums in the advanced chronic stage. The pre-patent period and egg production decrease when the burden increases. This means that measurements of eggs per gramme of faeces tend to underestimate the fluke burden. The present study demonstrates how to quantify the fascioliasis experimental rat model crowding effect on adult growth, pre-patent period and egg production. This quantification may be of great interest in epidemiological studies and in experimental research on the in vivo actions of different anthelminthic drugs and vaccines, pathology, immunology and resistance studies.
At the heart of many debates about distributive justice is the widely assumed trade-off between equality and efficiency (Okun, 1975). In the present chapter, equality refers to the distribution of income within a society. Equality increases whenever income variability is reduced. Efficiency refers to the goods and services that result from a given input – production, physical capital, or human labor. Efficiency increases whenever society produces more from the same input. Trade-offs between equality and efficiency occur because increases in one often lead to decreases in the other. An egalitarian society satisfies basic needs by establishing programs that redistribute wealth. But those programs can reduce efficiency when they introduce bureaucratic waste or diminish financial incentives. A reduction in efficiency can lead to fewer investments, fewer jobs, and declining productivity.
Theories of distributive justice
Is there an ideal point along the equality–efficiency continuum? Political and moral philosophers have articulated a number of positions about what constitutes justice and how to arrive at just distributions of resources and rewards. These positions place differential emphasis on equality and efficiency.
Utilitarians believe that society should be arranged to maximize the total (or sometimes average) utility of all individuals (Bentham, 1961/1789). If utility is identical to profit, then profit maximization occurs when efficiency is greatest. This version of utilitarianism might emphasize efficiency over equality. On the other hand, if utility is a negatively accelerated function of income, the poor benefit more from any given dollar.
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