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The island of Bonaire is a long-established Marine Protected Area (MPA), the reefs of which were extensively mapped in the early 1980s. Satellite remote sensing techniques were used to construct reef maps for 2008–2009. Metrics describing the spatial structure of coral habitat at the landscape scale – including coral cover, fragmentation, patch size and connectivity between patches – were calculated and compared between these two time periods. Changes were evaluated in and out of the MPAs and in areas exposed and sheltered from storm damage. Overall, coral cover has declined during the past three decades, being replaced by sand, but the decline has not been as drastic as elsewhere in the Caribbean. Fragmentation of the reef habitat has occurred, resulting in smaller and more disparate patches, but these changes were not associated with exposure along the coastline. However, total coral cover was maintained in sheltered areas, whereas it declined along exposed shorelines. Human protection of reefs by marine reserves had variable effects on coral cover and fragmentation. One of two no-diving marine reserves showed increases in coral cover accompanied by decreases in the number of patches of coral and an increase in the size of individual patches over the time period, while the second reserve exhibited the opposite trend. Advances in satellite remote sensing techniques allow for a more rapid assessment of changes in reefs at the landscape level, which can be used to identify spatial changes in the reef environment, including areas of coral decline.
The morphology of englacial drainage networks and their temporal evolution are poorly characterised, particularly within cold ice masses. At present, direct observations of englacial channels are restricted in both spatial and temporal resolution. Through novel use of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) system, the interior geometry of an englacial channel in Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard, was reconstructed and mapped. Twenty-eight laser scan surveys were conducted in March 2016, capturing the glacier surface around a moulin entrance and the uppermost 122 m reach of the adjoining conduit. The resulting point clouds provide detailed 3-D visualisation of the channel with point accuracy of 6.54 mm, despite low (<60%) overall laser returns as a result of the physical and optical properties of the clean ice, snow, hoar frost and sediment surfaces forming the conduit interior. These point clouds are used to map the conduit morphology, enabling extraction of millimetre-to-centimetre scale geometric measurements. The conduit meanders at a depth of 48 m, with a sinuosity of 2.7, exhibiting teardrop shaped cross-section morphology. This improvement upon traditional surveying techniques demonstrates the potential of TLS as an investigative tool to elucidate the nature of glacier hydrological networks, through reconstruction of channel geometry and wall composition.
A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.
This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.
The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.
The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.
We examined longitudinally the course and predictors of treatment resistance in a large cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients from initiation of antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that antipsychotic treatment resistance is: (a) present at illness onset; and (b) differentially associated with clinical and demographic factors.
The study sample comprised 323 FEP patients who were studied at first contact and at 10-year follow-up. We collated clinical information on severity of symptoms, antipsychotic medication and treatment adherence during the follow-up period to determine the presence, course and predictors of treatment resistance.
From the 23% of the patients, who were treatment resistant, 84% were treatment resistant from illness onset. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that diagnosis of schizophrenia, negative symptoms, younger age at onset, and longer duration of untreated psychosis predicted treatment resistance from illness onset.
The striking majority of treatment-resistant patients do not respond to first-line antipsychotic treatment even at time of FEP. Clinicians must be alert to this subgroup of patients and consider clozapine treatment as early as possible during the first presentation of psychosis.
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life, depression, as a
risk factor for dementia, using [11C]PK11195 positron emission
tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13
controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly
higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised
[11C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions
associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,
and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and
subiculum. Our findings suggest neuroinflammation requires further
investigation in late-life depression, both as a possible aetiological
factor and a potential therapeutic target.
We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way based on the escape velocity of a sample of distant stars, about 12 kpc from the Galactic centre and about 5 kpc from the plane of the Galaxy. Our sample is very different from previous escape-velocity studies, being compiled from an all-object spectroscopic survey of a region of sky. the derived mass within 12 kpc of the Galactic centre is (1.3 ±0.3) × 1011M⊙.
Strategies to dissect phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) have mainly relied on subphenotypes, such as age at onset (AAO) and recurrence/episodicity. Yet, evidence on whether these subphenotypes are familial or heritable is scarce. The aims of this study are to investigate the familiality of AAO and episode frequency in MDD and to assess the proportion of their variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP heritability).
For investigating familiality, we used 691 families with 2–5 full siblings with recurrent MDD from the DeNt study. We fitted (square root) AAO and episode count in a linear and a negative binomial mixed model, respectively, with family as random effect and adjusting for sex, age and center. The strength of familiality was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For estimating SNP heritabilities, we used 3468 unrelated MDD cases from the RADIANT and GSK Munich studies. After similarly adjusting for covariates, derived residuals were used with the GREML method in GCTA (genome-wide complex trait analysis) software.
Significant familial clustering was found for both AAO (ICC = 0.28) and episodicity (ICC = 0.07). We calculated from respective ICC estimates the maximal additive heritability of AAO (0.56) and episodicity (0.15). SNP heritability of AAO was 0.17 (p = 0.04); analysis was underpowered for calculating SNP heritability of episodicity.
AAO and episodicity aggregate in families to a moderate and small degree, respectively. AAO is under stronger additive genetic control than episodicity. Larger samples are needed to calculate the SNP heritability of episodicity. The described statistical framework could be useful in future analyses.
Local vibrational modes (LVMs) of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) complexes in proton implanted AlGaN grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The LVMs exhibit five distinctive peaks in the spectral region of 2846∼2963 cm−1, which are due to the symmetric and asymmetric stretching modes of C-Hn (n=1–3). The LVMs intensities in doped AlGaN are increased as irradiation dose is increased in the entire irradiation dose range used without reaching the saturation stage. On the other hand, undoped samples show that LVMs intensity increase then either decreased or saturated as the irradiation dose is increased above 5×1016 cm−2. Proton irradiation causes a drastic increase in the CH3 LVM while electron irradiation causes the opposite effect suggesting strongly that the observed LVMs are truly due to CH complexes.
Thermal annealing effects on carbon-hydrogen (C-H) complexes defects in AlGaN grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The CH complexes in AlGaN, formed either during growth or by proton irradiation, exhibit five local vibrational modes (LVMs) due to the symmetric and asymmetric vibrational stretching modes of C-H in CHn (n=1–;3) defect complexes. It was found that the annealing temperature (Ta) of 500°C is sufficient enough to dissociate most of the C-H complexes in AlGaN samples. A turning point annealing temperature is found around 300°C for un-irradiated Mg-doped sample, below which the total integrated area of the C-H LVMs continued to increase with increasing annealing temperature and reach the maximum value around 300°C. At Ta > 300°C, the total integrated area of the C-H LVMs starts to decrease and the C-H complexes seem to be completely depleted at Ta > 600°C. The depleted C-H LVMs were observed to partially recover after thermal annealing at Ta > 500°C and waiting for aging periods of several days. This recovery behavior is explained in terms of the hydrogen being remained inside the crystal after the dissociation of C-H complexes, subsequent diffusion and recombining again with carbon atom to reform C-H complexes.
We study doping profiles in selectively Si-doped GaAs layers grown by the conformal method. This growth technique allows to obtain GaAs/Si with optoelectronic quality. The samples are laterally grown, and selective doping with Si is carried out in such a way that doped stripes are intercalated with undoped ones. The study of the doping profiles was carried out by cathodoluminescence (CL) and micro-Raman (μR) spectroscopy. Abrupt doping profiles between doped and undoped stripes were demonstrated by monochromatic CL images. Deep level related CL bands can be observed between 1000 and 1400 nm, evidencing the complex mechanism for Si incorporation at the growth temperature (730 °C). Net doping concentrations and mobilities across the layers were determined from the analysis of the phonon-plasmon coupled modes in the μR spectra obtained with a lateral resolution better than 1 μm.
Intersubband transitions in In0.52Ga0.48As/In0.52Al0.48As multiple quantum wells grown on lattice matched InP substrates were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and photoluminescence (FTPL) techniques. The well width was tailored to produce excited states resonant in the conduction band, at the edge of the conduction band, and confined in the quantum wells. Interband transitions were also probed using FTPL and optical absorption techniques. The FTPL spectra show that three interband transitions exist in the quantum well structures with well width larger than 30 Å. The intersubband transitions in this class of quantum wells seem to withstand proton irradiation with doses higher than those used to deplete the intersubband transitions in the GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells.
Start with a compact set K ⊂ Rd. This has a random number of daughter sets, each of which is a (rotated and scaled) copy of K and all of which are inside K. The random mechanism for producing daughter sets is used independently on each of the daughter sets to produce the second generation of sets, and so on, repeatedly. The random fractal set F is the limit, as n goes to ∞, of the union of the nth generation sets. In addition, K has a (suitable, random) mass which is divided randomly between the daughter sets, and this random division of mass is also repeated independently, indefinitely. This division of mass will correspond to a random self-similar measure on F. The multifractal spectrum of this measure is studied here. Our main contributions are dealing with the geometry of realisations in Rd and drawing systematically on known results for general branching processes. In this way we generalise considerably the results of Arbeiter and Patzschke (1996) and Patzschke (1997).
We investigated the effect of organically modified clay on the thermal and flammability behavior of nylon 6 nanocomposites. We also used zinc borate along with layered silicate with an aim of achieving synergistic effect in flame retardancy. It is found that addition of 10 wt% clay reduced the onset decomposition (5% wt loss) temperature of nylon 6 by 20°C, while addition of 5 wt% zinc borate and 5 wt% clay in combination reduced it by around 10°C. Differential thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the peak decomposition temperature was not affected by the addition of clay, but the rate of weight loss decreased with increasing clay concentration. The horizontal burning behavior of the nanocomposite films of approximately 0.5mm thickness changed with additive concentration. The nanocomposites with 2.5 wt% and 5 wt% clay burned for almost the same duration as neat nylon 6 but dripping was reduced. The 10 wt% clay nanocomposite sample burned without any dripping and the flame spread rate was reduced by 25-30%. The burn rate of 5 wt % zinc borate/5 wt% clay nanocomposite sample was about 20% higher than that of 10 wt% clay nanocomposite sample, which could be attributed to varying char morphology. Scanning electron microscopy images of the 10wt% clay nanocomposite char surface and cross- section revealed an integrated layer of clay platelets with increasing density gradient from the center to the surface, while the 5 wt% zinc borate/5 wt% clay nanocomposite char appeared foamy and porous. The 5 wt% zinc borate and 5 wt% clay sample developed into a very good intumescent system in cone calorimeter test, swelling about 10-13mm height prior to ignition forming a cellular char structure. This was as effective as the 10wt% clay nanocomposite sample in reducing the heat release and mass loss rate of nylon 6 by around 65%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the 10 wt% clay nanocomposite char showed the presence of amides, indicating possible residual polymer within the shielded char.
One method for the fabrication of the superconducting compound Nb3Sn involves interdiffusion of a surface coating of Sn alloyed with Cu on Nb containing Zr and O. In this study, the kinetics and microstructure associated with this reaction have been studied in detail. The results show that small Nb3Sn grains nucleate at the Nb3Sn/Nb interface, and that the Nb3Sn grains experience grain growth immediately after they are formed. ZrO2 precipitates are observed in the Nb3Sn at the Nb3Sn/Nb interface and throughout the Nb3Sn. The ZrO2 precipitates occur in the form of small partially-coherent spheres in the Nb3Sn. No ZrO2 precipitates are observed by TEM in the unreacted Nb. The grain boundaries in the Nb3Sn region are coated with a Sn-Nb-Cu alloy which would have been liquid at the diffusion/reaction temperature. The thickness of the Nb3Sn reaction layer formed during the isothermal diffusion anneal is proportional to time to the first power, indicating “reaction”-controlled rather than “diffusion”-controlled kinetics. The absence of diffusion-controlled kinetics can be explained by the presence of the liquid coating on the Nb3Sn grains. Diffusion of Sn in this liquid layer is apparently fast enough to not be the limiting kinetic step.
A suitable choice of an electrode material is important for an acceptable electrical contact to a high-permittivity dielectric, such as PLZT. A material which does not form a low-permittivity oxide is necessary, since these dielectrics generally require high temperature deposition or annealing in an oxidizing environment. Platinum, which is one of the few metals that satisfy this requirement, has been widely employed for contacting PLZT. However, for integrated circuit applications, an adhesion layer must be superposed between Pt and the substrate, and Ti is used frequently. Therefore, we have investigated the Pt/Ti combination to determine its suitability as an electrode for contacting PLZT. Using x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscope techniques, interdiffusion of Pt/Ti bilayers has been investigated. Pt/Ti films with or without PLZT overlay were annealed in either O2 or N2 ambients or in N2 followed by O2. Annealing temperatures varied from 500 to 800 °C. It was observed that the anneal ambient has a marked effect on the interdiffusion processes, the reaction products, the morphology of the structures, and the crystallization of PLZT.
Surface treatment experiments using intense pulsed ion beams have demonstrated new capabilities for materials surface treatment. These experiments have confirmed corrosion resistance, surface hardening, amorphous layer and nanocrystalline grain size formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, surface cleaning and oxide layer removal by rapid melting and resolidification. Deposition of beam energy in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies (1-10 J/cm2) and allows rapid cooling (109-1010 K/sec) and resolidification of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. At higher intensities (≥20 J/cm2), this technology can provide rapid ablation of material from targets followed by rapid, congruent deposition of polycrystalline thin films on substrates. This technology uses high energy pulsed (40–400 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2–20 micrometers of the surface of materials.