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To assess the social disability of people with different psychiatric disorders.
Cross-site survey in five psychiatric hospitals (Dresden, Wrocław, London, Michalovce and Prague). Working-aged patients diagnosed (ICD-10) with schizophrenia and related disorders (F2), affective disorders (F3), anxiety disorders (F4), eating disorders (F5) and personality disorders (F6), were assessed at admission (n = 969) and 3 months after discharge (n = 753) using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Groningen Social Disability Schedule. The main outcome measure was Interviewer-rated social disability.
During acute episodes patients with personality, eating and schizophrenic disorders functioned less effectively than those with affective or anxiety disorders. After controlling for age and severity of psychopathology, there was no significant effect of the diagnosis (during remission), sex, education and history of disorder on disability. Site, employment and partnership were significant factors for the level of social disability in both measure points.
Severity of psychopathological symptoms, not the diagnosis of a mental disorder, was the most significant factor in determining the level of social functioning, particularly during the remission period. Site, employment and partnership appeared as significant factors influencing the level of social disability.
Individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal difficulties in the recognition of emotional states experienced by other people. Deficits in facial - affect perception tend to be greater for negative facial displays than the positive one, with impairment being greatest for the perception of fear.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of semantic satiation of faces in the deficit arising in fear recognition. Semantic satiation is defined as the experience of the loss of the meaning of words or images caused by their prolonged presentation. The satiation effect occurs faster in schizophrenia than in healthy people since it could be considered as a mechanism which reveals patients’ difficulties in fear recognition.
Participants, 30 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 30 controls were shown the images of fearful, happy and neutral faces. In satiation conditions each image was displayed 30 times, in control conditions - 3 times. Participants’ task was to define the emotion they were presented with.
Both groups of participants revealed the semantic satiation effect alike for positive, negative and neutral faces. Within the group of patients the satiation effect was greater for fearful and neutral faces than for positive ones, whereas for the healthy controls the satiation of positive and negative pictures were greater than for the neutral ones.
Within the schizophrenic group semantic satiation could be considered as a mechanism which is responsible for the difficulties of fear recognition and for deficits of correct interpretation of emotionally - neutral faces.
Depression is a highly prevalent comorbidity in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both, depression and COPD are believed to be associated with inflammation. The aim of our study was to verify hypothesis that altered inflammatory response causes depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Material and methods
Blood was collected from 45 patients of whom 18 had COPD, 18 were depressed and 9 had COPD with comorbid depression. Total of 27 age and sex matched healthy controls were also included in the study. IL-2, IL-8 and IL-17A concentrations were assayed by ELISA technique in sera of all subjects.
We observed significantly decreased concentration of IL-17A in a group of depressed patients (D) when compared with controls, 4.46 ± 0.573 pg/mL vs. 8.87 ± 1.182 pg/mL, respectively, P = 0.0005. Increased concentration of IL-2 in depressed patients (D) as compared with controls, 3.00 ± 0.223 pg/mL vs. 2.30 ± 0.176 pg/mL, respectively, P = 0.013 was also revealed. There was also increased concentration of IL-8 in COPD subjects if compared with controls and depression group, 4.55 ± 0.176 pg/mL vs. 3.71 ± .132 and 3.95 ± 0.118 pg/mL, respectively, P = 0.008.
The results from our study suggest that there is significant difference between depression and COPDs with respect to IL-8 concentration also a lower concentration of IL-17A was noticeable in depressed patients (P = 0.06). We need more data on depressed COPD patients to argue the role of inflammation on depression in COPD patients.
The USA is the largest consumer of legally, internationally-traded wildlife. A proportion of this trade consists of species listed in the Appendices of CITES, and recorded in the CITES Trade Database. Using this resource, we quantified wildlife entering the USA for 82 of the most frequently recorded wildlife products and a range of taxonomic groups during 1979–2014. We examined trends in legal trade and seizures of illegally traded items over time, and relationships between trade and four national measures of biodiversity. We found that: (1) there is an overall positive relationship between legal imports and seizures; (2) Asia was the main region exporting CITES-listed wildlife products to the USA; (3) bears, crocodilians and other mammals (i.e. other than Ursidae, Felidae, Cetacea, Proboscidea, Primates or Rhinocerotidae) increased in both reported legal trade and seizures over time; (4) legal trade in live specimens was reported to be primarily from captive-produced, artificially-propagated or ranched sources, whereas traded meat was primarily wild sourced; (5) both seizures and legally traded items of felids and elephants decreased over time; and (6) volumes of both legally traded and seized species were correlated with four attributes of exporting countries: species endemism, species richness, number of IUCN threatened species, and country size. The goal of our analysis was to inform CITES decision-making and species conservation efforts.
Over the last decade, X-ray observations of Sgr A* have revealed a black hole in a deep sleep, punctuated roughly once per day by brief flares. The extreme X-ray faintness of this supermassive black hole has been a long-standing puzzle in black hole accretion. To study the accretion processes in the Galactic center, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012. With its excellent observing cadence, sensitivity, and spectral resolution, this Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the behavior of the closest supermassive black hole. We present a progress report from our ongoing study of X-ray flares, including the brightest flare ever seen from Sgr A*. Focusing on the statistics of the flares and the quiescent emission, we discuss the physical implications of X-ray variability in the Galactic center.
Prevalence of and risk factors associated with MRSA-ST398 carriage in 1872 (response 70%) farmers and neighbouring residents in a pig- and poultry-dense area in Germany were investigated using a cross-sectional study and self-sampling nasal swabs. In the population, 1% without occupational livestock contact and 24% with occupational livestock contact tested positive for MRSA-ST398. The group without occupational livestock contact was 3·8 times [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·5–9·3] more likely to be colonized if a household member had livestock contact and 3·2 times (95% CI 1·4–7·4) more likely if they regularly made private farm visits (e.g. to buy eggs or milk). In the group with occupational livestock contact, pig contact had an odds ratio of 7·1 (95% CI 2·9–17·2) for MRSA-ST398 acquisition. This is the first study to associate private farm visits with acquisition of MRSA; more research to explore the exact transmission routes is necessary.
A recent definition of forest health states that it is dependent on sustainability, productivity, and pest management (Raffa et al. 2009), which is similar to the central premise of this text (see Chapter 1). We suggest that one way to assess sustainability, as the first component of a healthy forest, is to determine if observed landscape-level tree mortality corresponds to baseline mortality (i.e., a stable size structure is maintained so that the number of trees dying within a size class does not exceed the number necessary to replace those in the next larger size class). Meanwhile, productivity, the second component of a healthy forest, involves meeting the management objectives of the landowner.
An understanding of the evolutionary history of the forest and all associated forest processes and components; e.g., fire, climate, insects, disease, etc., is critical when considering the spatial scale at which forest health is being assessed. For example, in the western USA and in Canadian lodgepole pine forests, the baseline mortality concept would need to be applied at the level of tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of square kilometers. These forests experience repeated long-term cycles whereby forests become susceptible to the mountain pine beetle, die as a cohort, and burn so that seeds may germinate and the forest grow again (Peterman 1978; Berryman 1986). The conflagration that follows a mortality event occurs at large spatial scales and though forests can experience up to 100% mortality of all vegetation layers, they would still be considered “healthy” as this would be an essential renewal stage.
Temperament influences the expression of maternal behaviour in sheep under experimental field conditions. We investigated whether maternal behaviour between ewes selected for a calm or nervous temperament is independent from environmental conditions. In addition, the level of maternal behaviour expressed by mothers is correlated with the concentration of hormones during the peripartum period. Therefore, we investigated whether the selection for temperament had resulted in hormonal differences between the two lines with regard to the hormones that could be involved in the onset of maternal behaviour. Oestradiol, progesterone and cortisol concentrations from 4 days before parturition to 24 h after parturition were determined from blood samples collected from 10 calm and 12 nervous ewes. Behavioural interactions between ewe and lamb were also recorded for 2 h starting at parturition. Mothers of both temperament lines showed adequate maternal behaviour under the controlled conditions of the study. Therefore, the results of the study do not suggest that selection for a calm or nervous temperament has profoundly affected the intrinsic ability of mothers to display adequate maternal behaviour. Hormonal differences between the two temperament lines were generally small and their possible influence on the display of maternal behaviour in the two temperament lines would have to be demonstrated.
Background and objective: To measure ‘depth of anaesthesia’, anaesthesiologists use a combination of observable end-points such as immobility and autonomic stability. Unconsciousness and amnesia are not reliably observable end-points, but correlate with parameters derived from the electroencephalogram. We investigated the association of subjective assessment and electroencephalographic measures of anaesthetic depth in a group of experienced (>4 yr of experience) and a group of inexperienced (<2 yr of experience) anaesthesiologists. Methods: One hundred ASA I or II patients were assigned to either group. Anaesthesiologists assessed ‘anaesthetic depth’ using an 11-point numeric and a 5-point verbal scale. Bispectral index and spectral entropy were recorded as electroencephalogram parameters. The association between the subjective assessment and the electroencephalogram parameters was calculated using the prediction probability, PK. Results: Association between subjective assessment and electroencephalographic parameters showed a tendency to a better prediction probability in the experienced group. The difference was significant (P < 0.05) for the bispectral index (PK 0.76 ± 0.01 for experienced and 0.71 ± 0.01 for inexperienced anaesthesiologists). In both groups, a large percentage of the data points recorded during surgery showed bispectral index values above the recommended value of 60 (13.2% in the experienced and 34.3% in the inexperienced group) despite a subjective assessment of ‘deep’ or ‘very deep’ anaesthetic depth. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the association between subjectively assigned values of anaesthetic depth and electroencephalographic parameters of anaesthetic depth is better for anaesthesiologists with more clinical experience. However, in the ‘inexperienced’ as well as ‘experienced’ group a high percentage of bispectral index and entropy values above 60 occurred despite a subjective assessment of adequate anaesthetic depth. Although there was no evidence for explicit memory, this may indicate a risk for memory formation.
Dispersed megaspores with affinities to aquatic heterosporous ferns are relatively common in mesofossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous to the Recent. Extant heterosporous ferns are free floating or shallow rooted freshwater plants, with a dominantly tropical to warm-temperate distribution (Tryon and Lugardon, 1991). Their heterosporous life cycle (including both megaspores and microspores) is likely to be an adaptation to their aquatic habit (Collinson, 1991; Hemsley et al., 1999; Kar and Dilcher, 2002). Thus the abundance of heterosporous fern megaspores, or the presence of heterosporous fern macrofossils, within a stratigraphic interval may be indicative of a shallow, calm, freshwater depositional environment (Hall, 1963; Batten et al., 1996; Rich et al., 2001).
Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were used to study the thermomechanical behavior of individual texture components in passivated Cu thin films. Films were deposited to a thickness of 500 nm on SiNx barrier layers on Si substrates and then passivated with SiNx. The films were highly textured with grains having (111) or (100) planes parallel to the plane of the film. In-plane film stresses were determined separately in the two texture components as a function of temperature during thermal cycles and also during isothermal holds at 140°C. The results are compared to models of yield behavior and anelastic recovery.
The domain state model for exchange bias consists of a ferromagnetic layer exchange coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. In order to model a certain degree of disorder within the bulk of the antiferromagnet, the latter is diluted throughout its volume. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the model were performed in the past. Exchange bias is observed as a result of a domain state in the antiferromagnetic layer which develops during the initial field cooling, carrying a remanent domains state magnetization which is partly irreversible during hysteresis. A variety of typical effects associated with exchange bias like, e. g., its dependence on dilution, positive bias, temperature and time dependences as well as the dependence on the thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer can be explained within this model.
Heteroepitaxial films of aluminum bicrystals grown on silicon provide a model system in which to study plasticity in polycrystalline metal thin films. For the bicrystal films, dislocations are confined to move on two different slip plane orientations because of the orientation of the crystals on the substrate. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations during thermal cycling have shown two threshold temperatures for dislocation motion on cooling. A simple model uses the resolved shear stress on the possible slip planes to explain the TEM observations. Mechanisms responsible for the dislocation behavior are studied in-situ during thermal cycling between room temperature and 450°C with x-ray diffraction. The strains are determined using a sin2(Ψ) analysis at each temperature. Direct comparisons are made between the TEM observations, the model and x-ray diffraction results.
GX 339–4 has been monitored over a period of two and a half years with MOST and ATCA to investigate the flux variations and spatial structure of its radio emission. The data are summarized and discussed.