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Milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations are higher for milk produced from cows grazing fresh pastures than for milk when conserved forages are fed (Jahreis et al., 1997). This experiment investigated the hypothesis that this increased CLA production results from the action of volatile compounds (hydroperoxides, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones) released during the cutting of grass (De Gouw et al., 1999).These compounds have antimicrobial activities (Kubo et al., 1995) and may have an effect on rumen microbial populations.
Poor animal performance associated with low digestibility silages results partly from the reduced nutrient yield per unit intake, but also from the associated lower intakes which were presumed to be a consequence of rumen fill effects. Legume silages have a lower average digestibility than grass silages, and yet often have higher intake characteristics. The objective of this work was to compare rumen fill and rumen particle size distribution for animals fed grass silage or legume silage-based diets.
The efficiency of grass nitrogen utilisation for milk production tends to be low, due partly to the slow rate of release of energy in the rumen which reduces the efficiency of capture of rapidly degradable plant proteins by the rumen microbial population. When additional sugars are infused into the rumen, microbial protein production is increased (Rooke et al., 1987). The objective of this study was to assess milk production using a grass variety that has been bred to express elevated water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations.
Eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation (176 days ± s.e. 3.6) were used in a continuous design, zero-grazing experiment. Following covariate measurements taken from all animals on a standard grazing diet, four animals were each offered one of two varieties of perennial ryegrass at ad libitum rate: AberDove, bred to express high WSC concentrations; and AberElan, a commercially available variety, used as a control.
Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is associated with reduced risk of a number of non-communicable diseases. Research tends to focus on antioxidants, flavonoids and polyphenols contained in FV as the main beneficial components to health; however, increasing FV may also alter overall diet profile. Extra FV may be substituted for foods thought to be less healthy, therefore altering the overall macronutrient and/or micronutrient content in the diet. This analysis merged dietary data from four intervention studies in participants with varying health conditions and examined the effect of increased FV consumption on diet profile. Dietary intake was assessed by either diet diaries or diet histories used in four FV randomised intervention studies. All food and drink intake recorded was analysed using WISP version 3.0, and FV portions were manually counted using household measures. Regression analysis revealed significant increases in intakes of energy (172 kJ (+41 kcal)), carbohydrate (+3·9 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), total sugars (+6·0 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) and fibre (+0·8 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) and significant decreases in intakes of total fat (−1·4 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), SFA (−0·6 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), MUFA (−0·6 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), PUFA (−0·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) and starch (−2·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) per one portion increase in FV. Significant percentage increases were also observed in vitamin C (+24 %) and -carotene (+20 %) intake, per one portion increase in FV. In conclusion, pooled analysis of four FV intervention studies, that used similar approaches to achieving dietary change, in participants with varying health conditions, demonstrated an increase in energy, total carbohydrate, sugars and fibre intake, and a decrease in fat intake alongside an expected increase in micronutrient intake.
In a glass furnace solid batches of material are fed into a chamber and radiation heating applied. An individual batch is melted over the course of several minutes to form molten glass. A travelling front within the batch designates the progress of the melting, a process characterized by multiple radiation reflections. This results in an effective conductivity within the melting zone that is significantly larger than that in the unmelted batch. Approximations based on these disparate conductivities enable accurate explicit expressions for the almost constant melting front speed and the associated temperature profile to be derived. Our results compare favourably with existing numerical simulations of the process, with the advantage of being both analytic and relatively simple. These predictions may be useful in suggesting how a furnace might be most effectively controlled under varying batch conditions, as well as ensuring the quality of the glass sheets produced.
Ecosystem services-based approaches have been applied to decisions about trade-offs between alternative uses of land (RaudseppHearne et al. 2010; Maes et al. 2012; Bryan & Crossman 2013; Geneletti 2013; Seppelt et al. 2013), but have been used less commonly to assess trade-offs in alternative uses of water (Schluter et al. 2009; Rouquette et al. 2011; Liu et al. 2013). In this chapter we provide an overview of a case study into quantifying the ecosystem services and associated benefits (and their monetary values) of a new water-sharing plan that will return water to the environment in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. This serves as an illustration of how to operationalize an ecosystem services-based approach, as defined in this book. Chapter 2 in this book emphasizes that there is a gap between the conceptualization and endorsement of ecosystem services by both researchers and policy makers and the incorporation of ecosystem services-based approaches into natural resources management practice. The present chapter demonstrates the operationalization of an ecosystem services-based approach in the context of water resource planning and management. We estimate the changes to a range of final ecosystem services (Boyd & Banzhaf 2007; Kumar 2010) that result from the implementation of a discrete policy scenario, and provide economic estimates for the associated benefits. Our work contributes to the still scarce literature on real-world examples of integrating empirical data on the biophysical supply of ecosystem services with their socio-cultural context and monetary valuation to inform investment decisions (Martín-Loópez et al. 2014; see also Mulligan et al., this book).
The Murray-Darling Basin contains iconic and internationally important wetlands and is Australia's major food-producing area. In terms of gross value, about 40% of Australia's agriculture and 50% of irrigated agriculture is produced in the Basin (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013). However, the dominance of food production has come at the expense of other ecosystem services provided by land and water resources in the Basin, primarily due to the decline in health of river, wetland, and floodplain ecosystems (Kingsford 2000; Kingsford et al. 2011).
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
Localized heating of metals and alloys using a focused laser beam in ambient atmosphere produces dielectric oxide layers that have characteristic optical appearances including different colors. Nanoindentation probed the deformation and fracture of laser-fabricated oxides on 304L stainless steel. Conductive nanoindentation measured electrical contact resistance (ECR) of the same colored oxides indicating a correlation between laser exposure, conductance during loading, current-voltage (I-V) behavior at constant load, and indentation response. Microscopy and X-ray diffraction examined the microstructure and chemical composition of the oxides. Combining techniques provides a unique approach for correlating mechanical behavior and the resulting performance of the films in conditions that cause wear.
Single crystal-like yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films have been deposited on amorphous quartz, polycrystalline zirconia, single crystal Si, and Hastelloy substrates using dual ion beam deposition (IBAD). These films are highly crystallographically aligned both normal to and within the film plane. The films are deposited at low substrate temperatures (<200°C), and the film orientation is substrate independent. θ-2θ X-ray diffraction, X-ray rocking curves, X-ray pole figures and X-ray phi scans are used to evaluate the film structure. High resolution cross-sectional TEM is used to examine the evolution of crystallographic film alignment on an amorphous quartz substrate. The data suggest that the evolution of biaxial alignment is nucleation controlled under these conditions.
Comprehensive studies using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy of the local environments in oxide glasses of alkalis like Na point to the existence of channels of modifying oxide within the glass forming network - a Modified Random Network or MRN. It has been proposed that these are the primary pathways for ionic conduction. Such microsegregation demands a high alkali coordination for non-bridging oxygens. This has now been confirmed from analysis of the O near edge XAFS of silica and sodium disilicate glass. Dielectric relaxation in oxide glasses provides considerable evidence for the cooperative action of alkali ions. The MRN has been used to develop specific microscopic models for ionic transport based on XAFS and incorporating correlated ionic movement. These quantitatively predict the ionic conductivity of silicate and aluminosilicate glasses and the compositional dependence of the activation energy with alkali concentration.
Secondary phosphate assemblages from the Hagendorf Süd granitic pegmatite, containing the new Mn-Al phosphate mineral, nordgauite, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Nordgauite nodules enclose crystals of the jahnsite—whiteite group of minerals, showing pronounced compositional zoning, spanning the full range of Fe/Al ratios between jahnsite and whiteite. The whiteite-rich members are F-bearing, whereas the jahnsite-rich members contain no F. Associated minerals include sphalerite, apatite, parascholzite, zwieselite-triplite solid solutions and a kingsmountite-related mineral. The average compositions of whiteite and jahnsite from different zoned regions correspond to jahnsite-(CaMnMn), whiteite-(CaMnMn) and the previously undescribed whiteite-(CaMnFe) end-members. Mo-Kα CCD intensity data were collected on a twinned crystal of the (CaMnMn)-dominant whiteite and refined in P2/a to wRobs = 0.064 for 1015 observed reflections.