A 2-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of fertilization on elodea (Elodea canadensis Michx.), eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), and heartleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerm.). Plants, water, and sediment were sampled and inorganic mineral contents determined. Water concentrations of NO3, NH4, P, and K increased sharply following fertilization and generally reached maximum values within 7 days after treatment. Concentrations of these nutrients decreased rapidly after reaching maximum values. In the first year, plant growth was not increased due to fertilization while in the second year only heartleaf pondweed produced significantly greater yields. Elodea and eurasian watermilfoil grew better in the control environment, presumably due to less competition from algae, whose growth was increased by the addition of fertilizer. At the end of the study the top 1.3 cm of bottom sediment had increased in cation exchange capacity (C. E. C.), organic matter, total N, and available P for all treatments while the underlying sediment remained relatively unchanged. Available P was greater in the surface of the fertilized sediment than in the surface of the control sediment.