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The DMTPC directional dark matter detection experiment is a low-pressure CF4 gas time projection chamber, instrumented with charge and scintillation photon readout. This detector design strategy emphasizes reconstruction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoil tracks, in order to determine the direction of incident dark matter particles. Directional detection has the potential to make the definitive observation of dark matter using the unique angular signature of the dark matter wind, which is distinct from all known backgrounds. This talk will briefly review the experimental technique and current status of DMTPC.
The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter
limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The
10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D
fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks
and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential
benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and
particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is
Comparative and functional fungal genomics
S. E. Baker, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
C. F. Wend, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
D. Martinez, Genome Annotation and Analysis Joint Genome Institute Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos NM 87545 USA,
J. K. Magnuson, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
E. A. Panisko, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
Z. Dai, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
K. S. Bruno, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
K. K. Anderson, Decision & Sensor Analytics Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 906 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA,
M. E. Monroe, Biological Separations and Mass Spectrometry Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 3335 Q Avenue Richland WA 99352 USA,
D. S. Daly, Statistical Sciences Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 3180 George Washington Way Richland WA 99352 USA,
L. L. Lasure, Fungal Biotechnology Team MSIN: K2–12 Chemical and Biological Processes Development Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99352 USA
In order to decrease dependence on petroleum, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of the Biomass Program (OBP) is investing in research and development to enable its vision of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will decrease the use of petroleum through conversion of biomass such as crops or agricultural waste into fuels and products.
In 2004, the USDOE OBP asked researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to prepare a list of the top ten building-block chemicals that can be derived from simple sugars by biological and/or chemical means. The resulting list of twelve building-block chemicals and the accompanying report (www.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/35523.pdf) form an informational foundation on which future DOE and industry bioproducts research will be built (Table 1.1).
How do fungi fit into the biorefinery? Analysis of the ‘top ten’ study indicates that nine of the top twelve chemical building blocks are currently produced, or may potentially be produced, by fungal fermentation processes. However, a significant barrier to the use of bio-based products is the economic feasibility – fuels and products must be price-competitive with those derived from petroleum. An obvious way to decrease the costs of biobased products from fungi is to make fermentation strains more productive and processes more efficient. Traditional strain improvement programmes typically span a timescale measured in decades and process development done through the use of batch cultures is extremely labour intensive.
Background. A long-standing debate concerns whether dysfunctional cognitive processes and content play a causal role in the etiology of depression or more simply represent correlates of the disorder. There has been insufficient appreciation in this debate of specific predictions afforded by cognitive theory in relation to major life stress and changes in cognition over time. In this paper we present a novel perspective for investigating the etiological relevance of cognitive factors in depression. We hypothesize that individuals who experienced a severe life event prior to the onset of major depression will exhibit greater changes in dysfunctional attitudes over the course of the episode than will individuals without a severe life event.
Method. Fifty-three participants diagnosed with major depression were assessed longitudinally, approximately 1 year apart, with state-of-the-art measures of life stress and dysfunctional attitudes.
Results. Depressed individuals with a severe life event prior to episode onset exhibited greater changes in cognitive biases over time than did depressed individuals without a prior severe event. These results were especially pronounced for individuals who no longer met diagnostic criteria for major depression at the second assessment.
Conclusions. Specific patterns of change in cognitive biases over the course of depression as a function of major life stress support the etiological relevance of cognition in major depression.
On 3 February 2004, the Vermont Department of Health received reports of acute gastroenteritis in persons who had recently visited a swimming facility. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among persons attending the facility between 30 January and 2 February. Fifty-three of 189 (28%) persons interviewed developed vomiting or diarrhoea within 72 h after visiting the facility. Five specimens tested positive for norovirus and three specimen sequences were identical. Entering the smaller of the two pools at the facility was significantly associated with illness (RR 5·67, 95% CI 1·5–22·0, P=0·012). The investigation identified several maintenance system failures: chlorine equipment failure, poorly trained operators, inadequate maintenance checks, failure to alert management, and insufficient record keeping. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of recreational water to norovirus contamination, even in the absence of any obvious vomiting or faecal accident. Our findings also suggest that norovirus is not as resistant to chlorine as previously reported in experimental studies. Appropriate regulations and enforcement, with adequate staff training, are necessary to ensure recreational water safety.
Covering an area of 177,000 hectares, the region known within Belize as the Chiquibul Forest comprises the country's largest forest reserve and includes the Chiquibul Forest Reserve, the Chiquibul National Park and the Caracol Archaeological Reserve. Based on 7047 herbarium and live collections, a checklist of 1355 species of vascular plant is presented for this area, of which 87 species are believed to be new records for the country. Of the 41 species of plant known to be endemic to Belize, four have been recorded within the Chiquibul, and 12 species are listed in The World Conservation Union (IUCN) 2006 Red List of Threatened Species. Although the Chiquibul Forest has been relatively well collected, there are geographical biases in botanical sampling which have focused historically primarily on the limestone forests of the Chiquibul Forest Reserve. A brief review of the collecting history of the Chiquibul is provided, and recommendations are given on where future collecting efforts may best be focused. The Chiquibul Forest is shown to be a significant regional centre of plant diversity and an important component of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor.
We sought to determine the source of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of 46 weddings taking place during a single weekend. Norovirus-compatible illness was experienced by 332 (39%) of wedding guests surveyed; the outbreak affected up to 2700 persons. Illness was associated with eating wedding cake provided by a bakery common to the weddings (adjusted RR 4·5, P<0·001). A cake requiring direct hand contact during its preparation accounted for the majority of illness. At least two bakery employees experienced norovirus-compatible illness during the week preceding the weddings. Identical sequence types of norovirus were detected in stool specimens submitted by two wedding guests, a wedding hall employee, and one of the ill bakery employees. It is likely that one or more food workers at the bakery contaminated the wedding cakes through direct and indirect contact. These findings reinforce the necessity of proper food-handling practices and of policies that discourage food handlers from working while ill.