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We aimed to quantify the proportion of people receiving care for HIV-infection that are 50 years or older (older HIV patients) in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2000 and 2015 and to estimate the contribution to the growth of this population of people enrolled before (<50yo) and after 50 years old (yo) (⩾50yo). We used a series of repeated, cross-sectional measurements over time in the Caribbean, Central and South American network (CCASAnet) cohort. We estimated the percentage of patients retained in care each year that were older HIV patients. For every calendar year, we divided patients into two groups: those who enrolled before age 50 and after age 50. We used logistic regression models to estimate the change in the proportion of older HIV patients between 2000 and 2015. The percentage of CCASAnet HIV patients over 50 years had a threefold increase (8% to 24%) between 2000 and 2015. Most of the growth of this population can be explained by the increasing proportion of people that enrolled before 50 years and aged in care. These changes will impact needs of care for people living with HIV, due to multiple comorbidities and high risk of disability associated with aging.
We introduce a forcing technique to construct three-dimensional arrays of generic extensions through FS (finite support) iterations of ccc posets, which we refer to as 3D-coherent systems. We use them to produce models of new constellations in Cichoń’s diagram, in particular, a model where the diagram can be separated into 7 different values. Furthermore, we show that this constellation of 7 values is consistent with the existence of a
well-order of the reals.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychosis share deficits in social cognition. The insular region has been associated with awareness of self and reality, which may be basic for proper social interactions.
Total and regional insular volume and thickness measurements were obtained from a sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD, 29 with early onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 26 healthy controls (HC). Total, regional, and voxel-level volume and thickness measurements were compared between groups (with correction for multiple comparisons), and the relationship between these measurements and symptom severity was explored.
Compared with HC, a shared volume deficit was observed for the right (but not the left) anterior insula (ASD: p = 0.007, FEP: p = 0.032), and for the bilateral posterior insula: (left, ASD: p = 0.011, FEP: p = 0.033; right, ASD: p = 0.004, FEP: p = 0.028). A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) conjunction analysis showed that ASD and FEP patients shared a gray matter volume and thickness deficit in the left posterior insula. Within patients, right anterior (r = −0.28, p = 0.041) and left posterior (r = −0.29, p = 0.030) insular volumes negatively correlated with the severity of insight deficits, and left posterior insular volume negatively correlated with the severity of ‘autistic-like’ symptoms (r = −0.30, p = 0.028).
The shared reduced volume and thickness in the anterior and posterior regions of the insula in ASD and FEP provides the first tentative evidence that these conditions share structural pathology that may be linked to shared symptomatology.
Steady methane/air laminar premixed flames stabilised on a cylindrical bluff body subjected to a continuous rotation are analysed using joint direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments. DNS are carried out using a 19 species scheme for methane/air combustion and a lumped model to predict the cylinder temperature. Rotation of the cylinder induces a symmetry breaking of the flow, and leads to two distinct flame branches in the wake of the cylinder. DNS are validated against experiments in terms of flame topologies and velocity fields. DNS are then used to analyse flame structures and thermal effects. The location and structure of the two flames are differently modified by rotation and heat transfer: a superadiabatic flame branch stabilises close to the hot cylinder and burns preheated fresh gases while a subadiabatic branch is quenched over a large zone and anchors far downstream of the cylinder. Local flame structures are shown to be controlled to first order by the local enthalpy defect or excess due to heat transfer between the cylinder and the flow. An analysis of the local wall heat flux around the cylinder shows that, for low rotation speeds, the superadiabatic flame branch contributes to wall heat fluxes that considerably exceed typical values found for classical flame/wall interactions. However, for high rotation speeds, fluxes decrease because the cylinder is surrounded by a layer of burned gases that dilute incoming reactants and shield it from the flame.
In this work, nano, micro, and macro-indentation tests under standard or multicycle loading conditions were performed for studying the mechanical behavior of a crown borosilicate glass sample with the objective to study the scale effect in indentation and the influence of cracks formation on the assessment of mechanical properties. When no cracks were initiated during the indenter penetration, especially for low indentation loads, the mechanical properties were deduced by applying different methodologies, (i) Standard (or monocyclic) loading, (ii) Continuous Stiffness Measurement mode, (iii) Constant and progressive multicycle loading, and (iv) Dynamic hardness computation. It has been found independently of the loading conditions, Martens hardness and elastic modulus are approximately 3.3 and 70 GPa, respectively. However, when cracking and chipping are produced during the indentation test, two damage parameters related to hardness and elastic modulus can be used for representing the decrease of the mechanical properties as a function of the relative penetration depth.
Patterns of dental service use can be described using a range of approaches including measures related to first dental visit, usual dental visit pattern, and the most recent dental visit. First dental visit is considered important as it represents first contact with the dental system. The usual dental visit pattern of children is also of interest as it can reflect long-term attendance patterns. The most recent dental visit is considered important as it reflects current health behaviour.
In this chapter, measures related to first dental visit will be presented for: first making a dental visit before the age of 5 years, having a check-up as the reason for the first dental visit, and reporting having never made a dental visit. Information will also be presented related to usual dental visiting using the measure of irregular usual visit pattern. For the most recent dental visit: making a dental visit within the last 12 months, having a check-up as the reason for last dental visit, attending a private dental clinic at the last dental visit, whether parents or guardians attended with the child at their last dental visit, and rating of the last dental visit by the parent/guardian.
Frequency of dental visits and the reason for dental visits are key aspects related to access to dental care (Roberts-Thomson et al. 1995). Making a recent dental visit is indicative of access to the dental care system while visiting for the reason of a check-up is considered more likely to be associated with better health outcomes than visiting for a dental problem such as relief of pain (Crocombe et al. 2012). Hence, the dental profession tends to advocate a visit pattern of attending for annual dental check-ups to access preventive dental care or allow diagnosis of dental problems at an early stage, which can facilitate treatment before the disease progresses (Riley et al. 2013). For children, there are recommendations in relation to the desirability of making dental visits at an early age (Jones & Tomar 2005). While children who have not made a dental visit or report an irregular dental visit pattern could reflect a lack of perceived need, these measures could also reflect barriers to dental care that inhibit dental visiting or reflect problem-based attendance patterns.
The present work is a study on alkali activation of Mexican blast furnace slag, using sodium silicate. The aim is to produce an optimal specimen, homogeneous without carbonation, and with small fraction of crystalline phases, similar to CSH, which provide mechanical properties suitable to use in the construction industry. The samples were prepared using sodium silicate activator solutions with modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75. The weight percentage of Na2O in the activator solutions was added at 4, 6 and 8% relative to the slag weight. The prepared samples were stored in sealed molds, at room temperature (20°C), during 7 days. The X-ray diffraction has revealed the presence of an amorphous phase, semi crystalline clinotobermorite phase and signals of calcium carbonate for the samples of 4 and 6 % of Na2O; in contrast with the 8% Na2O, where the latter signals almost disappeared. The specimen selected as optimal was prepared with an activator concentration of 8% of Na2O /Slag, and SiO2/Na2O of 1.25. A specimen under these optimal conditions was prepared with accelerated curing (40°C, humidity, 48 hours), and a compressive strength test was attained, with an average value of 52 MPa at 3 days.
Eighty-two hospitals of 66 cities in 30 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, India, Kosovo, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, and Vietnam) from 4 continents (America, Asia, Africa, and Europe).
Patients undergoing surgical procedures (SPs) from January 2005 to December 2010.
Data were gathered and recorded from patients hospitalized in INICC member hospitals by using the methods and definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) for SSI. SPs were classified into 31 types according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, criteria.
We gathered data from 7,523 SSIs associated with 260,973 SPs. SSI rates were significantly higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data, including the rates of SSI after hip prosthesis (2.6% vs 1.3%; relative risk [RR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8–2.4]; P<.001), coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%; RR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.4–1.6]; P<.001); abdominal hysterectomy (2.7% vs 1.6%; RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.4–2.0]; P<.001); exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1 % vs 2.0%; RR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.6–2.6]; P<.001); ventricular shunt, 12.9% vs 5.6% (RR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.9–2.6]; P<.001), and others.
SSI rates were higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data.
Oil industry is very strategic for any country. Not only for their market share and their budgets, but also for the critical infrastructure interdependences that creates. Considering statistics and fractal geometry as a support for analysis, interpretation of data and as an aid in taking decisions, this paper deals with data obtained in 1994 and 2004 from the inspection of the onshore pipelines in Mexico. Making use of software Benoit and ITSM-2000, the time series were found to have a fractal behavior. Further analysis and contrast with a previous research base on artificial neural networks was also accomplished. As a result it was obtained a forecast for 2014, based on the sum of the time series of data.
The fabrication of GaAs-GaAIAs coupled quantum dots and of quantum rings using electron beam lithography and dry etching is described. Coupled dots of physical diameter of 500 and 250 nm were fabricated and processed with top electrical contacts to apply an electric field. We show that the emission spectrum of coupled dots is modified by the electric field. Quantum rings of 400 nm outer diameter and wall thickness of 25 nm were fabricated. The emission spectrum from rings showed the quantum well emission shifted to higher energies and although its intensity decreased by about one order of magnitude there was little linewidth broadening.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)
In ruminants, the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) reflects the absorption of microbial purines and can be used as an index of microbial protein supply. The objective of this study, carried out in Aberdeen, 1992, was to examine whether PD concentrations in spot urine or plasma samples vary diurnally during a given feeding regime and if they reflect differences in daily PD excretion induced by varying feed intake. Sixteen sheep were offered ad libitum one of four diets (fresh weight basis, the rest of each diet being minerals and vitamins): (1) 99·9% lucerne (pelleted); (2) 50% hay, 30% barley, 9% fishmeal and 10% molasses; (3) 72% straw, 7% molasses and 20% molassed sugarbeet pulp; and (4) 97% barley. Measurements were made for 1 week after a 2-week adaptation period. Urine was collected daily on days 1–4 and hourly on days 5–7. Hourly urine collection was achieved using a fraction collector. Plasma samples were collected hourly from 09·00 to 17·00 h on day 4. Feed intake varied considerably (347–1718 g DM/day) between diets and between animals. Daily excretion of PD (7·1–22·6 mmol/day) was linearly related to DM intake (r = 0·85, n = 16), and so was the microbial N supply (3·9–19·5 g N/day) estimated from daily PD excretion (r = 0·87). In hourly urine samples, the ratio of PD:creatinine concentrations showed no significant difference between sampling times, and was linearlycorrelated with the daily PD excretion (r = 0·92). Similarly, plasma PD concentration also showed little diurnal fluctuation. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased with feed intake. Plasma PD was not well correlated with daily PD excretion in urine (r = 0·57). The tubular load of PD (plasma PD × GFR) was better correlated with the daily excretion (r = 0·80). It appears that when sheep are fed ad libitum, PD in spot urine may provide a practical indicator of microbial protein supply status.
The trapping capability of Arthrobotrys oligospora and A. conoides (Hyphomycetales) against third stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylidae) was evaluated in an in vitro trial. Arthrobotrys oligospora showed a 35.87% and 25.71% trapping effectiveness against H. contortus infective larvae at 18 and 25°C, respectively; whereas the trapping capability of A. conoides was 92.17% and 90.40% at the same temperatures, respectively. Microscopic examination demonstrated that A. conoides spontaneously developed a large quantity of three-dimensional loops before the nematodes were added. Neither of the two species studied developed three-dimensional adhesive loops at 30°C, consequently no trapped nematode was observed. In a second trial, the trapping capability of A. conoides against H. contortus (L3) and second stage larvae (J2) of Nacobbus aberrans (Pratylenchidae), was evaluated at 25°C. The trapping capability shown by A. conoides was higher than 90% for both kinds of nematode. The possible use of A. conoides to control ovine haemonchosis is discussed.
In ruminants, daily urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) reflects the absorption of microbial purines and can be used as an index of microbial protein supply (Chen, Ørskov and Hovell, 1991). The application could be extended to farm conditions if measurements based on spot urine samples or plasma could serve as an alternative index. The objective of this study was to examine whether PD concentrations in spot urine or plasma samples vary diurnally during a given feeding regime and if they reflect differences in daily PD excretion induced by varying feed intake.
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