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Aurochs played a prominent role in mortuary and feasting practices during the Neolithic transition in south-west Asia, although evidence of these practices is diverse and regionally varied. This article considers a new concentration of aurochs bones from the southern Levantine Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Kfar HaHoresh, situating it in a regional context through a survey of aurochs remains from other sites. Analysis shows a change in the regional pattern once animal domestication began from an emphasis on feasting to small-scale practices. These results reveal a widely shared practice of symbolic cattle use that persisted over a long period, but shifted with the beginning of animal management across the region.
Six radio telescopes were operated as the first southern hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 Ghz. This array produced VLBI images of 28 southern hemisphere radio sources, high accuracy VLBI geodesy between southern hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination −45 degrees. This paper discusses only the astrophysical aspects of the experiment.
VLBI observations of the nucleus of Centaurus A were made in April, 1982 at two frequencies with an array of five Australian radio antennas as part of the Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE). Observations were undertaken at 2.29 GHz with all five antennas, while only two were operational at 8.42 GHz. The 2.29 GHz data yielded significant information on the structure of the nuclear jet. At 8.42 GHz a compact unresolved core was detected as well.
A short-pulse, long-wavelength radio-echo sounder has successfully measured the ice depth on the South Cascade Glacier. Depths up to 250 m were determined with resolution of about 5%. Bottom returns were clear and almost never ambiguous. Their accuracy was confirmed by comparison with hot-point drilling results. The secret for successful sounding in temperate glaciers is the use of a sufficiently low center frequency. Five megahertz was most successful. Tests at 15 MHz indicated an increase in coherent clutter which rendered the bottom return observable only with prior knowledge of its location. The cause of the clutter is probably water-filled voids in the ice which behave as Rayleigh scatterers.
The sounding system consists of an avalanche-transistor transmitter, which delivers a pulse to an acute-angle crossed-wire antenna. The pulse is shaped and given its center-frequency characteristics by the resonant properties of the antenna. The transmitting and receiving antennas are identical, consisting of wires and lumped resistors. The resistors reduce antennas ringing, thereby maintaining as short a pulse as possible. The receiver consists of an oscilloscope and a Polaroid camera. No preamplification is required for depths up to 250 m, but may be necessary for deeper glaciers.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Two important factors for understanding the physical nature of compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources are determining the correct radio morphological classification of these objects together with their characteristics in wavebands different from the radio (Fanti et al. 1995, A&A, 302, 317). Seven CSS sources (linear dimensions < 30kpc for Ho = 50 kms–1Mpc–1 and α > 0.5, S ≃ v–α) have been found in a complete sample of strong southern radio sources. This group of CSS sources is particularly interesting because some optical and X-ray information is already available as part of a more general study of southern radio sources (Morganti et al. & Siebert et al. these Proceedings). The spectra of all the sources were presented in Tadhunter et al. (1993, MNRAS, 263, 999.) Here we present VLBI observations for three of these sources (0252-71, 1306-09 and 1814-63). The remaining four have already been imaged with VLBI (King et al. these Proceedings).
We are using the VSOP space VLBI mission to observe a complete sample of Pearson-Readhead survey sources at 4.8 GHz to determine core brightness temperatures and pc-scale jet properties. To date we have imaged 27 of the 31 objects in our sample. Our preliminary results show that the majority of objects contain strong core components that remain unresolved on baselines of 30,000 km. The brightness temperatures of several cores significantly exceed 1012 K, which is indicative of highly relativistically beamed emission. We also find that core brightness temperature is correlated with intraday variability in compact AGNs.
We outline the HALCA Space VLBI mission scheduling process, with special emphasis placed on software that decides when to observe the proposed sources and how to ensure that the highest quality science is obtained. This information will be useful to the many principal investigators whose very high resolution VLBI observations are being supported by the mission.
We present high-resolution radio observations of the second Galactic superluminal radio source GRO1655-40, which was detected as an X-ray transient on 1994 July 27. Our radio radio images reveal two components moving away from each other at an angular speed of 65±5 mas/day, corresponding to superluminal motion (υ/c = 1.4 ± 0.4) at the estimated distance of 3–5 kpc. The 12-day delay between the X-ray and radio outbursts suggests that the ejection of material at relativistic speeds occurs during a stable phase of accretion onto a black hole, which follows an unstable phase with a high accretion rate. A complete description and discussion of these observations can be found in Tingay et al 1995 (Nature, 374, pp 141–143).
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
The recent observations of atomic oxygen and carbon in the far ultraviolet spectrum of Comet Kohoutek (1973f) (Feldman et al. 1974; Opal et al. 1974) have demonstrated the existence of these atomic species in the cometary coma. However, in order to identify the source of their origin, it is necessary to relate the observed ultraviolet flux to the atomic production rate. Assuming the only excitation mechanisms allowed are those produced by resonance scattering and fluorescence of solar ultraviolet radiation, the problem reduces to finding the emission rate factors (g-factors) as a function of the heliocentric comet velocity. Since the widths of the solar emission lines are smaller than the maximum heliocentric Doppler shift, given by
where q is the perihelion distance in A.U., it is necessary to consider the detailed multiplet structure of the transition, the solar line shape and the relaxation of excited fine structure levels.
To our knowledge, there are no universal screening tools for substance dependence that (1) were developed using a population-based sample, (2) estimate total risk briefly and inexpensively by incorporating a relatively small number of well-established risk factors, and (3) aggregate risk factors using a simple algorithm. We created a universal screening tool that incorporates these features to identify adolescents at risk for persistent substance dependence in adulthood.
Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972–1973 and followed prospectively to age 38 years, with 95% retention. We assessed a small set of childhood and adolescent risk factors: family history of substance dependence, childhood psychopathology (conduct disorder, depression), early exposure to substances, frequent substance use in adolescence, sex, and childhood socioeconomic status. We defined the outcome (persistent substance dependence in adulthood) as dependence on one or more of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or hard drugs at ⩾3 assessment ages: 21, 26, 32, and 38 years.
A cumulative risk index, a simple sum of nine childhood and adolescent risk factors, predicted persistent substance dependence in adulthood with considerable accuracy (AUC = 0.80).
A cumulative risk score can accurately predict which adolescents in the general population will develop persistent substance dependence in adulthood.
Precipitation of amorphous silica (SiO2) in geothermal power plants, although a common factor limiting the efficiency of geothermal energy production, is poorly understood and no universally applicable mitigation strategy to prevent or reduce precipitation is available. This is primarily due to the lack of understanding of the precipitation mechanism of amorphous silica in geothermal systems.
In the present study data are presented about microstructures and compositions of precipitates formed on scaling plates inserted at five different locations in the pipelines at the Hellisheiði power station (SW-Iceland). Precipitates on these plates formed over 6 to 8 weeks of immersion in hot (120 or 60ºC), fast-flowing and silica-supersaturated geothermal fluids (~800 ppm of SiO2). Although the composition of the precipitates is fairly homogeneous, with silica being the dominant component and Fe sulfides as a less common phase, the microstructures of the precipitates are highly variable and dependent on the location within the geothermal pipelines. The silica precipitates have grown through aggregation and precipitation of silica particles that precipitated homogeneously in the geothermal fluid. Five main factors were identified that may control the precipitation of silica: (1) temperature, (2) fluid composition, (3) fluid-flow regime, (4) distance along the flow path, and (5) immersion time.
On all scaling plates, a corrosion layer was found underlying the silica precipitates indicating that, once formed, the presence of a silica layer probably protects the steel pipe surface against further corrosion. Yet silica precipitates influence the flow of the geothermal fluids and therefore can limit the efficiency of geothermal power stations.
The histology of a femur of Plagiosuchus, a Middle Triassic temnospondyl amphibian, is described on the basis of two supplementary methods: classic thin sectioning and micro-CT scanning. In addition, the effectiveness of high-resolution micro-CT scanning for histological analysis is assessed. A classic, mid-shaft thin section of the femur was prepared, but prior to slicing two micro-CT scans were made. One of these has an image stack of a total of 1,024 images in the horizontal plane and a slice thickness of 87.8 μm, so that the entire bone could be captured, while the second was at mid-shaft region only, yet with a higher resolution of 28.3 μm and an image stack of 787 images in the horizontal plane. The classic thin section shows a very small medullary region which is surrounded by a layer of endosteal bone. The thick cortex is highly porous with numerous large, mainly longitudinal, vascular canals arranged in layers. In the deepest cortex woven bone occurs and primary osteons had locally started to form (incipient fibro-lamellar bone), which gradually passes into parallel-fibred bone and more lamellar bone close to the outer surface. Remains of a Kastschenko line were identified, enabling a reconstruction of the entire growth record. Five Lines of Arrested Growth (LAG) could be counted. The micro-CT scan enabled observations of the ontogenetic growth stages and calculation of growth rate on the basis of a single specimen. The micro-CT scan permitted a reconstruction of the ontogenetic development and the exact deposition rate per annum. Moreover, at higher resolution the micro-CT scan revealed data on micro-anatomical characters, such as porosity and skeletochronology (growth mark count). In conclusion, micro-CT scans do provide an alternative in cases where thin sectioning of the original bone is not possible.
Invasive parasites are of great global concern. Understanding the factors influencing the spread of invading pest species is a first step in developing effective countermeasures. Growing empirical evidence suggests that spread rates are essentially influenced by spatiotemporal dynamics of host–parasite interactions, yet approaches modelling spread rate have typically assumed static environmental conditions. We analysed invasion history of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) in Finland with a diffusion–reaction model, which assumed either the movement rate, the population growth rate, or both rates may depend on spatial and temporal distribution of moose (Alces alces), the main host of deer ked. We fitted the model to the data in a Bayesian framework, and used the Bayesian information criterion to show that accounting for the variation in local moose density improved the model's ability to describe the pattern of the invasion. The highest ranked model predicted higher movement rate and growth rate of deer ked with increasing moose density. Our results suggest that the historic increase in host density has facilitated the spread of the deer ked. Our approach illustrates how information about the ecology of an invasive species can be extracted from the spatial pattern of spread even with rather limited data.