To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Overweight and obesity may increase risk of disease progression in men with prostate cancer, but there have been few studies of weight loss interventions in this patient group. In this study overweight or obese men treated for prostate cancer were randomised to a self-help diet and activity intervention with telephone-based dietitian support or a wait-list mini-intervention group. The intervention group had an initial group meeting, a supporting letter from their urological consultant, three telephone dietitian consultations at 4-week intervals, a pedometer and access to web-based diet and physical activity resources. At 12 weeks, men in both groups were given digital scales for providing follow-up weight measurements, and the wait-list group received a mini-intervention of the supporting letter, a pedometer and access to the web-based resources. Sixty-two men were randomised; fifty-four completed baseline and 12-week measurements, and fifty-one and twenty-seven provided measurements at 6 and 12 months, respectively. In a repeated-measures model, mean difference in weight change between groups (wait-list mini-intervention minus intervention) at 12 weeks was −2·13 (95 % CI −3·44, −0·82) kg (P = 0·002). At 12 months the corresponding value was −2·43 (95 % CI −4·50, −0·37) kg (P = 0·022). Mean difference in global quality of life score change between groups at 12 weeks was 12·3 (95 % CI 4·93, 19·7) (P = 0·002); at 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. Results suggest the potential of self-help diet and physical activity intervention with trained support for modest but sustained weight loss in this patient group.
An 8-cm optical telescope is constructed for use at the south pole. It is designed to make photoelectric observations of selected stars continuously through an austral winter. The automated operation is controlled by a computer. The aim is to study the variability of the star γ2 Velorum as well as the condition of the polar sky and the performance of the instrument.
We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of as-prepared and rapid thermal oxynitride films on C+ implanted solid phase epitaxially grown SiC. The oxynitride was grown using N2O. The C concentration of the samples was estimated to be 1, 2 and 5 at. %. From the infrared spectra, samples with 1 and 2 at. % carbon showed that the carbon was substitutionally incorporated into the silicon. No precipitation of SiC was detected. However, for the 5 at. % C sample, some precipitation was observed as indicated by a broad peak at ∼800 cm−1. The oxynitride films showed the Si-O-Si stretching mode at ∼1100 cm−1. The shoulder at 980–1067 cm−1 was due to the O-Si-N bond. The peak at 830 cm−1 was due to the Si-N and Si-C bonds and C-O complex vibrational mode was observed at 663 cm−1. Electrical characterization of the oxynitride films was carried out using the MOS capacitor structure. The interface state density was found to range between 5.7×1011 to 3.35×1012 cm−2eV−1 and increased with an increase in the C concentration. The electrical breakdown field was found to be in the range of 5–7 MV cm−1 and reduced with an increase in C concentration. The charge-to-breakdown value was measured and decreased with an increase in C concentration.
A rapid thermal processor has been used for the study of epitaxial silicon growth. Without the need for UHV conditions, bulk contamination levels of oxygen and carbon have been reduced to 5E17 cm−3, at a growth temperature of 750°C. In-situ cleans have been assessed as substrate preparation techniques. High temperature H cleans can reduce interfacial doses of both oxygen and carbon to below 5E13 cm−2. I-owever, low temperature cleaning, using a remote fluorine-based plasma, has as yet only achieved oxygen and carbon doses of 5E14 cm−2 and 3E15 cm−2 respectively. Minority carrier lifetimes of a few micro seconds and electron carrier concentrations of about 1E15 cm−3 are typical for undoped films grown at 750°C. In-situ doping with phosphine has also been employed. Typical doping levels of 5E19 cm−3 uniformly distributed throughout the layers have been achieved. The phosphorus is electrically active in the as-grown film with typical carrier mobility estimated to be 104 cm2v−1s−1.
The potential for outbreaks of epidemic disease among displaced residents was a significant public health concern in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In response, the Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) and the American Red Cross (ARC) implemented a novel infectious disease surveillance system, in the form of a telephone “hotline”, to detect and rapidly respond to health threats in shelters.
All ARC-managed shelters in Mississippi were included in the surveillance system. A symptom-based, case reporting method was developed and distributed to shelter staff, who were linked with MDH and ARC professionals by a toll-free telephone service. Hotline staff investigated potential infectious disease outbreaks, provided assistance to shelter staff regarding optimal patient care, and helped facilitate the evaluation of ill evacuees by local medical personnel.
Forty-three shelters sheltering 3,520 evacuees participated in the program. Seventeen shelters made 29 calls notifying the hotline of the following cases: (1) fever (6 cases); (2) respiratory infections (37 cases); (3) bloody diarrhea (2 cases); (4) watery diarrhea (15 cases); and (5) other, including rashes (33 cases). Thirty-four of these patients were referred to a local physician or hospital for further diagnosis and disease management. Three cases of chickenpox were identified. No significant infectious disease outbreaks occurred and no deaths were reported.
The surveillance system used direct verbal communication between shelter staff and hotline managers to enable more rapid reporting, mapping, investigation, and intervention, far beyond the capabilities of a more passive or paper-based system. It also allowed for immediate feedback and education for staff unfamiliar with the diseases and reporting process. Replication of this program should be considered during future disasters when health surveillance of a large, disseminated shelter population is necessary.
Health care providers and their legal counsel play pivotal roles in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. Lawyers representing hospitals, health systems, and other health care provider components are being called upon to answer complex legal questions regarding public health preparedness issues that most providers have not previously faced. Many of these issues are legal issues with which public health officials should be familiar, and that can serve as a starting point for cross-sector legal preparedness planning involving both the public health and health care communities. This article examines legal issues that health care providers face in preparing for public health emergencies, and steps that providers, their legal counsel, and others can take to address those issues and to strengthen community preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2008;2:50–56)
David McNeill, Departments of Psychology and Linguistics, University of Chicago,
Susan D. Duncan, Departments of Psychology, University of Chicago; Laboratory for Cognitive Neuropsychology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei
Many bilingual speakers believe they engage in different forms of thinking when they shift languages. This experience of entering different thought worlds can be explained with the hypothesis that languages induce different forms of ‘thinking-for-speaking’ – thinking generated, as Slobin (1987) says, because of the requirements of a linguistic code. “‘Thinking for speaking’ involves picking those characteristics that (a) fit some conceptualization of the event, and (b) are readily encodable in the language” (p. 435). That languages differ in their thinking-for-speaking demands is a version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, the proposition that language influences thought and that different languages influence thought in different ways.
Thinking-for-speaking differs from the so-called strong Whorfian version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, as we understand it. The latter (Whorf 1956; Lucy & Wertsch 1987; Lucy 1992a, b) refers to general, langue-wide patterns of ‘habitual thought’, patterns that, according to the hypothesis, are embodied in the forms of the language and analogies among them. The thinking-for-speaking hypothesis, in contrast, refers to how speakers organize their thinking to meet the demands of linguistic encoding on-line, during acts of speaking – what Saussure (1959) termed parole rather than langue. The thinking-for-speaking version and the Whorfian version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis are not mutually exclusive, but neither are they identical. The distinction between them parallels the characterization of Whorf as ‘synchronic’ compared with Vygotsky (1987) as ‘diachronic’ that was offered by Lucy & Wertsch (1987). Following them, we will regard the thinking-for-speaking hypothesis as having a diachronic focus on thinking rather than a synchronic focus on habitual thought.