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Stratigraphic records extending to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (57,000–29,000 cal yr BP) or older in Beringia are extremely rare. Three stratigraphic sections in interior western Alaska show near continuous sedimentological and environmental progressions extending from at least MIS 3, if not older, through MIS 1 (14,000 cal yr BP–present). The Kolmakof, Sue Creek, and VABM (vertical angle bench mark) Kuskokwim sections along the central Kuskokwim River, once a highland landscape at the fringe of central and eastern Beringia, contain aeolian deposition and soil sequences dating beyond 50,000 14C yr BP. Thick peaty soil, shallow lacustrine, and tephra deposits represent the MIS 3 interstade (or older). Sand sheet and loess deposits, wedge cast development, and very thin soil development mark the later MIS 3 period and the transition into the MIS 2 stade (29,000–14,000 cal yr BP). Loess accumulation with thicker soil development occurred between ~16,000–13,500 cal yr BP at the MIS 2 and MIS 1 transition. After ~13,500 cal yr BP, loess accumulation waned and peat development increased throughout MIS 1. These stratigraphic sequences represent transitions between a warm and moist period during MIS 3, to a cooler and more arid period during MIS 2, then a return to warmer and moister climates in MIS 1.
In recent years, soybean acreage has increased significantly in western Canada. One of the challenges associated with growing soybean in western Canada is the control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola, as the majority of soybean cultivars are also glyphosate resistant. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of soybean seeding rate and planting date on competition with volunteer canola. We also attempted to determine how high seeding rate could be raised while still being economically feasible for producers. Soybean was seeded at five different seeding rates (targeted 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 plants m-2) and three planting dates (targeted mid-May, late May, and early June) at four sites across western Canada in 2014 and 2015. Soybean yield consistently increased with higher seeding rates, while volunteer canola biomass decreased. Planting date generally produced variable results across site-years. An economic analysis determined that the optimal rate was 40 to 60 plants m-2 depending on market price, while the optimal planting date range was from May 20th to June 1st.
Limited data exist for management of hyperuricemia in non-oncologic patients, particularly in paediatric cardiac patients. Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for acute kidney injury and may prompt treatment in critically ill patients. The primary objective was to determine if rasburicase use was associated with greater probability normalisation of serum uric acid compared to allopurinol. Secondary outcomes included percent reduction in uric acid, changes in serum creatinine, and cost of therapy.
A single-centre retrospective chart review.
A 20-bed quaternary cardiovascular ICU in a university-based paediatric hospital in California.
Patients admitted to cardiovascular ICU who received rasburicase or intravenous allopurinol between 2015 and 2016.
Measurements and main results:
Data from a cohort of 14 patients receiving rasburicase were compared to 7 patients receiving IV allopurinol. Patients who were administered rasburicase for hyperuricemia were more likely to have a post-treatment uric acid level less than 8 mg/dl as compared to IV allopurinol (100 versus 43%; p = 0.0058). Patients who received rasburicase had a greater absolute reduction in post-treatment day 1 uric acid (−9 mg/dl versus −1.9 mg/dl; p = 0.002). There were no differences in post-treatment day 3 or day 7 serum creatinine or time to normalisation of serum creatinine. The cost of therapy normalised to a 20 kg patient was greater in the allopurinol group ($18,720 versus $1928; p = 0.001).
In a limited paediatric cardiac cohort, the use of rasburicase was associated with a greater reduction in uric acid levels and associated with a lower cost compared to IV allopurinol.
Introduction: Needle-related procedures are considered the most important source of pain and distress in children in hospital settings. Time constraints, heavy workload, busy and noisy environment represent barriers to the use of available interventions for pain management during needle-related procedures. Therefore, the use of a rapid, easy-to-use intervention could improve procedural pain management practices. The objective was to determine if a device combining cold and vibration (Buzzy) is non-inferior (no worse) to a topical anesthetic (Maxilene) for pain management in children undergoing needle-related procedures in the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial. We enrolled children aged between 4-17 years presenting to the ED and requiring a needle-related procedure. Participants were randomly assigned to the Buzzy or Maxilene group. The primary outcome was the mean difference in pain intensity during the procedure, as measured with the CAS (0-10). Secondary outcomes were procedural distress, success of the procedure at first-attempt and satisfaction of parents. Results: A total of 352 participants were enrolled and 346 were randomized (Buzzy = 172; Maxilene = 174). Mean difference in procedural pain scores between groups was 0.64 (95%CI -0.1 to 1.3), showing that the Buzzy device was not non-inferior to Maxilene according to a non-inferiority margin of 0.70. No significant differences were observed for procedural distress (p = .370) and success of the procedure at first attempt (p = .602). Parents of both groups were very satisfied with both interventions (Buzzy = 7.8 ±2.66; Maxilene = 8.1 ±2.4), but there was no significant difference between groups (p = .236). Conclusion: Non-inferiority of the Buzzy device over a topical anesthetic was not demonstrated for pain management of children during a needle-related procedure in the ED. However, considering that topical anesthetics are underused in the ED setting and require time, the Buzzy device seems to be a promising alternative as it is a rapid, low-cost, easy-to-use and reusable intervention.
Psychological risk factors that lead to impaired work performance, negatively impacting mental and physical health, have emerged as a concern across clinical settings. Although depression and anxiety are linked to poor physician mental health, physician burnout characterized by work related stress due to chronic exhaustion from clinical work, cynicism toward meaning of the medical profession, and feelings of inadequacy toward work related accomplishments, may be an even stronger indicator of well-being. Literature suggests that work satisfaction among physicians is rapidly deteriorating owing to high rates of burn out and poor mental health. Although the relationship between work burnout (WB) and negative affectivity has been well documented, the association with positive affect, such as trait forgiveness (TF) has been overlooked. On that note, research shows that lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness predict worse mental and physical health. Since TF has been linked strongly with healthy workplace relationships, positive occupational outcomes and general well-being, its association with WB remains to be investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the link between TF and WB among physicians. We hypothesized that TF would be associated with reduced levels of burnout.
A total of 62 (F=23) medical residents at a Teaching Hospital consented for the study. Residents were administered surveys on WB (Maslach BurnoutInventory), workplace bullying, personal bullying (PB), interpersonal rejection sensitivity (IRS), perceived stress scale (PSS), TF, anxiety, and depression, all of which were anonymously submitted via electronically. Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) models were used to determine the associations between WB, work environment social factors and TF. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
The mean age 33.1±SD 4.2 years. HMR analysis using WB as main outcome contained 6 predictors: Model 1 contained depression and anxiety, Model 2 added PB, Model 3 added IRS and PSS, Model 4 added TF. Anxiety and TF were the only significant predictors (p= >0.05) accounting for 10.4% and 17.5% of the variance in WB scores, respectively.
The novel finding of the present study is that TF was associated with low levels of burnout. Additionally, WB was found to be linked to anxiety and depression which is in line with previous research. These data suggest that TF could be a potential resolution to the deleterious influence of burnout. Further exploration is needed in order to understand the psychology of forgiveness as a potential adjuvant and/or therapeutic intervention for physicians’ burnout. These results suggest that strategies including forgiveness training aimed at decreasing WB while increasing job satisfaction among physicians warrant further exploration.
Nearly 800,000 primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures are performed annually in North America. Approximately 1% of these are complicated by a complex surgical site infection (SSI), leading to very high healthcare costs. However, population-based studies to properly estimate the economic burden are lacking. We aimed to address this knowledge gap.
Economic burden study.
Using administrative health and clinical databases, we created a cohort of all patients in Alberta, Canada, who received a primary hip or knee arthroplasty between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015. All patients who developed a complex SSI postoperatively were identified through a provincial infection prevention and control database. A combination of corporate microcosting data and gross costing methods were used to determine total mean 12- and 24-month costs, enabling comparison of costs between the infected and noninfected patients.
Mean 12-month total costs were significantly greater in patients who developed a complex SSI compared to those who did not (CAD$95,321 [US$68,150] vs CAD$19,893 [US$14,223]; P < .001). The magnitude of the cost difference persisted even after controlling for underlying patient factors. The most commonly identified causative pathogen (38%) was Staphylococcus aureus (95% MSSA).
Complex SSIs following hip and knee arthroplasty lead to high healthcare costs, which are expected to rise as the yearly number of surgeries increases. Using our costing estimates, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to prevent SSIs should be investigated.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described.
To determine current ED involvement in children’s hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs.
A cross-sectional survey of 37 children’s hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution. Items assessed included beliefs regarding ED antibiotic prescribing, ED prescribing resources, ASP methods used in the ED such as clinical decision support and clinical care guidelines, ED participation in ASP activities, and preferred methods for ED-based ASP implementation.
A total of 36 ASP leaders (97.3%) and 32 ED directors (86.5%) responded; the overall response rate was 91.9%. Most ASP leaders (97.8%) and ED directors (93.7%) agreed that creation of ED-based ASPs was necessary. ED resources for antibiotic prescribing were obtained via the Internet or electronic health records (EHRs) for 29 hospitals (81.3%). The main ASP activities for the ED included production of antibiograms (77.8%) and creation of clinical care guidelines for pneumonia (83.3%). The ED was represented on 3 hospital ASP committees (8.3%). No hospital ASPs actively monitored outpatient ED prescribing. Most ASP leaders (77.8%) and ED directors (81.3%) preferred implementation of ED-based ASPs using clinical decision support integrated into the EHR.
Although ED involvement in ASPs is limited, both ASP and ED leaders believe that ED-based ASPs are necessary. Many children’s hospitals have the capability to implement ED-based ASPs via the preferred method: EHR clinical decision support.
Introduction: Multiples barriers to appropriate analgesia are reported in the paediatric emergency department (PED), including limited accessibility to effective strategies. Our objective: was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of pain and anxiety management strategies in Canadian PEDs, after the creation of a national pediatric pain Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC), through Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC). Methods: In 2013, the TRAPPED 1 survey was administered to Canadian PEDs, in order to evaluate what resources were in place for pain and anxiety management. A pain QIC was then created to stimulate the implementation of new strategies, through information sharing between PEDs. In 2015, the TRAPPED 2 cross sectional survey was administered. Its focus was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of specific strategies reported by each centre, after participating in this QIC, and working to implement change within their own PEDs. Results: All 15/15 Canadian PEDs responded to the TRAPPED 1 survey in 2013 and 11 agreed to participate in the national pain QIC. In-person, phone meetings, follow up surveys and email communications were employed for information sharing. Strategies identified by the QIC to be newly introduced in individual centres were educational initiatives, distraction options, nurse-initiated protocols and intranasal (IN) medications. All 15 PEDs completed the TRAPPED 2 survey. Compared to 2013, an increased number of PEDs used face-based pain scales (14/15 vs 6/15) and behavioural scales (5/15 vs 1/15) for pain assessment in 2015. Use of reminder posters on pain management at triage increased from 4/15 to 6/15 PEDs. Availability of tablets for distraction increased from 4/15 to 10/15 PEDs. Nurse-initiated protocols for topical anesthetic and oral sucrose (for needle procedures) increased from 10/15 to 12/15 sites and from 12/15 to 14/15 sites respectively. Availability of IN medications increased; fentanyl from 9/15 to 14/15 sites and midazolam from 8/15 to 10/15 sites. Ten of the 11 PEDs involved in the QIC strategy reported the implementation of at least one of their own identified strategies. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of a QIC may improve the introduction of new strategies to reduce pain and anxiety in EDs. QICs may also be helpful to other centres when introducing new strategies.
After 21 years the Parkes radio telescope has undergone a major refit. A new VAX-11/750 running VMS has replaced the aged Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-9 computer. Other new equipment includes two systems not previously available — the Mk II RING communication system (Willing and Abies 1983) and the ‘observer workstations’.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005–2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.
Abuse or unintended overdose (OD) of opiates and heroin may result in prehospital and emergency department (ED) care. Prehospital naloxone use has been suggested as a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs. The study objective was to verify externally whether prehospital naloxone use is a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs by comparing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) naloxone administration records to an independent database of ED visits for opiate and heroin ODs in the same community.
A retrospective chart review of prehospital and ED data from July 2009 through June 2013 was conducted. Prehospital naloxone administration data obtained from the electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large private EMS provider serving a metropolitan area were considered a surrogate marker for suspected opiate OD. Comparison data were obtained from the regional trauma/psychiatric ED that receives the majority of the OD patients. The ED maintains a de-identified database of narcotic-related visits for surveillance of narcotic use in the metropolitan area. The ED database was queried for ODs associated with opiates or heroin. Cross-correlation analysis was used to test if prehospital naloxone administration was independent of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs.
Naloxone was administered during 1,812 prehospital patient encounters, and 1,294 ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs were identified. The distribution of patients in the prehospital and ED datasets did not differ by gender, but it did differ by race and age. The frequency of naloxone administration by prehospital providers varied directly with the frequency of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs. A monthly increase of two ED visits for opiate-related ODs was associated with an increase in one prehospital naloxone administration (cross-correlation coefficient [CCF]=0.44; P=.0021). A monthly increase of 100 ED visits for heroin-related ODs was associated with an increase in 94 prehospital naloxone administrations (CCF=0.46; P=.0012).
Frequency of naloxone administration by EMS providers in the prehospital setting varied directly with frequency of opiate/heroin OD-related ED visits. The data correlated both for short-term frequency and longer term trends of use. However, there was a marked difference in demographic data suggesting neither data source alone should be relied upon to determine which populations are at risk within the community.
LindstromHA, ClemencyBM, SnyderR, ConsiglioJD, MayPR, MoscatiRM. Prehospital Naloxone Administration as a Public Health Surveillance Tool: A Retrospective Validation Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(4):1–5.
Needle thoracostomy is the prehospital treatment for tension pneumothorax. Sufficient catheter length is necessary for procedural success. The authors of this study determined minimum catheter length needed for procedural success on a percentile basis.
A meta-analysis of existing studies was conducted. A Medline search was performed using the search terms: needle decompression, needle thoracentesis, chest decompression, pneumothorax decompression, needle thoracostomy, and tension pneumothorax. Studies were included if they published a sample size, mean chest wall thickness, and a standard deviation or confidence interval. A PubMed search was performed in a similar fashion. Sample size, mean chest wall thickness, and standard deviation were found or calculated for each study. Data were combined to create a pooled dataset. Normal distribution of data was assumed. Procedural success was defined as catheter length being equal to or greater than the chest wall thickness.
The Medline and PubMed searches yielded 773 unique studies; all study abstracts were reviewed for possible inclusion. Eighteen papers were identified for full manuscript review. Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled sample statistics were: n=2,558; mean=4.19 cm; and SD=1.37 cm. Minimum catheter length needed for success at the 95th percentile for chest wall size was found to be 6.44 cm.
A catheter of at least 6.44 cm in length would be required to ensure that 95% of the patients in this pooled sample would have penetration of the pleural space at the site of needle decompression, and therefore, a successful procedure. These findings represent Level III evidence.
ClemencyBM, TanskiCT, RosenbergM, MayPR, ConsiglioJD, LindstromHA. Sufficient Catheter Length for Pneumothorax Needle Decompression: A Meta-Analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):15
Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8–16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE−, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–13)