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The U.S. Science Plan for Deep Ice Coring in West Antarctica calls for two ice cores to be collected. the first of these cores, from Siple Dome, was completed during the 1997/98 field season. the second core is to be collected from a site near the divide that separates ice flowing to the Ross Sea and to the Amundsen Sea.Using high-resolution, grid-based aerogeophysical surveys of the Ross/Amundsen ice-divide region, we identify seven candidate sites and assess their suitability for deep coring. We apply ice-flow and temperature calculations to predict time-scales and annual-layer resolution, and to assess the potential for basal melting for several selected sites. We conclude that basal melting is likely for sites with very thick ice, as was observed at the Byrd core site. Nevertheless, these sites are most attractive for coring since they promise recovery of a long climate record with comparatively high time resolution during the last glacial period.
We have developed a system for measuring a vertical strain-rate profile in the firn on polar ice sheets using a readily available video camera to detect metal bands inserted in an air-filled hole. We used this system in 1995 and 1996 at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. We use density measurements combined with our strain rates to infer vertical velocities. From our velocities we calculate a steady-state depth–age scale for the firn at Taylor Dome. The age of a visible ash layer from 79.1 m is 675 ± 25 years; this ash can be correlated with ash found at 97.2 m in a recent ice core at Siple Dome, West Antarctica.
The spatial pattern of accumulation rate can be inferred from internal layers in glaciers and ice sheets. Non-dimensional analysis determines where finite strain can be neglected (‘shallow-layer approximation’) or approximated with a local one-dimensional flow model (‘local-layer approximation’), and where gradients in strain rate along particle paths must be included (‘deep layers’). We develop a general geophysical inverse procedure to infer the spatial pattern of accumulation rate along a steady-state flowband, using measured topography of the ice-sheet surface, bed and a ‘deep layer’. A variety of thermomechanical ice-flow models can be used in the forward problem to calculate surface topography and ice velocity, which are used to calculate particle paths and internal-layer shapes. An objective tolerance criterion prevents over-fitting the data. After making site-specific simplifications in the thermomechanical flow algorithm, we find the accumulation rate along a flowband through Taylor Mouth, a flank site on Taylor Dome, Antarctica, using a layer at approximately 100 m depth, or 20% of the ice thickness. Accumulation rate correlates with ice-surface curvature. At this site, gradients along flow paths critically impact inference of both the accumulation pattern, and the depth-age relation in a 100 m core.
Knowledge of ice flow and strain rate in the vicinity of the Taylor Dome (East Antarctica) ice-core site enhances interpretation of the paleoclimate information from the ice core. We measured surface ice motion by repeated optical and GPS surveys of a network of 253 markers. We developed a robust data reduction method that uses least squares based on singular value decomposition, to simultaneously calculate positions and velocities of these markers in a geocentric coordinate system. Constrained by these surface velocities, we used a finite-element model to compute the modern ice velocity field at depth. As the geometry of Taylor Dome appears to have been steady through the Holocene, we used particle paths from a steady-state model to track ice particles to the ice core from their points of origin on the surface. By removing the effects of path-dependent vertical strain, we derived past accumulation rates at the origin points of those particle paths from measured layer thicknesses in the ice core. Comparison with accumulation rates estimated from concentrations of 10Be and SO4 in the core suggests that significant amounts of snow were lost by wind scouring during the Last Glacial Maximum and at ~50kyr BP.
For the past 9 years we have been monitoring the radial velocities of 13 blue stragglers in the old open cluster M67. For the 9 blue stragglers with rotational velocities no larger than about 100 km s−1 we have used the CfA digital speedometers to measure more than 500 radial velocities. To get reliable velocity correlations we use synthetic rotating templates computed from a grid of Kurucz model atmospheres. Four of the blue stragglers rotate too rapidly to allow successful velocity correlations with the CfA instruments. For three of these we have used a CCD spectrograph at Kitt Peak and similar reduction procedures (Morse et al. 1991.
The brine infiltration zone of Mc Murdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, has been extensively studied by previous authors. Brine percolates inland laterally from the ice front, opposite to the direction of ice-shelf motion. Inland propagation of brine pulses following ice-shelf break-outs appears to be the primary brine-infiltration mechanism. During the 1992-93 field season, we used radio-echo sounding to resurvey the inland limit of the brine-infiltration zone. The boundary had been similarly mapped in 1977. We observed that since the earlier survey, one 7km section his retreated seaward by approximately 800 m while another 5 km section is unchanged. These displacements are consistent with the earlier hypothesis that brine infiltration occurs by the influx of brine pulses
Objectives: We describe a new evidence-based method for screening and evaluating emerging medical technologies. Washington State agencies, under legislative direction, have granted authority to its agency Medical Directors and policy leaders to make coverage decisions on medical technologies using a “dossier” process. The dossier process is employed when technology advocates or manufacturers request Washington State healthcare purchasers to pay for new and emerging technologies. This offers the advocate an opportunity to submit scientific evidence and information classically associated with a more formal health technology assessment.
Methods: The submitted information is independently reviewed and summarized for Washington State's public healthcare purchasers allowing a more standardized coverage decision for all public purchasers in Washington State.
Results: This process has allowed Washington State to make twelve evidence-based coverage decisions at a fraction of the cost of classic technology assessment. To date, of twelve reviews over 6 years, one health technology was approved for coverage, ten were not covered and one did not require a coverage decision.
Conclusions: This evidence-based dossier process has yielded high-value coverage decisions of new and emerging medical technologies for public healthcare purchasers in Washington State.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
In nature, biomolecules guide the formation of hierarchically-ordered, lightweight, inorganic-organic composites such as corals, shells, teeth and bones. M13 bacteriophage has been used to mimic bio-inspired material development due to its rigid, nanoscale rod-like morphology. Liquid-crystalline monolayers of genetically engineered phage have been used to template crystallization of thin layers of inorganic and metallic materials. We have created thin films composed of engineered M13 phage capable of binding inorganic components. We employed both a dip-cast and a drop-cast film fabrication method on both smooth and rough gold, silica and glass casting surfaces to create thin films and 3D structures of various degrees of hierarchical order. We have found the engineered M13 phage and the inorganic mineral significantly affected both film morphology and the mechanical properties of the film. Similarly, film fabrication parameters such as solution chemistry, temperature, and pulling speed affected film properties. Using a calcium phosphate biomineralized 4E phage, film thickness increased linearly with the number of layers/dips in the phage solution. The stiffness of these composites (Young's modulus) were >80 GPa for mineralized, multilayer films. These materials are an order of magnitude stiffer than the biological equivalent collagen. Stiffness, however, does not appear to increase in a multilayer film beyond a saturation point. Ultimately, we have developed a platform for phage-based bio-composites for developing high performance materials.
The characteristics of GaAs layers grown by MBE at growth temperatures from 200 °C to 400 °C have been evaluated by photoconductivity experiments in order to understand the photoelectronic properties of this material. Low temperature (LT) growth of GaAs on both silicon and GaAs substrates has been investigated in an attempt to better understand the nature of defects which are created in epitaxial layers grown under these conditions. Results from experiments on both annealed and unannealed LT samples indicate that the electronic transport properties of the epilayers can be controlled by selecting the appropriate growth conditions.
We have used MBE to grow graded InxGa1−xAs/GaAs superlattices on GaAs substrates as buffers for larger period, constant composition InxGa1−xAs/GaAs superlattices. TEM analysis shows that there are numerous crystal defects associated with the presence of strained layers, but, in many cases, the buffer layers confine these defects to areas outside of the strained-layer superlattices. PIN detectors fabricated from these structures show external quantum efficiencies up to 2.7 %.
Two NDT techniques were used to characterize low-density, microcellular, carbon foams fabricated from a salt replica process. The two techniques are x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ion microtomography (IMT); data are presented on carbon foams that contain high-density regions. The data show that densities which differ by <10% are easily observable for these low density (<100 mg/cm3) materials. The data reveal that the carbon foams produced by this replica process have small density variations; the density being ∼30% greater at the outer edges than when compared to the interior of the foam. In addition, the density gradient is found to be rather sharp, that is the density drops-off rapidly from the outer edges to a uniform one in the interior of the foam. This edge build-up in carbon density was explained in terms of polymer concentrating on the foam exterior during drying which immediately followed a polymer infusion processing step. Supporting analytical data from other techniques show the foam material to be >99.9 % carbon
When aerosol particles are immersed in a gas in which a temperature gradient is present, a force proportional to this gradient moves these particles toward the lower temperature. This is the thermophoretic force.It is responsible for the deposition of aerosol particles in processes employed in the manufacture of gradient index silicon dioxide, germanium dioxide optical fiber preforms.The deposition efficiency is approximately 50%, and in order to increase this efficiency, we have examined the interaction of an absorbing silicon dioxide aerosol with carbon dioxide laser radiation.The resulting temperature profile mirrors the intensity distribution, since the aerosol temperature is proportional to the local laser intensity.The absorbed radiation thus creates a temperature gradient that results in additional thermophoretic and convective motion. A simple model of laser-induced buoyant convection and thermophoresis is presented, and it is shown how deposition efficiency can be increased with laser radiation.Theoretical and preliminary experimental results are discussed.
Significant developments have occurred in the technology of room-temperature PbI2 nuclear sensors which lead to some improvements in the detection of high energy gamma-rays. Discussion of crystal growth, purification, monitoring purification, and detector processing are reviewed as they relate to device performance.
The Ion Micro-Analysis Group (IMAG) in Livermore conducts quantitative trace elemental analysis with PIXE and depth profiling with IBS using an MeV ion microbeam. The system has the capability to produce two-dimensional trace element and IBS images. PIXE analyses have been conducted on HgI2 and PbI2 crystals and detector materials in order to identify and quantify near surface trace contaminants. IBS measurements have been conducted to investigate elemental depth distributions in various materials. The results of measurements on several different samples are reported and a discussion of factors affecting quantitative in vacuo microanalysis of these materials is presented.
Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodiodes fabricated from low temperature (LT) grown GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy have been characterized for wavelengths extending out to 1.5μm. External quantum efficiencies on the order of 0.5 % have been measured for subbandgap wavelengths, which translates to internal quantum efficiencies of 2–4 % for the interdigitated electrode structure with lμm finger spacing and width. Although the effective lifetime of the LT-GaAs has been determined to be <1ps, an MSM photodiode response of ∼10ps full width at half maximum was measured by correlation techniques at 820 nm wavelength, and a system limited response of 3GHz was measured at 1.3 μm wavelength. These experimental results will be described in detail.