To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although generally considered rare in gastropods, septation has long been noted in turritellids, but functional hypotheses do not survive strong scrutiny. Here we outline a methodology for testing spandrel hypotheses and apply it to the problem of turritellid septa. We follow Gould in using “spandrel” as a term for all features that are nonadaptive sequelae of adaptive features of organisms, including those that are structurally necessary, those that are developmentally correlated, and nondeterministic by-products that are correlated to features under selection.
In turritellids, septa are constructed in microstructural continuity with secondary internal thickening of the shell, are highly variable features infraspecifically, and are strongly associated with degree of shell thickening. We therefore conclude that rather than being themselves adaptive, turritellid septa are spandrels of shell thickening. Turritellid septa are composed of crossed lamellar aragonite, which appears to be constructed by mantle epithelium over the visceral mass. Septation was also found in 22 of 24 gastropod families examined from a broad phylogenetic distribution. Septa thus appear to be a widespread feature of caenogastropods, in strong contrast to previous assertions that septa are less common in modern or high-spired shells.
The northern New England region includes the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine and encompasses a large degree of climate and edaphic variation across a relatively small spatial area, making it ideal for studying climate change impacts on agricultural weed communities. We sampled weed seedbanks and measured soil physical and chemical characteristics on 77 organic farms across the region and analyzed the relationships between weed community parameters and select geographic, climatic, and edaphic variables using multivariate procedures. Temperature-related variables (latitude, longitude, mean maximum and minimum temperature) were the strongest and most consistent correlates with weed seedbank composition. Edaphic variables were, for the most part, relatively weaker and inconsistent correlates with weed seedbanks. Our analyses also indicate that a number of agriculturally important weed species are associated with specific U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones, implying that future changes in climate factors that result in geographic shifts in these zones will likely be accompanied by changes in the composition of weed communities and therefore new management challenges for farmers.
Background: Instrumentation failure (IF) such proximal junctional kyphosis/failure or distal junctional failure (PJK/PJF/DJF), rod fracture and screw-loosening can cause morbidity in patients with spinal deformity correction. Factors such as bone mineral density (BMD) or region of deformity correction may play a role in postoperative IF. Methods: We reviewed the relationship between IF and BMD or extent of spinal deformity. IF includes PJK/PJF/DJF, fractured rod, screw-looseing, radiculopathy, and non-union. BMD groups included Normal, osteopenia/osteoporosis, and Unknown. The extent of correction included Lumbar, Short Thoracolumbar (5-8 levels), Long Thoracolumbar (8 to 12 levels), and Cervical-thoracic. Results: 60 patients (41:19 F:M) were included, with average age of 65. Total IF=29 patients (48.3%). Normal BMD in N=14, with half of them (50.0%) developing IF; Low BMD in N=15, with one-third of them (33.3%) developing IF. Lumbar correction was performed in N=19, with IF in 36.8%; Short Thoracolumbar correction was performed in N=28, with IF in 46.4%; Long Thoracolumbar correction was performed in N=11, with IF in 81.8%; and Cervical correction in N=2, with no postoperative IF. Conclusions: Patients that received long-segment thoracolumbar had the highest rates of postoperative morbidity. We did not demonstrate an association between abnormal BMD and postoperative IF. A larger study would be needed for further investigations.
Background: Morbidity can be high in the management of adult spinal deformity patients. Complications include blood loss (EBL), durotomy, radicular pain, and postoperative hardware failure. Utilization of one versus two spinal surgeons in spinal deformity correction reduces overall perioperative morbidity is unclear. Methods: All procedures were performed by surgeons at a single institution between January 2012-2015. Patients were followed for a minimum of one year and maximum of four years. We retrospectively reviewed 60 cases of adult spinal deformity. Our cohort was divided into 1 versus 2 surgeons (12 vs 48 cases). We analyzed these cases for estimated blood loss and peri-operative complications. Results: Cases involving long thoracic to pelvis correction (T3-T6) was 20.8% in the 2 surgeons group and 8.3% in the 1 surgeon group. The EBL >3.0 L for 1 versus 2 surgeon groups were 25% and 41.6% respectively. Major complications in the 1 versus 2 surgeon group were 25% and 47.9% and the revision rates were 25% versus 37.5%. The percentage of minor complications in the 1 versus 2 surgeon group was 33.3% versus 14.6%. Conclusions: Utilizing two surgeons did not reduce complication rates. Procedures performed by two surgeons were more extensive deformity corrections. The extent of correction is the likely explanation for differing complication rates.
Quality measures are increasingly reported by hospitals to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), yet there may be tradeoffs in performance between infection control (IC) and other quality measures. Hospitals that performed best on IC measures did not perform well on most CMS non–IC quality measures.
Background: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) are typically managed in tertiary care centres due to their complexity in surgical planning and peri-operative care. Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive corrective ASD surgery performed by a single surgeon at a community based centre performed between 2012 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. We reviewed age, aetiology, mortality, medical and neurological deficit. All standard radiographic deformity parameters were also evaluated and analysed. Results: n=32 corrective spinal deformity procedures were performed. The most common aetiology was de novo degenerative scoliosis. The mean length of stay was 11.94 days. The most common levels fused from T1-pelvis (n=13). L5/S1 was the most common level requiring interbody fusion (n=17). There were n=10 who required a PSO. Only n=4 patients had EBL greater than 3500cc.There were a total of 9 medical complications with post-operative hypotension being the most common (n=3). Hardware failure across the PSO site was the most common long term complication (n=7). There were n=2 death. There were no reported deep infections requiring revisions. Radiographic parameters analysed showed significant improvement. Conclusions: ASD surgery perioperative complication rates in a community hospital are similar to those done in high volume academic centre.
The binary X-ray source GX 1 + 4 was observed during a balloon flight in 1986, November. The source was in a relatively high intensity state. Time analysis of the data shows that the pulsation period was 111.8 ± 1.0 s indicating that one or more episodes of spin-down occurred between 1980 and 1986. Folded pulse profiles are very broad with an indication of a notch at the peak. Evidence has been found for a correlation between hard X-ray intensity and phase of the proposed 304 day orbital period. The time averaged intensity since 1980 is an order of magnitude lower than during the 1970’s. A survey of the post 1980 data shows that several reversals of the period derivative have occurred. Spin-up at the rates typical of the 1970’s has been followed by a dramatic spin-down episode with dP/dt>2.4 × 10−7 s/s.
We aimed to determine the frequency of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes and high-level mupirocin resistance among MRSA isolates before and after the introduction of a chlorhexidine (CHG) daily bathing intervention in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU).
Retrospective cohort study (2005–2012)
A large tertiary-care center
Patients admitted to SICU who had MRSA surveillance cultures of the anterior nares
A random sample of banked MRSA anterior nares isolates recovered during (2005) and after (2006–2012) implementation of a daily CHG bathing protocol was examined for qacA/B genes and high-level mupirocin resistance. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was also performed.
Of the 504 randomly selected isolates (63 per year), 36 (7.1%) were qacA/B positive (+) and 35 (6.9%) were mupirocin resistant. Of these, 184 (36.5%) isolates were SCCmec type IV. There was a significant trend for increasing qacA/B (P=.02; highest prevalence, 16.9% in 2009 and 2010) and SCCmec type IV (P<.001; highest prevalence, 52.4% in 2012) during the study period. qacA/B(+) MRSA isolates were more likely to be mupirocin resistant (9 of 36 [25%] qacA/B(+) vs 26 of 468 [5.6%] qacA/B(−); P=.003).
A long-term, daily CHG bathing protocol was associated with a change in the frequency of qacA/B genes in MRSA isolates recovered from the anterior nares over an 8-year period. This change in the frequency of qacA/B genes is most likely due to patients in those years being exposed in prior admissions. Future studies need to further evaluate the implications of universal CHG daily bathing on MRSA qacA/B genes among hospitalized patients.
Our understanding of galactic structure and evolution is far from complete. Within the past twelve months we have learnt that the Milky Way is about 50% wider than was previously thought. As a consequence, new models are being developed that force us to reassess the kinematic structure of our Galaxy. Similarly, we need to take a fresh look at the halo structure of external galaxies in our Local Group. Studies of stellar populations, star-forming regions, clusters, the interstellar medium, elemental abundances and late stellar evolution are all required in order to understand how galactic assembly has occurred as we see it. PNe play an important role in this investigation by providing a measure of stellar age, mass, abundances, morphology, kinematics and synthesized matter that is returned to the interstellar medium (ISM). Through a method of chemical tagging, halo PNe can reveal evidence of stellar migration and galactic mergers. This is an outline of the advances that have been made towards uncovering the full number of PNe in our Local Group galaxies and beyond. Current numbers are presented and compared to total population estimates based on galactic mass and luminosity. A near complete census of PNe is crucial to understanding the initial-to-final mass relation for stars with mass >1 to <8 times the mass of the sun. It also allows us to extract more evolutionary information from luminosity functions and compare dust-to-gas ratios from PNe in different galactic locations. With new data provided by the Gaia satellite, space-based telescopes and the rise of giant and extra-large telescopes, we are on the verge of observing and understanding objects such as PNe in distant galaxies with the same detail we expected from Galactic observations only a decade ago.
This experiment shows that recent experience in one language influences subsequent processing of the same word-forms in a different language. Dutch–English bilinguals read Dutch sentences containing Dutch–English cognates and interlingual homographs, which were presented again 16 minutes later in isolation in an English lexical decision task. Priming produced faster responses for the cognates but slower responses for the interlingual homographs. These results show that language switching can influence bilingual speakers at the level of individual words, and require models of bilingual word recognition (e.g., BIA+) to allow access to word meanings to be modulated by recent experience.
Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) cycles had far-reaching effects on Northern Hemisphere and tropical climate systems during the last glacial period, yet the climatic response to D–O cycles in western North America is controversial, especially prior to 55 ka. We document changes in precipitation along the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada during early Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 3 and 4 (55–67 ka) from a U-series dated speleothem record from McLean's Cave. The timing of our multi-proxy geochemical dataset is coeval with D–O interstadials (15–18) and stadials, including Heinrich Event 6. The McLean's Cave stalagmite indicates warmer and drier conditions during Greenland interstadials (GISs 15–18), signified by elevated δ18O, δ13C, reflectance, and trace element concentrations, and less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr. Our record extends evidence of a strong linkage between high-latitude warming and reduced precipitation in western North America to early MIS 3 and MIS 4. This record shows that the linkage persists in diverse global climate states, and documents the nature of the climatic response in central California to Heinrich Event 6.
Discontinuation of reflex testing of stool submitted for Clostridium difficile testing for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) led to an increase in the number of patients with healthcare-associated VRE bacteremia and bacteriuria (0.21 vs 0.36 cases per 1,000 patient-days; P < .01). Cost-benefit analysis showed reflex screening and isolation of VRE reduced hospital costs.
We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission, extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.
Chemical genetics describes the use of molecules as “chemical probes” to investigate biological systems [1–3]. In contrast with traditional genetics, in which gene knockouts on the level of the DNA are used, chemical genetics uses biologically active small molecules to directly attenuate the corresponding biological macromolecular (usually protein) product. Thus, the ready availability of bioactive small molecules is of crucial importance in chemical genetics studies. Such small molecules can be identified by screening compound collections (libraries) in suitably designed assays. This chapter describes the use of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) to prepare structurally diverse small molecule libraries. Structurally diverse libraries show a greater variety in not only their physiochemical properties but also, and of most relevance here, in their biological activities. Herein we describe some of the most effective strategies that have been used in DOS library design and preparation.
Small molecules, chemical genetics, and chemical genomics
Chemical genetics experiments can be performed in either a forward or a reverse sense (Figure 4.1). The first step of both approaches requires the identification of a small molecule that either induces a desired phenotype (forward chemical genetics) or modulates the function of a specific protein of interest (reverse chemical genetics). Thus, in the former case, investigations proceed from phenotype to protein, whereas in the latter case, investigations progress from protein to phenotype.
Museum exhibitions possess a long history of serving as useful tools for teaching both paleontology and evolutionary biology to college undergraduates. Yet, they are frequently under-appreciated and underutilized. However, they remain potentially outstanding resources because they can be used to meet a spectrum of learning objectives related to nature of science, real-world relevance, and student interest. Specifically, even small museum displays can provide: 1) authentic specimens, which often are more diverse, of higher quality, and historically more significant than those in teaching collections; 2) specimens in context, with other specimens and/or geological or biological background available; 3) examples of how fossils connect to virtually all of Earth and life sciences (explaining why they have so frequently been at the center of traditional “natural history”); 4) cross-disciplinary experiences, connecting science, art, technology, and history within a social context; and 5) opportunities for students to learn about teaching. A survey of instructor-developed activities performed within a host of natural history museums—with particular attention devoted to the Museum of the Earth, an affiliate of Cornell University—suggests that natural history exhibitions, regardless of size and scope, can complement and strengthen formal education in an undergraduate setting.