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Locomotion is recognized as an important aspect of behaviour and knowledge of the locomotion of broiler chickens is important for their health and welfare (Lewis and Hurnik, 1989). Würbel (1995) suggested that certain behaviours can give an indication of poor welfare and that preference tests may be used to ‘fine tune’ a housing system.
Surveys with ISO (Kessler et al 1996), in particular with the CAM (Cesarsky et al 1996) and PHOT (Lemke et al 1996) instruments, will greatly extend our understanding of extra-galactic populations and their cosmological evolution. The main advantages that ISO surveys have over e.g IRAS are increased sensitivity/depth and wavelength coverage. Within the Guaranteed and Open Time programmes there are many field surveys which will efficiently map the limits in these parameters. In this talk I will briefly overview those surveys before concentrating in more detail on one survey in particular, the ISO survey of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), to illustrate the kind of results that can be expected.
Interstellar ices are widely observed in the infrared spectra of regions where stars and
planetary systems form. Photochemical and thermal evolution of these ices is simulated and
studied in our laboratory where the resulting production of complex organic residues is
routinely performed. Observations of their variability with slightly different starting
chemical conditions can be performed by means of infrared spectroscopy. Organic residues
have interesting chemical properties that make them good potential candidates for
prebiotic chemistry. Numerous other analytical methods (GC-MS, HPLC, mass spectrometry,
etc.) can be combined to refine the knowledge of their chemical composition and structure.
We present here some results on the obtained organic residue resulting from subsequent
heating and sublimation of the irradiated ices which show the formation of some
Surveying and declaring disease freedom in wildlife is difficult because information on population size and spatial distribution is often inadequate. We describe and demonstrate a novel spatial model of wildlife disease-surveillance data for predicting the probability of freedom of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in New Zealand, in which the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the primary wildlife reservoir. Using parameters governing home-range size, probability of capture, probability of infection and spatial relative risks of infection we employed survey data on reservoir hosts and spillover sentinels to make inference on the probability of eradication. Our analysis revealed high sensitivity of model predictions to parameter values, which demonstrated important differences in the information contained in survey data of host-reservoir and spillover-sentinel species. The modelling can increase cost efficiency by reducing the likelihood of prematurely declaring success due to insufficient control, and avoiding unnecessary costs due to excessive control and monitoring.
Twin and sibling studies have identified specific cognitive phenotypes that may mediate the association between genes and the clinical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with lower IQ scores. We aimed to investigate whether the familial association between measures of cognitive performance and the clinical diagnosis of ADHD is mediated through shared familial influences with IQ.
Multivariate familial models were run on data from 1265 individuals aged 6–18 years, comprising 920 participants from ADHD sibling pairs and 345 control participants. Cognitive assessments included a four-choice reaction time (RT) task, a go/no-go task, a choice–delay task and an IQ assessment. The analyses focused on the cognitive variables of mean RT (MRT), RT variability (RTV), commission errors (CE), omission errors (OE) and choice impulsivity (CI).
Significant familial association (rF) was confirmed between cognitive performance and both ADHD (rF=0.41–0.71) and IQ (rF=−0.25 to −0.49). The association between ADHD and cognitive performance was largely independent (80–87%) of any contribution from etiological factors shared with IQ. The exception was for CI, where 49% of the overlap could be accounted for by the familial variance underlying IQ.
The aetiological factors underlying lower IQ in ADHD seem to be distinct from those between ADHD and RT/error measures. This suggests that lower IQ does not account for the key cognitive impairments observed in ADHD. The results have implications for molecular genetic studies designed to identify genes involved in ADHD.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently co-occurring with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Because ODD is a precursor of later conduct disorder (CD) and affective disorders, early diagnostic identification is warranted. Furthermore, the predictability of three recently confirmed ODD dimensions (ODD-irritable, ODD-headstrong and ODD-hurtful) may assist clinical decision making.
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used in order to test the diagnostic accuracy of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale revised (CPRS-R) and the parent version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (PSDQ) in the prediction of ODD in a transnational sample of 1093 subjects aged 5–17 years from the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics study. In a second step, the prediction of three ODD dimensions by the same parent rating scales was assessed by backward linear regression analyses.
ROC analyses showed adequate diagnostic accuracy of the CPRS-R and the PSDQ in predicting ODD in this ADHD sample. Furthermore, the three-dimensional structure of ODD was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis and the CPRS-R emotional lability scale significantly predicted the ODD irritable dimension.
The PSDQ and the CPRS-R are both suitable screening instruments in the identification of ODD. The emotional lability scale of the CPRS-R is an adequate predictor of irritability in youth referred for ADHD.
After preliminary trials, the detailed changes in the concentration of specific circulating and local antibodies were followed in 15 volunteers inoculated with coronavirus 229E. Ten of them, who had significantly lower concentrations of pre-existing antibody than the rest, became infected and eight of these developed colds. A limited investigation of circulating lymphocyte populations showed some lymphocytopenia in infected volunteers. In this group, antibody concentrations started to increase 1 week after inoculation and reached a maximum about 1 week later. Thereafter antibody titres slowly declined. Although concentrations were still slightly raised 1 year later, this did not always prevent reinfection when volunteers were then challenged with the homologous virus. However, the period of virus shedding was shorter than before and none developed a cold. All of the uninfected group were infected on re-challenge although they also appeared to show some resistance to disease and in the extent of infection. These results are discussed with reference to natural infections with coronavirus and with other infections, such as rhinovirus infections.
A new technique for the treatment of severe epistaxis associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia is described. The nasal septum and inferior turbinates, surgically denuded of respiratory epithelium, were grafted using autografts of cultured epithelial sheets derived from buccal epithelium. All patients upon whom this technique has been used have shown considerable lessening in the frequency and severity of their epistaxes although two patients received grafts on two occasions, in each case approximately three months apart. It is postulated that a nasal lining of stratified squamous epithelium is likely to be more resistant to trauma than the normal respiratory type, and this is supported by the observation that bleeds very seldom occur from the oral cavity in this syndrome.
Autologous cultured epithelial layers were established from biopsies from the mucosa of the cheek, a nonkeratinizing region of the oral cavity. These were grafted to the unepithelialized mastoid cavities of nine patients with chronic mastoiditis and severe otorrhoea varying from two to 30 years' duration. All procedures were performed on an out-patient basis, with no anaesthesia except for topical anaesthesia for the mucosal biopsy. In seven of the patients the grafts took well, with complete resolution of the otorrhoea for a minimum follow-up period of eight months. In one patient there was a partial take of the graft with substantial improvement in the rate of discharge. The mastoid cavities of two patients were biopsied five months after grafting, and demonstrated a stratified squamous epithelium, with keratinization of the epithelium clearly evident.
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