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Field studies were conducted on organic soils in Belle Glade, FL, in 2016 to 2017 to evaluate sugarcane tolerance and fall panicum control with topramezone applied alone or in combination with triazine herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, ametryn). Treatments included topramezone (25 and 50 g ai ha−1) applied alone or in combination with atrazine (2,240 g ai ha−1), metribuzin (2,240 g ai ha−1), and ametryn (440 g ha−1) on four plant cane varieties to evaluate tolerance, and on second ratoon fields to determine efficacy on fall panicum control. Topramezone applied alone had no effect on sugarcane chlorophyll fluorescence (i.e., the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence), total chlorophyll, and carotenoid 7 to 28 d after treatment (DAT), suggesting sugarcane tolerance. Significant reduction of these parameters occured 7 to 14 DAT when topramezone (50 g ai ha−1) was applied with ametryn or metribuzin; however, reductions were not detected thereafter, indicating recovery. Sugarcane yield was not affected by topramezone applied alone or in combination with the triazine herbicides. Topramezone (50 g ai ha−1) plus metribuzin resulted in acceptable control of fall panicum (84%) with limited to no regrowth of meristematic tissue at sugarcane canopy closure, equivalent to 56 to 70 DAT. These results indicate that when sequential applications of topramezone, applied alone or in combination with these triazine herbicides, are required for efficacious weed control, topramezone applications alone can be made after 7 d, whereas the combinations can be made after 14 or 21 d, depending on sugarcane sensitivity.
Background: Gross total resection of pediatric posterior fossa tumors is paramount towards improving progression-free survival.
Fluorescein accumulates in tumoral tissue, where the blood-brain barrier is disrupted. It can therefore potentially aid in differentiating tumoral versus normal tissue. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescent-guidance (using fluorescein) towards the resection of a pediatric cerebellar tumor, as the index case at our institution using this technique. Methods: 5 mg/kg of IV fluorescein sodium was injected upon induction of general anesthesia. During tumor resection, a yellow 560-nm filter (Kinevo microscope, Zeiss) was employed for fluorescent-guidance. The extent of resection was assessed via post-operative MRI. Results: There were no adverse side effects experienced by the patient. Tumoral material was clearly visualized under the yellow 560-nm filter, allowing for satisfactory gross total resection of the lesion (confirmed on post-operative MRI). Preliminary pathology was consistent with medulloblastoma. Conclusions: Fluorescent-guided resection of pediatric posterior fossa tumors appears to be a safe and useful adjunct for gross total resection of these lesions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Canada wherein IV fluorescein was used under a yellow 560-nm filter for resection of a posterior fossa medulloblastoma in a child.
We conducted direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow over three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness in a channel. A passive scalar is present in the flow with Prandtl number
, to study heat transfer by forced convection over this rough surface. The minimal-span channel is used to circumvent the high cost of simulating high-Reynolds-number flows, which enables a range of rough surfaces to be efficiently simulated. The near-wall temperature profile in the minimal-span channel agrees well with that of the conventional full-span channel, indicating that it can be readily used for heat-transfer studies at a much reduced cost compared to conventional direct numerical simulation. As the roughness Reynolds number,
, is increased, the Hama roughness function,
, increases in the transitionally rough regime before tending towards the fully rough asymptote of
is a constant that depends on the particular roughness geometry and
is the von Kármán constant. In this fully rough regime, the skin-friction coefficient is constant with bulk Reynolds number,
. Meanwhile, the temperature difference between smooth- and rough-wall flows,
, appears to tend towards a constant value,
. This corresponds to the Stanton number (the temperature analogue of the skin-friction coefficient) monotonically decreasing with
in the fully rough regime. Using shifted logarithmic velocity and temperature profiles, the heat-transfer law as described by the Stanton number in the fully rough regime can be derived once both the equivalent sand-grain roughness
and the temperature difference
are known. In meteorology, this corresponds to the ratio of momentum and heat-transfer roughness lengths,
, being linearly proportional to the inner-normalised momentum roughness length,
, where the constant of proportionality is related to
. While Reynolds analogy, or similarity between momentum and heat transfer, breaks down for the bulk skin-friction and heat-transfer coefficients, similar distribution patterns between the heat flux and viscous component of the wall shear stress are observed. Instantaneous visualisations of the temperature field show a thin thermal diffusive sublayer following the roughness geometry in the fully rough regime, resembling the viscous sublayer of a contorted smooth wall.
Although food from grazed animals is increasingly sought by consumers because of perceived animal welfare advantages, grazing systems provide the farmer and the animal with unique challenges. The system is dependent almost daily on the climate for feed supply, with the importation of large amounts of feed from off farm, and associated labour and mechanisation costs, sometimes reducing economic viability. Furthermore, the cow may have to walk long distances and be able to harvest feed efficiently in a highly competitive environment because of the need for high levels of pasture utilisation. She must, also, be: (1) highly fertile, with a requirement for pregnancy within ~80 days post-calving; (2) ‘easy care’, because of the need for the management of large herds with limited labour; (3) able to walk long distances; and (4) robust to changes in feed supply and quality, so that short-term nutritional insults do not unduly influence her production and reproduction cycles. These are very different and are in addition to demands placed on cows in housed systems offered pre-made mixed rations. Furthermore, additional demands in environmental sustainability and animal welfare, in conjunction with the need for greater system-level biological efficiency (i.e. ‘sustainable intensification’), will add to the ‘robustness’ requirements of cows in the future. Increasingly, there is evidence that certain genotypes of cows perform better or worse in grazing systems, indicating a genotype×environment interaction. This has led to the development of tailored breeding objectives within countries for important heritable traits to maximise the profitability and sustainability of their production system. To date, these breeding objectives have focussed on the more easily measured traits and those of highest relative economic importance. In the future, there will be greater emphasis on more difficult to measure traits that are important to the quality of life of the animal in each production system and to reduce the system’s environmental footprint.
Characterising the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of hydraulic conductivity and its variability in the shallow subsurface is fundamental to understanding groundwater behaviour and to developing conceptual and numerical groundwater models to manage the subsurface. However, directly measuring in situ hydraulic conductivity can be difficult and expensive and is rarely carried out with sufficient density in urban environments. In this study we model hydraulic conductivity for 603 sites in the unconsolidated Quaternary deposits underlying Glasgow using particle size distribution and density description widely available from geotechnical investigations. Six different models were applied and the MacDonald formula was found to be most applicable in this heterogeneous environment, comparing well with the few available in situ hydraulic conductivity data. The range of the calculated hydraulic conductivity values between the 5th and 95th percentile was 1.56×10–2–4.38mday–1 with a median of 2.26×10–1 mday–1. These modelled hydraulic conductivity data were used to develop a suite of stochastic 3D simulations conditioned to existing 3D representations of lithology. Ten per cent of the input data were excluded from the modelling process for use in a split-sample validation test, which demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach compared with non-spatial or lithologically unconstrained models. Our spatial model reduces the mean squared error between the estimated and observed values at the excluded data locations over those predicted using a simple homogeneous model by 73 %. The resulting 3D hydraulic conductivity model is of a much higher resolution than would have been possible from using only direct measurements, and will improve understanding of groundwater flow in Glasgow and reduce the spatial uncertainty of hydraulic parameters in groundwater process models. The methodology employed could be replicated in other regions where significant volumes of suitable geotechnical and site investigation data are available to predict ground conditions in areas with complex superficial deposits.
The occurrence of secondary flows is investigated for three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness where the wavelength and height of the roughness elements are systematically altered. The flow spanned from the transitionally rough regime up to the fully rough regime and the solidity of the roughness ranged from a wavy, sparse roughness to a dense roughness. Analysing the time-averaged velocity, secondary flows are observed in all of the cases, reflected in the coherent stress profile which is dominant in the vicinity of the roughness elements. The roughness sublayer, defined as the region where the coherent stress is non-zero, scales with the roughness wavelength when the roughness is geometrically scaled (proportional increase in both roughness height and wavelength) and when the wavelength increases at fixed roughness height. Premultiplied energy spectra of the streamwise velocity turbulent fluctuations show that energy is reorganised from the largest streamwise wavelengths to the shorter streamwise wavelengths. The peaks in the premultiplied spectra at the streamwise and spanwise wavelengths are correlated with the roughness wavelength in the fully rough regime. Current simulations show that the spanwise scale of roughness determines the occurrence of large-scale secondary flows.
Background: Epilepsy/seizure awareness is improving across Canada. With the formation of a Comprehensive Epilepsy Program in Manitoba (including a new Pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit), a provincial strategy has been proposed outlining a path towards improved access to epilepsy care. We now sought to qualify the current state of clinician knowledge and comfort towards diagnosis and management of this condition. Methods: A qualitative online survey, comprised of 36 short-answer questions, was delivered to primary care and specialist physicians in Manitoba. Results:108 subjects responded, across varying medical disciplines. 101 (93.5%) have previously managed epilepsy patients, and 87 (80.6%) have previously ordered an EEG. A total of 63 (59.4%) have referred to a neurologist, with a lower proportion (30, 28.3%) referring specifically to an epileptologist. 36 respondents (33.3%) have heard of the ILAE guidelines, with 43 (63.2%) reporting refractory epilepsy to be -defined by the failure of 3 (or more) medications. 61 (56.5%) were unaware of invasive EEG techniques. Most (85, 78.7%) understood a role for surgery in treating epilepsy, with 12 (11.1%) unaware of surgical therapies beyond VNS. Conclusions: SESAME successfully identified strong awareness towards epilepsy, with small lapses in knowledge that will benefit from a formal provincial-wide educational curriculum.
We conduct minimal-channel direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow over two-dimensional rectangular bars aligned in the spanwise direction. This roughness has often been described as
-type, as the roughness function
is thought to depend only on the outer-layer length scale (pipe diameter, channel half-height or boundary layer thickness). This is in contrast to conventional engineering rough surfaces, named
-type, for which
depends on the roughness height,
. The minimal-span rough-wall channel is used to circumvent the high cost of simulating high Reynolds number flows, enabling a range of bars with varying aspect ratios to be investigated. The present results show that increasing the trough-to-crest height,
, of the roughness while keeping the width between roughness bars,
, fixed in viscous units, results in non-
-type behaviour although this does not necessarily indicate
-type behaviour. Instead, for deep surfaces with
, the roughness function appears to depend only on
in viscous units. In these situations, the flow no longer has any information about how deep the roughness is and instead can only ‘see’ the width of the fluid gap between the bars.
X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is a technique which can obtain three-dimensional images of a sample, including its internal structure, without the need for destructive sectioning. Here, we review the capability of the technique and examine its potential to provide novel insights into the lifestyles of parasites embedded within host tissue. The current capabilities and limitations of the technology in producing contrast in soft tissues are discussed, as well as the potential solutions for parasitologists looking to apply this technique. We present example images of the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris and discuss the application of μCT to provide unique insights into parasite behaviour and pathology, which are inaccessible to other imaging modalities.
The behaviour of ThSiO4 during low-temperature alteration has
significance for element mobility and redistribution. Here we describe five
types of alteration of ThSiO4 by hydrothermal fluids: (1) primary
ThSiO4 associated with chevkinite-(Ce) in a quartz-epidote
metasomatite; (2) during alteration of monazite-(Ce) in a quartzolite; (3)
during alteration of fergusonite-(Y) in a quartz-epidote metasomatite; (4)
following exsolution from chevkinite-(Ce); and (5) associated with
cerite-(Ce) and with ilmenite and bastnäsite-(Ce) in late-stage veinlets in
a syenitic pegmatite and a metasomatite. The great majority of crystals have
been strongly altered compositionally, with variable degrees of replacement
of formula elements by non-formula elements, such as Ca, Fe, P and
REE. The most reliable geochemical indicators of
hydrothermal alteration are low analytical totals and non-stoichiometric
structural formulae. The alteration is variably ascribed to
dissolution-reprecipitation and pervasive fluid infiltration along cracks.
Thorium appears to have shown limited mobility in these samples.
Roughness predominantly alters the near-wall region of turbulent flow while the outer layer remains similar with respect to the wall shear stress. This makes it a prime candidate for the minimal-span channel, which only captures the near-wall flow by restricting the spanwise channel width to be of the order of a few hundred viscous units. Recently, Chung et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 773, 2015, pp. 418–431) showed that a minimal-span channel can accurately characterise the hydraulic behaviour of roughness. Following this, we aim to investigate the fundamental dynamics of the minimal-span channel framework with an eye towards further improving performance. The streamwise domain length of the channel is investigated with the minimum length found to be three times the spanwise width or 1000 viscous units, whichever is longer. The outer layer of the minimal channel is inherently unphysical and as such alterations to it can be performed so long as the near-wall flow, which is the same as in a full-span channel, remains unchanged. Firstly, a half-height (open) channel with slip wall is shown to reproduce the near-wall behaviour seen in a standard channel, but with half the number of grid points. Next, a forcing model is introduced into the outer layer of a half-height channel. This reduces the high streamwise velocity associated with the minimal channel and allows for a larger computational time step. Finally, an investigation is conducted to see if varying the roughness Reynolds number with time is a feasible method for obtaining the full hydraulic behaviour of a rough surface. Currently, multiple steady simulations at fixed roughness Reynolds numbers are needed to obtain this behaviour. The results indicate that the non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter must be kept below 0.03–0.07 to ensure that pressure gradient effects do not lead to an inaccurate roughness function. An empirical costing argument is developed to determine the cost in terms of CPU hours of minimal-span channel simulations a priori. This argument involves counting the number of eddy lifespans in the channel, which is then related to the statistical uncertainty of the streamwise velocity. For a given statistical uncertainty in the roughness function, this can then be used to determine the simulation run time. Following this, a finite-volume code with a body-fitted grid is used to determine the roughness function for square-based pyramids using the above insights. Comparisons to experimental studies for the same roughness geometry are made and good agreement is observed.
Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.
We investigate rough-wall turbulent flows through direct numerical simulations of flow over three-dimensional transitionally rough sinusoidal surfaces. The roughness Reynolds number is fixed at
is the sinusoidal semi-amplitude, and the sinusoidal wavelength is varied, resulting in the roughness solidity
(frontal area divided by plan area) ranging from 0.05 to 0.54. The high cost of resolving both the flow around the dense roughness elements and the bulk flow is circumvented by the use of the minimal-span channel technique, recently demonstrated by Chung et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 773, 2015, pp. 418–431) to accurately determine the Hama roughness function,
. Good agreement of the second-order statistics in the near-wall roughness-affected region between minimal- and full-span rough-wall channels is observed. In the sparse regime of roughness (
) the roughness function increases with increasing solidity, while in the dense regime the roughness function decreases with increasing solidity. It was found that the dense regime begins when
, in agreement with the literature. A model is proposed for the limit of
, which is a smooth wall located at the crest of the roughness elements. This model assists with interpreting the asymptotic behaviour of the roughness, and the rough-wall data presented in this paper show that the near-wall flow is tending towards this modelled limit. The peak streamwise turbulence intensity, which is associated with the turbulent near-wall cycle, is seen to move further away from the wall with increasing solidity. In the sparse regime, increasing
reduces the streamwise turbulent energy associated with the near-wall cycle, while increasing
in the dense regime increases turbulent energy. An analysis of the difference of the integrated mean momentum balance between smooth- and rough-wall flows reveals that the roughness function decreases in the dense regime due to a reduction in the Reynolds shear stress. This is predominantly due to the near-wall cycle being pushed away from the roughness elements, which leads to a reduction in turbulent energy in the region previously occupied by these events.
Virkisjökull is a rapidly retreating outlet glacier draining the western flanks of Öræfajökull in SE Iceland. Since 2011 there have been continuous measurements of flow in the proglacial meltwater channel and regular campaigns to sample stable isotopes δ2H and δ18O from the river, ice, moraine springs and groundwater. The stable isotopes provide reliable end members for glacial ice and shallow groundwater. Analysis of data from 2011 to 2014 indicates that although ice and snowmelt dominate summer riverflow (mean 5.3–7.9 m3 s−1), significant flow is also observed in winter (mean 1.6–2.4 m3 s−1) due primarily to ongoing glacier icemelt. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the influence of groundwater discharge from moraines and the sandur aquifer increases during winter and forms a small (15–20%) consistent source of baseflow to the river. The similarity of hydrological response across seasons reflects a highly efficient glacial drainage system, which makes use of a series of permanent englacial channels within active and buried ice throughout the year. The study has shown that the development of an efficient year round drainage network within the lower part of the glacier has been coincident with the stagnation and subsequent rapid retreat of the glacier.
Expert judgement has been used since the actuarial profession was founded. In the past, there has often been a lack of transparency regarding the use of expert judgement, even though those judgements could have a very significant impact on the outputs of calculations and the decisions made by organisations. The lack of transparency has a number of dimensions, including the nature of the underlying judgements, as well as the process used to derive those judgements. This paper aims to provide a practical framework regarding expert judgement processes, and how those processes may be validated. It includes a worked example illustrating how the process could be used for setting a particular assumption. It concludes with some suggested tools for use within expert judgement. Although primarily focussed on the insurance sector, the proposed process framework could be applied more widely without the need for significant changes.
On May 22, 1989 the Japanese Ginga Team discovered a new X-ray source that was cataloged as GS 2023+338. This source was subsequently identified as coincident in position with a previously known nova cataloged as V404 Cygni. Its last recorded outburst was in 1938 when it rose to about 12th mag. Spectroscopic data were obtained and confirmed the nature of the outburst. Additional ground based data were obtained by us at CTIO and the VLA. The X-ray behavior of this object has been reported to be very unusual and it reached a peak of about 17 crab about one week after discovery. Since then it has varied widely in magnitude at all wavelengths at which it has been studied. We present a brief summary of the observations that have been obtained up to the time of the meeting and shortly thereafter.
Samples from Russia and Scotland are used to examine the interaction of the REE-Ti silicate chevkinite-(Ce) with hydrothermal fluids. Altered zones in crystals are distinguished by using areas of low intensity on backscattered-electron images, low analytical totals, increasingly large departures from stoichiometry and, in some cases, the presence of micropores. Initial alteration of the chevkinite results in strong Ca enrichment. With increasing degrees of alteration, Ca abundances drop sharply, as do those of the REE, Fe and Si. In contrast, Ti levels increase strongly, usually accompanied by higher Nb ± Th levels. The most altered zones contain up to 36 wt.% TiO2 and the formula cannot be expressed in the standard chevkinite formula. In detail, samples follow different alteration trends, presumably reflecting different P, T, fO2 and fluid composition. The Ti enrichment may have been related to a reaction front of dissolution-reprecipitation passing through the outer zones of the original chevkinite, leaving behind a reprecipitated Ti-enriched phase which may or may not be chevkinite.
Chevkinite-(Ce) in a mineralized quartz-epidote metasomatite from the Keivy massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, underwent at least two stages of low-temperature alteration. In the first, it interacted with hydrothermal fluids, with loss of Ca, Fe, LREE and Si and strong enrichment in Ti. The altered chevkinite was then rimmed and partially replaced by a zone of ferriallanite-(Ce) and davidite-(La), in turn rimmed by a zone of allanite-(Ce) richer in the epidote component. The allanite zone was in turn partially replaced by rutile-titanite-quartz assemblages, the formation of titanite postdating that of rutile. Aeschynite-(Y), aeschynite-(Ce) and REE-carbonates are accessory phases in all zones. The hydrothermal fluids were alkaline, with significant proportions of CO2 and F. At various alteration stages, the Ca, Si ± Al activities in the fluid were high. Formation of the aeschynite is discussed in relation to its stability in broadly similar parageneses; it was a primary phase in the unaltered chevkinite zone whereas in other zones it formed from Nb, Ti, REE and Th released from the major phases.
We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jiménez & Moin, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 225, 1991, pp. 213–240). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct direct numerical simulations with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for characterising hydraulic resistance directly from profilometry data of rough surfaces.