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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
While much research has focused on crop damage following foliar exposure to auxin herbicides, reports documenting the risk posed by exposure via root uptake of irrigation water are lacking. Herbicide residues circulated in tailwater recovery systems may pose threats of cross-crop impacts to nonresistant cultivars with known sensitivity to auxins. An auxin-susceptible soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivar was grown in a controlled growth chamber environment and exposed to dicamba dissolved in irrigation water applied to the soil surface, simulating furrow irrigation. Five herbicide treatment concentrations, ranging from 0.05 to 5.0 mg L−1 and encompassing estimated field doses of 3.1 to 310g ha−1, were applied to the soil of potted soybean plants at V3/V4 or R1 growth stages. Plant injury (0% to 100%), dry mass, height, number of pods, and number of pod-bearing nodes were measured. Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine treatment differences and examine dose effects. Yield losses were projected using (1) 14 d after treatment plant injury assessments based on injury–yield relationships described for foliar exposures and (2) pod counts. Dicamba concentration was the main significant factor affecting all growth response metrics, and growth stage was a significant explanatory variable only for the height response metric. A nonlinear response to dicamba dose was observed, with the threshold response dose required to affect 50% of plants being three times greater for 40% crop injury compared with 20% injury. Yield projections derived from plant response to root uptake compared with foliar exposure indicate that soybean may express both magnitude of injury and specific symptomology differently when exposure occurs via root uptake. Drift exposure–based models may be incompatible to predict soybean yield loss when injury results from irrigation. Data are needed to develop correlations for predicting yield losses based on field-scale exposure to dicamba in irrigation water, as well as assessment of real-world concentrations of herbicide residues in tailwater recovery systems.
Previous studies have shown that the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is affected by adverse maternal nutrition during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a maternal low-protein diet on proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and RAS components in kidney samples isolated from adult male offspring. We hypothesized that post-weaning losartan treatment would have beneficial effects on RAS activity and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in these animals. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a control (20% casein) or low-protein diet (LP) (6% casein) throughout gestation. After weaning, the LP pups were randomly assigned to LP and LP-losartan groups (AT1 receptor blockade: 10 mg/kg/day until 20 weeks of age). At 20 weeks of age, blood pressure levels were higher and renal RAS was activated in the LP group. We also observed several adverse effects in the kidneys of the LP group, including a higher number of CD3, CD68 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and higher levels of collagen and reactive oxygen species in the kidney. Further, our results revealed that post-weaning losartan treatment completely abolished immune cell infiltration and intrarenal RAS activation in the kidneys of LP rats. The prevention of augmentation of angiotensin (Ang II) concentration abolished inflammatory and fibrotic events, indicating that Ang II via the AT1 receptor is essential for pathological initiation. Our results suggest that the prenatal programming of hypertension is dependent on the up-regulation of local RAS and presence of immune cells in the kidney.
Measurement error in self-reported total sugars intake may obscure associations between sugars consumption and health outcomes, and the sum of 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake.
The Study of Latinos: Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS) was an ancillary study to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) cohort. Doubly labelled water and 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were used as biomarkers of energy and sugars intake, respectively. Participants’ diets were assessed by up to three 24 h recalls (88 % had two or more recalls). Procedures were repeated approximately 6 months after the initial visit among a subset of ninety-six participants.
Four centres (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) across the USA.
Men and women (n 477) aged 18–74 years.
The geometric mean of total sugars was 167·5 (95 % CI 154·4, 181·7) g/d for the biomarker-predicted and 90·6 (95 % CI 87·6, 93·6) g/d for the self-reported total sugars intake. Self-reported total sugars intake was not correlated with biomarker-predicted sugars intake (r=−0·06, P=0·20, n 450). Among the reliability sample (n 90), the reproducibility coefficient was 0·59 for biomarker-predicted and 0·20 for self-reported total sugars intake.
Possible explanations for the lack of association between biomarker-predicted and self-reported sugars intake include measurement error in self-reported diet, high intra-individual variability in sugars intake, and/or urinary sucrose and fructose may not be a suitable proxy for total sugars intake in this study population.
Objectives: One of the most prominent features of schizophrenia is relatively lower general cognitive ability (GCA). An emerging approach to understanding the roots of variation in GCA relies on network properties of the brain. In this multi-center study, we determined global characteristics of brain networks using graph theory and related these to GCA in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants (N=116 controls, 80 patients with schizophrenia) were recruited from four sites. GCA was represented by the first principal component of a large battery of neurocognitive tests. Graph metrics were derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. Results: The global metrics of longer characteristic path length and reduced overall connectivity predicted lower GCA across groups, and group differences were noted for both variables. Measures of clustering, efficiency, and modularity did not differ across groups or predict GCA. Follow-up analyses investigated three topological types of connectivity—connections among high degree “rich club” nodes, “feeder” connections to these rich club nodes, and “local” connections not involving the rich club. Rich club and local connectivity predicted performance across groups. In a subsample (N=101 controls, 56 patients), a genetic measure reflecting mutation load, based on rare copy number deletions, was associated with longer characteristic path length. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of characteristic path lengths and rich club connectivity for GCA and provide no evidence for group differences in the relationships between graph metrics and GCA. (JINS, 2016, 22, 240–249)
Experimental data are presented showing maximum carbon C6+ ion energies obtained from nm-scaled targets in the relativistic transparent regime for laser intensities between 9 × 1019 and 2 × 1021 W/cm2. When combined with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, these results show a steep linear scaling for carbon ions with the normalized laser amplitude a0 (
$a_0 \propto \sqrt ( I)$
). The results are in good agreement with a semi-analytic model that allows one to calculate the optimum thickness and the maximum ion energies as functions of a0 and the laser pulse duration τλ for ion acceleration in the relativistic-induced transparency regime. Following our results, ion energies exceeding 100 MeV/amu may be accessible with currently available laser systems.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
We previously developed and validated an index of socioeconomic status (SES) termed HOUSES (housing-based index of socioeconomic status) based on real property data. In this study, we assessed whether HOUSES overcomes the absence of SES measures in medical records and is associated with risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. We conducted a population-based case-control study of children in Olmsted County, MN, diagnosed with IPD (1995–2005). Each case was age- and gender-matched to two controls. HOUSES was derived using a previously reported algorithm from publicly available housing attributes (the higher HOUSES, the higher the SES). HOUSES was available for 92·3% (n = 97) and maternal education level for 43% (n = 45). HOUSES was inversely associated with risk of IPD in unmatched analysis [odds ratio (OR) 0·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·05–0·89, P = 0·034], whereas maternal education was not (OR 0·77, 95% CI 0·50–1·19, P = 0·24). HOUSES may be useful for overcoming a paucity of conventional SES measures in commonly used datasets in epidemiological research.
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have increased in Western countries. However, there are limited data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Eastern countries. This nationwide study was conducted in 17 hospitals to determine temporal trends in CDI incidence (from 2004 to 2008) in South Korea. The total incidence of CDI in Korea was 1·7 cases/1000 adult admissions in 2004, and 2·7/1000 cases in 2008 (P = 0·028). When analysing the clinical features of 1367 CDI patients diagnosed in 2008, oral metronidazole was effective as a first-line treatment for CDI (61·9%). Relapse rate was 8·9% and complicated CDI was only observed in 3·6%. The incidence of CDI increased significantly in Korea from 2004 to 2008. Although the clinical features were milder than in Western countries, the increasing burden of CDI needs ongoing surveillance systems.
Advancement of ion acceleration by intense laser pulses is studied with ultra-thin nanometer-thick diamond like carbon and micrometer-thick Titanium target foils. Both investigations aim at optimizing the electron density distribution which is the key for efficient laser driven ion acceleration. While recently found maximum ion energies achieved with ultra-thin foils mark record values micrometer thick foils are flexible in terms of atomic constituents. Electron recirculation is one prerequisite for the validity of a very simple model that can approximate the dependence of ion energies of nanometer-thick targets when all electrons of the irradiated target area interact coherently with the laser pulse and Coherent Acceleration of Ions by Laser pulses (CAIL) becomes dominant. Complementary experiments, an analytical model and particle in cell computer simulations show, that with regard to ultra-short laser pulses (duration ~45 fs at intensities up to 5 × 1019 W/cm2) and a micrometer-thick target foil with higher atomic number a close to linear increase of ion energies manifests in a certain range of laser intensities.
In the USA, infant formulas contain long-chain PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in a ratio of 2:1 and comprise roughly 0·66 g/100 g and 0·33 g/100 g total fatty acids (FA). Higher levels of dietary DHA appear to provide some advantages in visual or cognitive performance. The present study evaluated the effect of physiologically high dietary ARA on growth, clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function when DHA is 1·0 g/100 g total FA. On day 3 of age, formula-reared (FR) piglets were matched for weight and assigned to one of six milk replacer formulas. Diets varied in the ratio of ARA:DHA as follows (g/100 g FA/FA): A1, 0·1/1·0; A2, 0·53/1·0; A3-D3, 0·69/1·0; A4, 1·1/1·0; D2, 0·67/0·62; D1, 0·66/0·33. A seventh group was maternal-reared (MR) and remained with the dam during the study. Blood collection and body weight measurements were performed weekly, and piglets were killed on day 28 of age. No significant differences were found among any of the FR groups for formula intake, growth, clinical chemistry, haematology or immune status measurements. A few differences in clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function parameters between the MR pigs and the FR groups probably reflected a difference in growth rate. We conclude that the dietary ARA level up to 1·0 g/100 g total FA is safe and has no adverse effect on any of the safety outcomes measured, and confirm that DHA has no adverse effect when ARA is at 0·66 g/100 g FA.
In this paper we report on an experimental study of high harmonic radiation generated in nanometer-scale foil targets irradiated under normal incidence. The experiments constitute the first unambiguous observation of odd-numbered relativistic harmonics generated by the v × B component of the Lorentz force verifying a long predicted property of solid target harmonics. Simultaneously the observed harmonic spectra allow in-situ extraction of the target density in an experimental scenario which is of utmost interest for applications such as ion acceleration by the radiation pressure of an ultraintense laser.
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon, low-grade carcinoma that generally occurs in the salivary glands. A few cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the nasal cavity have been reported. We describe a unique case of aggressive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in the nasal cavity.
A 36-year-old woman presented with a mass in her left nasal cavity. Histopathological evaluation revealed it to be an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with overt nuclear atypia, frequent mitoses and necrosis. The tumour recurred in the contralateral nasal cavity 15 months following primary excision. Medial maxillectomy and radiation therapy were performed. Seven-month follow up revealed extensive bone metastases.
We report a rare case of aggressive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in the nasal cavity, with high-grade histology.
Large-scale graphene sheets were grown on thin nickel film coated Si substrates using a reliable and repeatable thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The graphene films were then transferred onto a SiO2 coated Si wafer to fabricate a 5 mm x 5 mm resistive sensor structure. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the existence of graphene. Preliminary sensing results were demonstrated by the detection of hazardous gases such as NO2 and MMH (mono-methyl hydrazine). Characterization of the device channel resistivity (switching response) was conducted as a function of the analyte type and concentration. The sensor response indicates a charge transfer mechanism between the analytes and graphene.
We report simple and effective methods to develop long-term, stable silicon nanowire-based pH sensors and systematic studies of the performance of the developed sensors. In this work, we fabricate silicon nanowire pH sensors based on top-down fabrication processes such as E-beam lithography and conventional photolithography. In order to improve the stability of the sensor performance, the sensors are coated with a passivation layer (silicon nitride) for effective electrical insulation and ion-blocking. The stability, the pH sensitivity, and the repeatability of the sensor response are critically analyzed with regard to the physics of sensing interface between sample liquid and the sensing surface. The studies verify that the sensor with a passivation layer over critical thickness show long-term, stable sensor response without long-term drift. The studies also show the detection of pH level with silicon nanowire sensors is repeatable only after proper rinsing of sensor surfaces and there exists trade-off between the stability and the pH sensitivity of sensor response.
Graphene and its derivatives have attracted much attention for potential applications in biological sensing systems because of their unique 2D structural, surface and electronic properties. Reports on graphene - based electrochemical impedance biosensors are emerging rapidly. In this research, we have explored the RF (radio frequency) impedance –based sensing feasibility of graphene and graphene derivative materials on the coplanar waveguide (CPW) device. The transmission line based sensing experiments demonstrated clear and significant blueshifts of resonance frequencies and decrease of the resistance at and beyond resonance frequencies after graphene oxide is absorbed with DNA. The results may lead to an alternative approach in developing graphene based chemical and biosensors.
We have developed material (Bi0.7Dy0.3FeO3)(BDFO) which exhibits the multiferroic behavior at room temperature with significant coupling in bulk as well as thin films. If these properties could be fashioned in nano rods, implementation in devices could be certainly more prominent and straight forward. We have therefore used vertically aligned arrays of silicon rods (~5 μm in length and ~ 500 nm in diameter) as base material to direct the growth of BDFO in rod form. BDFO is deposited on the surface of Si rods by using pulsed laser deposition technique. These BDFO/Si rods are then separated from the support, dispersed into propanol and transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates for testing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate presence of phase pure BDFO layer on Si rods. Saturation observed at room temperature in magnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loops confirm the coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. Change in ferroelectric polarization measured on single rod in the presence of applied magnetic field suggests the coupling behavior between two order parameters. Moreover, change in magnetic domain pattern of BDFO rods associated with applied electric field further supports the presence of coupling behavior in both ways. The vertical and lateral displacement occurring in BDFO/Si rods with applied electric field helps to confirm their piezoresponce behavior. BDFO/Si nanorods with multifunctional properties could find variety of novel device applications with flexibility and simplicity in operation. It might include single rod power generation by means of applied stress or magnetic field.